Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 23218649 / 23219289
Current Publisher: Chitkara University Publications (10.15415)
Total articles ≅ 155
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Sardar Muhammad Shauddin
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 1-6; doi:10.15415/jnp.2020.81001

Abstract:
Due to cost effective and simplicity homogeneous reactors have been widely used for experimental and research purposes. Parameters which are difficult to get from a heterogeneous reactor system can be easily obtained from a homogeneous reactor system and can be applied in the heterogeneous reactor system if the major parametric differences are known. In this study, homogenization effects of VVER (Water Water Energetic Reactor)-1000 fuel assembly on neutronic parameters have been analyzed with the universal probabilistic code MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle). The infinite multiplication factor (k∞) has been calculated for the reconfigured heterogeneous and homogenous fuel assembly models with 2 w/o U-235 enriched fuel at room temperature. Effect of mixing soluble boron into the moderator/coolant (H2O) has been investigated for both models. Direct and fission detected thermal to higher energy neutron ratio also has been investigated. Relative power distributions of both models have been calculated at critical and supercritical states. Burnup calculations for both the reconfigured cores have been carried out up to 5 years of operation. Effective delayed neutron fraction (βeff) and prompt removal lifetime (ℓ) also have been evaluated. All the results show significant differences between the two systems except the average relative power.
Amr Abdelhady
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 7-10; doi:10.15415/jnp.2020.81002

Abstract:
This study aims to evaluate the radiation dose rate distribution inside temporary spent fuel open-pool storage. The storage pool is connected to the main pool via transfer channel to facilitate transporting the spent fuel under water that avoiding radiation dose rising in the working area in the reactor. The storage pool was prepared to store 800 spent fuel elements that considering the maximum capacity of storage. The spent fuel elements in the storage pool have different decay times depending on the times of extraction from the core. Assuming conservatively, that the spent fuels of the 5-years decay time would be stored in the lower rack and the spent fuels, of decay time ranged between 10 days and 5 years, would be stored in the upper rack. The dose rate was profiled in the region above the upper rack using SCALE/MAVRIC code applying adjoint flux calculation as a variance reduction technique. The results show that the dose rate values in the region above the pool surface would be lower than the permissible limits.
Satya Seshavatharam U.V, Lakshminarayana S
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 7, pp 43-51; doi:10.15415/jnp.2019.71005

Abstract:
To understand the mystery of final unification, in our earlier publications, we proposed two bold concepts: 1) There exist three atomic gravitational constants associated with electroweak, strong and electromagnetic interactions. 2) There exists a strong elementary charge in such a way that its squared ratio with normal elementary charge is close to reciprocal of the strong coupling constant. In this paper we propose that, ℏc can be considered as a compound physical constant associated with proton mass, electron mass and the three atomic gravitational constants. With these ideas, an attempt is made to understand nuclear stability and binding energy. In this new approach, with reference to our earlier introduced coefficients k = 0.00642 and f = 0.00189, nuclear binding energy can be fitted with four simple terms having one unique energy coefficient. The two coefficients can be addressed with powers of the strong coupling constant. Classifying nucleons as ‘free nucleons’ and ‘active nucleons’, nuclear binding energy and stability can be understood. Starting from , number of isotopes seems to increase from 2 to 16 at and then decreases to 1 at For Z >= 84, lower stability seems to be, Alower=(2.5 to 2.531)Z.
E. Márquez-Quintos, Eduardo Moreno Barbosa, J. E. Espinosa, Benito De Celis Alonso, Margarita Amaro Aranda, R. Palomino Merino
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 7, pp 159-163; doi:10.15415/jnp.2020.72020

Abstract:
There are several types of gamma radiation detectors, which have different characteristics depending on its use. We designed and instrumented a gamma detector for low energies of a small and portable size to obtain spectrum from radioactive sources and from that analyze each spectrum. This instrument basically consists of a scintillator crystal coupled to a SiPM this in turn coupled to a PCB card designed with capacitors and resistors for a better signal, a voltage source of 29 volts. For signal acquisition the system must be connected to an oscilloscope this in turn is controlled by a script developed in Python. For the calibration radioactive isotopes with the same dimensions were used, caesium-137 (Cs-137), cobalto-60 (Co-60), sodium-22 (Na-22) and manganese-54 (Mn-54) as gamma ray emission.
María Guadalupe Torres-Duque, Claudia Camargo-Raya, Alicia Negrón-Mendoza, Sergio Ramos-Bernal
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 7, pp 139-143; doi:10.15415/jnp.2020.72017

Abstract:
A combination of geochemical variables is necessary to explain the origin of life on Earth. Thus, in this work the sorption of Poly-A on a clay mineral (kaolinite) was studied to get an insight about the sorption capacity at different times and pH values, as well as to confirm the capabilities of the clay to protect the sorbate from an external source of ionizing radiation. Poly-A presented a high percentage of sorption in the clay, especially in acidic environments, and this percentage sharply decrease in alkaline media. On the other hand, Poly-A’s recovery was higher in the system with clay, confirming its protection role.
M. Caldera-Villalobos, B. Leal-Acevedo, V.M. Velázquez-Aguilar, M. D. P. Carreón-Castro
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 7, pp 209-215; doi:10.15415/jnp.2020.72027

