Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2321-8649 / 2321-9289
Published by: Chitkara University Publications (10.15415)
Total articles ≅ 239
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Pierre Descouvemont
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 9, pp 197-201; https://doi.org/10.15415/jnp.2022.92029

Abstract:
Background: Nuclear transfer reactions are a useful tool to study the structure of a nucleus. For reactions involving weekly bound nuclei, breakup effects can play significant role and theoretical calculations can be computational expensive in such cases. Purpose: To utilize the Lagrange-mesh and R-matrix methods for nuclear transfer reactions. Methods: We use the adiabatic distorted wave approximation (ADWA) method which can approximately treats the breakup effects in a simpler manner. In our approach, we apply the R-matrix method combining it with the Lagrange-mesh method, which is known to provide the fast and accurate computations. Results: As a test case, we calculate the angular distribution of the cross sections for the 56Fe(d, p)57Fe reaction, where deuteron breakup effects play important role. Conclusions: We show that these methods work well in the ADWA framework, and we look forward to applying these methods in coupled channel calculations.
Ummukulsu E, Antony Joseph
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 9, pp 209-213; https://doi.org/10.15415/jnp.2022.92031

Abstract:
Background: Nuclear rms radii give information about the nuclear structure, nuclear shape, deformation etc. Microscopic methods are widely used for the study of nuclear structure properties. Hartree-Fock method with an effective interaction of Skyrme force is used for studying the nuclear structure properties. Purpose: To calculate the rms radii of proton and neutron for thorium nuclei, lying between the drip lines, by using the microscopic mean field theory. The nuclear rms radii data is useful for identifying the shape variation of thorium nuclei, from proton drip line to neutron drip line. It also helps to identify the trends in nuclear radii variation as we move towards the drip line. This nuclear data will be useful in designing experiments in future and also in understanding the behaviour of complex nuclei. Microscopic study of thorium nuclei is also important in the astrophysical environments. Methods: This study is based on the Skyrme interacting potential in the Hartree-Fock mean field theory. Iterative diagonalization method with the help of a computational code is used for solving the Hartree-Fock equation. Results: We have calculated the rms radii of neutron, proton and their total with SV, SLY4 and UDF2 parametrization of the Skyrme force. Neutron rms radii, proton rms radii and total rms radii of thorium nuclei are found to increase with neutron number. UDF2 parametrization shows an oscillatory nature in the rms radii. This may be due to the shape change of thorium nuclei when adding neutrons. Conclusions: The rms radii of thorium nuclei are found to increase with neutron number. The Skyrme force with UDF2 parametrization is the most suitable one for the structure studies of thorium nuclei.
Nicemon Thomas, Anjana A V, Antony Joseph
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 9, pp 203-207; https://doi.org/10.15415/jnp.2022.92030

Abstract:
Background: The phenomena of nucleon pairing could be outlined from the Bethe-Weizäcker semi-empirical formula, from which the nuclear properties, viz. the binding energy, stability, shape etc. could be clearly sketched. Though the pairing correlation seems to be a small correction to the binding energy term, it plays a determinative role in defining the structure of nuclear systems. The addition to the binding energy in turn affects the position of the isotope on the dripline and hence increases the stability. Purpose: To study the effects of pairing on the ground state properties of the isotopes of Cobalt. Methods: We use Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theory for the study. The general wave functions for the HFB approach are determined from variational principle. The eigen functions for the Hamiltonian are connected with the particle operators through the Bogoliubov transformations. The Hartree-Fock energy is obtained through the minimization of the variational parameter and the HFB equation is solved by iterative diagonalization by restoring the particle number symmetry. Results: The HFB analysis substantiates the effect of pairing correlation on binding energies, neutron and proton pairing energies, neutron and proton pairing gaps and one- and two-neutron separation energies of the Cobalt isotopes. The binding energies and one and two-neutron separation energies match with the experimental values and for pairing energies and pairing gaps, the regions where pairing is significant and the effects of shell closure at the vicinity of magic configuration of neutrons could be recognized. Conclusion: The Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations of the effects of pairing could be used as an efficient tool to study the nuclear structure. It can be ascertained that pairing plays an important role in determining the ground state properties of atomic nuclei.
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 9, pp 131-136; https://doi.org/10.15415/jnp.2022.92020

