Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2321-8649 / 2321-9289
Current Publisher: Chitkara University Publications (10.15415)
Total articles ≅ 179
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C. H. Zepeda Fernández, Hernández Aguilar Javier Efrén, E. Moreno-Barbosa
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 211-217; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82028

Abstract:
The high time resolution detectors are relevant in those experiments or simulations were the particles to detect, have a very short time of flight (TOF), and due this it´s required that the detections times are ranged between ns. & ps.Using Geant4 software, it was made thirty simulations of coupled detectors to plastic scintillators with two silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) located on the scintillator’s central sides. To characterize the time resolution, it was required to quantify the optical photons that reach the Score in a certain time, which are generated by muons on the surface of the plastic scintillator. Different configurations of muon beams were simulated at energy of 1 GeV, to interact with the configuration of the scintillator material of its corresponding arrangement. The simulations were made varying three parameters: the scintillator material “BC404 & BC422”, its size, and the location of the radiation source. Fifteen simulations correspond to BC404 material & fifteen simulations to BC422 material respectively. The first five simulations consisted in varying the scintillator’s volumetric size and collocate the muons beam guided randomly distributed over it, the next five simulations differentiate from setting up a directly centered beam, and the last five simulations for guide the beam on the left lower corner of each scintillator.The best time resolution achieved was σ= 8.67 +/− 0.26 ps., reported by the detector with BC422 scintillator material which has a volume of 20x20x3 mm3.
D. Osorio-González, V. J. Muñiz-Orozco, C. P. González, M. Fuentes-Acosta, J. Mulia-Rodríguez, L. A. Mandujano-Rosas
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 177-182; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82023

Abstract:
SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for causing the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has so far infected more than thirty million people and caused almost a million deaths. For this reason, it has been a priority to stop the transmission of the outbreak through preventive measures, such as surface disinfection, and to establish bases for the design of an effective disinfection technique without chemical components. In this study, we performed in silico analysis to identify the conformational alterations of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) caused by the effect of a pulsed electric field at two different intensities. We found that both stimuli, especially the one with the highest angular frequency and amplitude, modified the electrical charge distribution in the RBD surface and the number of hydrogen bonds. Moreover, the secondary structure was significantly affected, with a decrease of the structured regions, particularly the regions with residues involved in recognizing and interacting with the receptor ACE2. Since many regions suffered conformational changes, we calculated RMSF and ΔRMSF to identify the regions and residues with larger fluctuations and higher flexibility. We found that regions conformed by 353-372, 453-464, and 470-490 amino acid residues fluctuate the most, where the first is considered a therapeutic target, and the last has alreadybeen characterized for its flexibility. Our results indicate that a pulsed electric field can cause loss of stability in the Spike-RBD, and we were able to identify the vulnerable sites to be used as a starting point for the development of viral inhibition or inactivation mechanisms.
Ashwani Kumar Yadav, Basilia Quispe Huillcara, Pablo Víctor Cerón Ramírez, Modesto Antonio Sosa Aquino,
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 143-147; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82018

Abstract:
Radiation application in medicine offers extraordinary benefits. But radiation is like a double-edged sword, it has both benefits and associated risks on the community in contact. To justify the safety of workers and members of the public, regulated use of radiation is assessed by the radiation protection protocols. The aim of this study is to design a Computed Tomography (CT) facility with a simplified model of CT scanner, whose shielding follows the guidelines of National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Report No. 147. To design the study model, Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport code in MCNPX 2.6.0 was used for the simulation. Furthermore, MCNPX was used to measure the photon flux in a vicinity or the detector cell. To validate the functioning of the X-ray tube, the experimental results were compared with the X-ray Transition Energies Database of National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce. The results obtained were within 0.60% of relative error. To confirm the functioning of shielding design, radiation protection quantity, air kerma was measured at several points outside, and inside of the CT room and they were under the radiation dose recommended by NCRP, which demonstrates that the shielding design wassuccessful in blocking the radiation. The study can be used for an easy evaluation of any CT room within the framework of the model of the study.
M. D. P. Carreón-Castro, M. Caldera-Villalobos, B. Leal-Acevedo, A. M. Herrera-González
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 135-142; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82017