Abstract:
Graft polymerization induced by ionizing radiation is a powerful tool in materials science to modifying the physical properties of polymers. Chitosan is a biocompatible, biodegradable, antibacterial, and highly hydrophilic polysaccharide. In this work, we report the obtaining of amphiphilic polymers through graft polymerization of acrylic monomers (methyl acrylate, t-butyl acrylate, and hexyl acrylate) onto chitosan. The polymerization reaction was carried out by simultaneous irradiation of monomers and chitosan using a gamma radiation source of 60Co. The formation of Langmuir films of amphiphilic polymers was studied at the air-water interface through surface pressure versus main molecular area isotherms (Π-A) and hysteresis cycles of compression and decompression. Finally, it was analyzed the transferring of Langmuir films towards solid substrates to obtaining Langmuir-Blodgett films with potential application as an antibacterial coating. The microstructure of the Langmuir-Blodgett films was characterized by AFM microscopy observing a regular topography with roughness ranging between 0.53 and 0.6 μm.
J. Miranda
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 7, pp 71-76; doi:10.15415/jnp.2020.72007

Abstract:
The emission of characteristic X-rays induced by proton impact is a phenomenon known since the first half of the 20th century. Its more widely known application is the analytical technique Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Several models have been developed to calculate, first, ionization cross sections and then the subsequent X-ray production cross sections. However, to carry out the comparisons of these predictions with experimental data it is necessary to use atomic parameters databases (fluorescence yields, Coster-Kronig transition probabilities, emission rates) that also have experimental uncertainties. In this work it is demonstrated how these values do not allow to decide which model describes more accurately the cross sections, due to a final “theoretical uncertainty” obtained through the propagation of the original uncertainties.
Ana Leonor Rivera, Sergio Ramos-Beltran, Alicia Negrón-Mendoza
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 7, pp 117-121; doi:10.15415/jnp.2020.72014

Abstract:
An approach to studying the formation of critical bio-organic compounds in the early Earth is to simulate in the laboratory possible processes that may occur in primitive scenarios. In this context, it can be studied the evolution of succinic acid in an aqueous media exposed to gamma radiation, as starting material produced more complex prebiotic molecules. To describe the products generated by the interaction of the different elements under radiation, there is a mathematical model that considers chemical reactions as nonlinear ordinary differential equations based on the mass balance of all the species, that has been implemented here by an agent-based model. In this simulation, each chemical species involved is considered as an agent that can interact with other species with known reaction rates, and the radiation is taken as a factor that promotes product formation. The results from the agentbased model are compared with the molar concentrations of succinic acid, and its products obtained in the lab. Simulation shows the exponential decomposition of succinic acid due to gamma radiation at room temperature in agreement with the laboratory model.
R. C Acosta-Fernández, A. Heredia-Barbero, A. Negrón-Mendoza
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 7, pp 97-101; doi:10.15415/jnp.2020.72011

Abstract:
Chemical evolution studies focus on the synthesis and stability of organic molecules during various transformative physicochemical processes. Gaining insight into the possible mechanisms behind these processes requires the use of various energy sources and catalysts that can produce such transformations. In this work, ionizing radiation (60Co) was used as a source of energy, and two clays with different exchangeable cations-sodium and iron (III)-were combined with pyruvic acid, a key alpha keto acid in metabolism. The samples of pyruvic acid were prepared at a concentration of 0.01 M; then, adsorption experiments were carried out by combining sodium or iron montmorillonite at different times. The amount that adsorbed onto iron montmorillonite was greater than the amount that adsorbed onto sodium montmorillonite. Samples of alpha keto acid at the same concentration were irradiated-in the absence of clay-at 0 to 146.1 kGy and at two pHs (6.7 and 2.0). The suspended samples with sodium and iron clay were then irradiated at the same doses. The results show that keto acid decomposes more quickly at more acidic pHs. The main reaction to irradiation without clay involves the dimerization of pyruvic acid, and 2,3-dimethyltartaric acid is the majority product. When irradiated in the presence of clay, the main reaction is decarboxylation, and acetic acid is the majority product. The exchangeable cation type modifies the interactions between the organic molecule and the solid phase. The percentage of recovered pyruvic acid is higher for iron montmorillonite than for sodium montmorillonite.
T. A. Valencia-Pérez, J. M. Hernández-López, E. Moreno-Barbosa, B. De Celis-Alonso
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 7, pp 165-171; doi:10.15415/jnp.2020.72021

Abstract:
In medicine, the acquisition process in Computed Tomography Images (CT) is obtained by a reconstruction algorithm. The classical method for image reconstruction is the Filtered Back Projection (FBP). This method is fast and simple but does not use any statistical information about the measurements. The appearance of artifacts and its low spatial resolution in reconstructed images must be considered. Furthermore, the FBP requires of optimal conditions of the projections and complete sets of data. In this paper a methodology to accelerate acquisition process for CT based on the Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method (MLEM) algorithm is presented. This statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm uses a GPU Programming Paradigms and was compared with sequential algorithms in which the reconstruction time was reduced by up to 3 orders of magnitude while preserving image quality. Furthermore, they showed a good performance when compared with reconstruction methods provided by commercial software. The system, which would consist exclusively of a commercial laptop and GPU could be used as a fast, portable, simple and cheap image reconstruction platform in the future.
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