Abstract:
Background: The theoretical and experimental investigations of decay properties of heavy and superheavy nuclei are crucial to explore the nuclear structure and reaction dynamics. Purpose: The aim of this study is to probe the α-decay properties of 243Fm and 245Fm isotopic chains using relativistic mean-field (RMF) approach within the framework of preformed cluster-decay model (PCM). Methods: The RMF densities are folded with the relativistic R3Y NN potential to deduce the nuclear interaction potential between the α particle and daughter nucleus. The penetration probability is calculated within the WKB approximation. Results: The α-decay half-lives of even-odd 243Fm and 245Fm isotopes and their daughter nuclei are obtained from the preformed cluster-decay model. These theoretically calculated half-lives are found to be in good agreement with the recent experimental measurements. Conclusions: The novel result here is the applicability of the scaling factor within the PCM as a signature for shell/sub-shell closures in α-decay studies. As such, we have also demonstrated that N=137, 139 and Z=94 corresponding to 231,233Pu could be shell/sub-shell closures. The least T1/2 is found at 243,245Fm which indicate their individual stability and α-decay as their most probable decay mode.
O.S.K.S. Sastri
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 9, pp 193-196; https://doi.org/10.15415/jnp.2022.92028

Abstract:
Background: The macro-microscopic model has been succesful in nuclear mass predictions and in obtaining various other properties of nuclear and nucleon matter. The present status of generalised liquid drop model (GLDM) has been based on atomic mass evaluation (AME)- 2003 data. Purpose: In this work, the co-efficients of most efficient mass formulae from Royer et.al., have been re-optimised for 2451 selected nuclei from AME-2020 data. Methods: The root mean squared deviation (RMS) is minimized to optimize seven model parameters that correspond to various terms in the nuclear binding energy that come in powers of mass number A and square of relative neutron excess I = N −Z/A . Results: The RMS between the theoretical and experimental binding energies has been obtained as 0.65 using both the formulae. Conclusions: The best possible formula for nuclear binding energy has been obtained using AME-2020 data and it needs to be seen how this would effect the various nuclear properties and predictions.
Vishnu C V, Antony Joseph
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 9, pp 229-239; https://doi.org/10.15415/jnp.2022.92034

Abstract:
Background: Exposure to radon and its decay products is one of the important contributors of radiation doses to human population. Radon exhalation study is important for understanding the contribution of the soil towards the total radioactivity concentration found inside the dwellings. Purpose: The aim of the present study is to investigate the radioactivity levels and radium and radon exhalation rates in soil samples collected from Kuthiran hills and nearby places in Thrissur district, Kerala state, India. On the basis of this data, radiological health hazard parameters are also evaluated. Methods: About 18 soil samples were collected from the study location. The radium, thorium and potassium activity concentrations were analyzed by HPGe gamma ray spectrometer. The “can technique” using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors have been used for the measurement of radon exhalation rate in soil samples. Results: The mean values of activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were 64.60 Bqkg-1, 109.03 Bqkg-1and 972.67 Bqkg-1 respectively. The mean value of radon mass exhalation rate is 9.19 mBqkg-1h-1 and thoron surface exhalation rate is and 237.9 mBqm-2s-1. The radium equivalent activity concentration of all the soil samples was below the level of 370 Bqkg-1, recommended for building materials, by OECD 1979 (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). Conclusions: The results show that the study area is safe, as far as the health hazard effects of radium and radon exhalation rate are concerned. This data will be helpful in establishing new regulations and safety limits, related to the radiation dose and radon activity in Kuthiran hills.
K P Santhosh, Tinu Ann Jose, N. K. Deepak
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 9, pp 137-143; https://doi.org/10.15415/jnp.2022.92021

Abstract:
Background: Many theoretical studies and experimental attempts are conducted to synthesize SHN with Z =120 being an element with a proton magic number. The prediction of the island of stability also encourages scientists to search for the existence of super heavy nuclei near Z=120. Purpose: Main aim of our work is to predict all heavy cluster emissions from superheavy nuclei (SHN) 306120. Methods: Modified Generalized Liquid drop model (MGLDM) with Q value dependent pre-formation factor [Phys. Rev. C, 99, 064604 (2019)] is the theoretical model used to calculate the alpha and cluster decay half-life of SHN 306120. The spontaneous fission half-life is predicted using the shell effect and mass inertia dependent formula by our group [Phys. Rev. C, 104, 024617 (2021)]. Results: We investigate all cluster emissions from 306120, and the fragment combination 123Cd (Z=48) leading to 183Hf daughter nucleus is predicted to be a probable heavy cluster decay with halflives comparable with alpha decay half-lives. The heavy cluster 137Xe (N=83) with 169Dy daughter nucleus is predicted to be the most probable cluster decay with the least half-life among all fragment combinations. Thus, our study shows the role of the magic number of proton and neutron in cluster decay. We also predict that the superheavy element 306120 decays by 4 alpha chains followed by spontaneous fission. Conclusions: The predicted half-life in the case of alpha decay and heavy cluster emission from SHN 306120 are within experimental limits and we hope that our predictions will guide future experiments.
Lalit Kumar, Anil Khachi, O.S.K.S Sastri
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 9, pp 215-221; https://doi.org/10.15415/jnp.2022.92032