Abstract:
Chitosan is a bio-based polyelectrolyte with high potential for wastewater treatment. Chitosan can remove anionic dyes by adsorption but it has low performance in the removal of cationic dyes. In this work, we report the synthesis of chitosan-based graft-copolymers using gamma radiation. Acrylic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) were grafted successfully onto chitosan applying a radiation dose of 12 kGy at a dose rate of 8 kGyh-1. The grafted-copolymers have improved adsorptive properties for the removal of basic dyes reaching a maximum adsorption capacity higher than 300 mgg-1. The Lanmguir’s isotherm model described satisfactorily the interaction between the grafted copolymers and basic dyes. Freundlich’s isotherm model described the adsorption of anionic dye acid orange 52. The grafted copolymers removed successfully textile dyes from wastewater of the dyeing process. The best results were obtained in the removal of direct and basic dyes. Further, poly(ethylene glycol) grafted on the copolymer conferred better swelling behavior making easy the separation of the adsorbent after dye removal. The results showed that the adsorbent materials synthesized by radiochemical graftcopolymerization are more efficient than the beads, composite materials, and blends of chitosan.
A. Chavarria, J. I. Golzarri, G. Espinosa
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 169-175; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82022

Abstract:
Radon (222Rn) is a radioactive gas, from the 238U decay chain, that contributes in large part of the natural radiation dose to which humans are exposed. Radon is the second cause of lung cancer after tobacco. The US-EPA considers a concentration of 148 Bq/m3 for homes and 400 Bq/m3 for workplaces as the reference level. Caves are closed spaces where 222Rn, which emanates from the surrounding minerals and rocks, can accumulate and reaches large concentrations that can represent a health risk for the guides, speleologists and visitors who spend time in these spaces. This work uses the previously recorded radon concentrations in 8 caves in Mexico and calculates the average dose range and the average annual dose for each of them with the “Wise” public domain program (http://www.wise-uranium.org/rdcrn.html) to determine the level of radiological risk with 2,000 1,000 and 500 working hours per year. Karmidas cave had the highest average 222Rn concentration with 27,633.3 Bq/m3 and for 2,000 working hours per year an average annual dose rate of 347.1 mSv/y. Los Riscos cave had the lowest average concentration with 384.7 Bq/m3 and for 2,000 working hours per year an average annual dose rate of 4.832 mSv/y. These results show that all the caves studied present values,with 2,000 working hours per year, that exceed 3 mSv/y for workplaces and must be considered by the people who work in these places. A casual tourist visiting the caves does not present any radiological risk, while guides and speleologists should consider it.
E. Pardo L., S. E. Rodil, B. Campillo, I. Dominguez, J. G. González-Rodriguez, H. Martinez
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 203-209; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82027

Abstract:
Coatings by physical vapor deposition (PVD) have become highly relevant due to their wide range of applications and the rapid rate of coating formation. In this work, AISI steel 1045 was coated with two layers, Ni and Co using the PVD technique. Each coating was deposited with a thickness of 1 μm. After applying the coatings, a post-treatment was applied in an AC plasma reactor using a boron nitride blank in an Ar atmosphere at a pressure of 3 Torr, 0.3 A, and 460 V at 4, 8, and 12h. The post-treatment was characterized by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in a range of 200-1100 nm. The main species observed by OES were Ar+, N2, N2+, and B+. The coatings on 1045 steel and posttreatment were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Also, were subjected to tribological tests to analyze wear resistance, using the Pin-on-Disk technique. The coatings on steel 1045 present remarkably better wear properties than the uncoated 1045 steel, being the sample post-treated at 4h that showed a lower wear rate.
, Mendieta-Mendoza Aurora, Montero-Cabrera María Elena, Manjón-Collado Guillermo, Galván-Moreno José Antonio
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 183-190; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82024

Abstract:
In arid zones, the principal water supply is from groundwater, which can present high concentration of salts, heavy metals, and radioactive elements. The aim of the study was to determine isotopic uranium concentration in groundwater samples with high concentration of salts and its association with other chemical species. Samples were taken from wells with high salt content. The 238,234U radioisotope concentrations were determined by liquid scintillation and alpha-particle spectrometry. In addition, the physical-chemical parameters were recorded in situ; whereas the dissolved ions and elemental composition were measured by UV-Vis and X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry, respectively. To obtain isotopic uranium concentrations, three radiochemistry procedures were carried out. An ANOVA test was performed to compare the results from procedures, as well as an analysis of Pearson correlation was used between parameters to obtain their associations. Statistically, the U isotopic concentrations did not show differences (p-value 0.82) between procedures. 238U and 234U showed mean concentrations of 6.7 mBq mL-1 and 16.6 mBq mL-1, respectively, with an Activity Ratioby up 7.2. The groundwater under study showed high concentration of TDS, calcium, sulphate, chloride, nitrate, and nitrite. Isotopic U concentrations tend to increase with NO3>Zn>Cl>Br>SO4>Cu>T>SDT>P; meanwhile their contents decrease with T>Cl->NO2>Fe. These findings help us to understand the uranium behavior in groundwater with high salt contents as well as the influence of agricultural supplies on chemical species presents in groundwater.
L. Sajo-Bohus, J. A. López, M. Castro-Colin
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 155-160; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82020

Abstract:
Adverse effects of long-term exposure to galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) pose a non negligible obstacle for future space exploration programs; the high-LET-particle-rich environment has an adverse effect on human health. Concomitant to GCR we have as well solar particle radiation. Long term space exploration will rely on adequate and highly efficient shielding materials that will reduce exposure of both biosystems and electronic equipment to GCR and solar particles. The shield must attenuate efficiently heavy GCR ions, by breaking them up into less-damaging fragments and secondary radiation: biologically damaging energetic neutrons and highly charged and energetic HZE- particles. An approach to this problem is the development of shielding compounds. Shielding materials should address the conditions of different aspects of a given mission, e.g. time duration and travel path. The Monte Carlo method (GEANT4) is here employed to estimate the effects of a shielding material based on the recently developed Bi2O3-based compound (Cao et al., 2020). In the present study GEANT4 code is used to make estimations of attenuation of solar protons. The objective is to provide some insight about the effect of the new composite shield that has an intrinsic capability for dose reduction.
A. Lima Flores, R. Palomino-Merino, V. M. Castaño, J. I. Golzarri, G. Espinosa
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 109-114; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82013

Abstract:
The “measuring device” is one of the most reliable, efficient and economic indoor radon dosimeters that exist. This device was developed by the Proyecto de Aplicaciones de la Dosimetría (PAD) at the Physics Institute of UNAM (IF-UNAM) and consists of a transparent rigid plastic cup, a CR-39 polycarbonate sheet and a standard size metal clip that is used to hold the polycarbonate in the center of the cup. The cup is wrapped and covered with a low-density polyurethane protector in order to prevent the detector from being irradiated by ionizing particles found in the environment. In this work, an analysis was carried out that allowed to understand how the radon concentration on the polycarbonate sheet varies when its height is changed with respect to the base of the plastic cup, in order to understand what position increase the probability of interaction between radon and the surface of the detector. For the development of this work, four computational simulations were performed with the technique called Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The results shows that as the CR-39 is positioned more closed to the base of the cup, the probability of interaction of the radon and the detector increase. Based on these results it is concluded that, when there is a limit in the time in which a measuring device can be placed in the zone where it is desired to quantify indoor radon, it is recommended to collocated the CR-39 at 1 cm with respect to the base of the cup.
, Caraveo-Castro Carmen del Rocío, Méndez-García Carmen Grisel, Mendieta-Mendoza Aurora, Rentería-Villalobos Marusia, Cabral-Lares Rocío Magaly
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 115-120; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82014

Abstract:
Uranium is a radioactive element with a special presence in the rocks, waters, sediments, soils, and plants at the state of Chihuahua. The activity ratio of 238U/234U is used to explain the uranium transport by surface water and its deposition in arid environments. In this work, the activity concentration of natural U isotopes is determined by PERALS liquid scintillation and high-resolution alpha spectrometry (AS, Canberra camera 7401VR) in the Environmental Radiological Surveillance Laboratory (LVRA) at CIMAV, Chihuahua. Uranium is extracted from soils through the scintillating liquid extractor URAEX for PERALS, with chemical recovery (CR) of 80 - 85 %, and through the ion exchange resin UTEVA + electrode position by the Hallstadius method, with CR of 85 - 90 %, for AS. The procedures of 234U and 238U activity concentration (AC) determination in soils were validated by their application to the certified reference material IAEA-375. The resulting values were in the reference range of the certified or informative values. Both procedures were applied to 6 representative soil samples, with AC of the same order of magnitude or greater, and similar CR and compatible results. Both procedures are satisfactory for the purposes of LVRA research and in general.
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