Abstract:
Background: The nucleon-nucleus scattering has been studied using Gaussain potential with spin-orbit term of Thomas type to fit the experimental scattering phase shifts (SPS). Recently, Hulthen potential without spin-orbit term has been utilised for studying α–nucleon scattering with phase function method (PFM). Purpose: The main objectives of this paper are: 1. To obtain the best possible interaction potentials that best describe the neutron-α elastic SPS in various channels. 2. To compute the partial cross-sections for scattering p-states and the total cross-section for the reaction. Methods: The local interaction potential is modeled using Gaussian function. The non-local spin orbit term is chosen to be proportional to derivative of local potential. The phase function method has been numerically solved using 5th order Runge-Kutta method to compute the SPS. The model parameters are varied in an iterative fashion to minimise the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) w.r.t. the experimental SPS. Results: 1. The SPS for S, P and D channels have been obtained with MAPE values less than 3%. 2. The partial cross-sections for p 1/2 and p 3/2 have been plotted and the respective resonance energies and FWHM have been found to be in reasonable agreement with values in literature. 3. The total cross-section for the reaction has been determined and found to be matching well with experimental findings. Conclusions: Gaussian potential with associated spin-orbit term has been shown to be a reasonably good choice for explaining the n-α scattering reaction.
Anuj Singh, S. Kumar, Neelam ', S. K. Mandal, Naveen Kumar, S. Saha, J. Sethi, T. Trivedi, H. Chutani, M. Goyal
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 9, pp 151-159; https://doi.org/10.15415/jnp.2022.92023

Abstract:
Background: The isotopes of Rb (Z=37) are one proton away from semi-magic (Z=38) proton number and deficits the characteristic of a spherical nucleus. In the 85,86Rb nuclei, the γ-ray spectroscopy are already performed and given an indication of Magnetic Rotation (MR) which usually observed in nearly spherical nuclei. The angular correlation measurements were used to find the spin and parity of the states. Purpose: To confirm the spin and parity of the states in both the nuclei using Directional Correlation of Oriented (DCO) states ratio and polarization asymmetry (Δ) measurements. Methods: The excited states of the 85,86Rb nuclei were populated via the 76Ge(13C,p3n/p2n) reaction at a beam energy of 45 MeV. The γ-rays emitted from the excited states were detected using Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) spectrometer at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai India. Results: The values of the DCO states ratio and polarization asymmetry (Δ) were obtained and utilized to confirm the spin-parity of the states in the 85,86Rb nuclei. The polarization asymmetry (Δ) values were obtained for the first time using Compton-suppressed clover detectors. Conclusions: In 85Rb, the spin and parity of 3491.1-, 4135.4-, 4757.2- and 5419.3 keV levels are confirmed and for the 5312.2-, 5611.8 and 6335.9 keV states, only the spin is established. The mul-tipolarity assignment of the 224.3-, 331.5-, 732.8-, 778.1-, 865.4-, 973.5-, 1002.4-, 1427.5-, 1453.7-, 1598.2-, 1814.1- and 1881.5 keV γ-ray transitions allowed to confirm the spin and parity of most of the levels above the 6- isomer in 86Rb.
Anjana A V, Nicemon Thomas, Antony Joseph
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 9, pp 187-191; https://doi.org/10.15415/jnp.2022.92027

Abstract:
Background: The density distributions of exotic nuclei are different from that of stable nuclei. For stable nuclei, charge radii can be obtained through electron scattering experiments. The excessive neutrons in neutron-rich nuclei make a decoupling of neutron and proton distribution and as a result nuclear skin structures are appeared. Purpose: The charge radius and the way by which nucleons are distributed can provide information about size, surface thickness and shell structure of nuclei. The information collected from such nuclei can be used for astrophysical studies to understand the origin of heavy elements. Methods: In the present study, we have made an attempt to investigate the charge radii, rms radii and skin thickness of Pt and Os isotopes. Here, the calculations were made by using the HFB solver which utilizes HO single-particle basis and iteratively diagonalizes the HFB Hamiltonian based on the Skyrme forces. Results: Here we can observe an increase in charge radius, rms radius and skin thickness with neutron number. The charge radii calculated are in good agreement with the experimental data and predictions of RCHB model. A linear dependence of skin thickness on neutron number is observed with the change in slope is noticed around N =126. Conclusion: Using HFB theory, we have analyzed the charge radius and neutron skin thickness of Pt and Os isotopes. The drip line nuclei have larger charge radius in comparison to the stable nuclei. The redistribution of the nucleons due to addition of neutrons leads to the gradual increase in neutron skin. The sudden increase of skin thickness may be due to the extra stability and shell closure around the magic number.
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