EISSN : 19961073
Current Publisher: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 14,346
Google Scholar h5-index: 55
Latest articles in this journal
Energies, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/en13051034
Abstract:The interaction among the fuel ethanol industry, the technology system, and the market system has a substantial effect on the growth of the fuel ethanol industry which plays a key role in the formation of a sustainable energy system in China. However, we know little about the relationships among them and it is difficult to explore the nexus using econometric method due to the lack of statistics on China’s fuel ethanol industry. This paper develops a history-friendly coevolutionary model to describe the relationships among the fuel ethanol industry, the technology system, and the market system in China. Based on the coevolutionary model, we further assess the impacts of entry regulations, production subsidies, R&D subsidies, and ethanol mandates on the growth of the fuel ethanol industry in China using a simulation method. The results of historical replication runs show that the model can appropriately reflect the multidirectional causalities between the fuel ethanol industry, the technology system, and the market system. We also found that entry regulation is conducive to weakening the negative economic impacts induced by the growth of the grain-based fuel ethanol industry without affecting the long-term total output of the industry; production subsidies to traditional technology firms are helpful for the expansion of the fuel ethanol industry, but they also impede technology transfer in the industry; only when firms inside the industry are not in the red can R&D subsidies promote technological progress and then further accelerate the growth of the fuel ethanol industry; the ethanol mandate has a significant impact on industrial expansion only when a production subsidy policy is implemented simultaneously. Our findings suggest that more attention could be paid to consider the cumulative effects caused by coevolutionary mechanisms when policymakers assess the effects of exogenous policies on the growth of the fuel ethanol industry. More attention also could be paid to the conditions under which these policies can work effectively.
Energies, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/en13051035
Abstract:The objective of this study is to develop a technique to identify the optimum water-soaking time for maximizing productivity of shale gas and oil wells. Based on the lab observation of cracks formed in shale core samples under simulated water-soaking conditions, shale cracking was found to dominate the water-soaking process in multi-fractured gas/oil wells. An analytical model was derived from the principle of capillary-viscous force balance to describe the dynamic process of crack propagation in shale gas formations during water-soaking. Result of model analysis shows that the formation of cracks contributes to improving well inflow performance, while the cracks also draw fracturing fluid from the hydraulic fractures and reduce fracture width, and consequently lower well inflow performance. The tradeoff between the crack development and fracture closure allows for an optimum water-soaking time, which will maximize well productivity. Reducing viscosity of fracturing fluid will speed up the optimum water-soaking time, while lowering the water-shale interfacial tension will delay the optimum water-soaking time. It is recommended that real-time shut-in pressure data are measured and shale core samples are tested to predict the density of cracks under fluid-soaking conditions before using the crack propagation model. This work provides a shut-in pressure data-driven method for water-soaking time optimization in shale gas wells for maximizing well productivity and gas recovery factor.
Energies, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/en13051036
Abstract:Offshore locations present significant amounts of wave energy and free sea space, which could facilitate the deployment of larger numbers of wave energy converters (WECs) in comparison with nearshore regions. The present study aims to find a suitable design for an offshore floating version of CECO, a sloped motion WEC. For this purpose, a new design methodology is proposed in this paper for identifying and assessing possible floating configurations of CECO, which consists of four distinct set-ups obtained by varying the type of main supporting structure and the mooring system. Two options are based on spar designs and the other two on tension leg platform (TLP) designs. Based on outcomes of time-domain numerical calculations, the aforementioned configurations were assessed in terms of annual wave energy conversion and magnitude of mooring loads. Results indicate that a TLP configuration with an innovative mooring solution could increase the annual energy production by 40% with respect to the fixed version of CECO. Besides, the mooring system is found to be a key component, influencing the overall system performance.
Energies, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/en13051037
Abstract:In this study, the definition of a new methodology for a preliminary evaluation of the working boundary conditions under which a seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) system operates is described. The approach starts by considering the building features as well as the reference heating system in terms of solar thermal collectors’ technology, ambient heat sinks/source, and space heating distribution systems employed. Furthermore, it is based on a deep climatic analysis of the place where the STES needs to be installed, to identify both winter and summer operating conditions. In particular, the STES energy density is evaluated considering different space heating demands covered by the STES (ranging from 10% up to 60%). The obtained results demonstrate that this approach allows for the careful estimation of the achievable STES density, which is varies significantly both with the space heating coverage guaranteed by the STES as well as with the ambient heat source/sink that is employed in the system. This confirms the need for careful preliminary analysis to avoid the overestimation of the STES material volume. The proposed approach was then applied for different climatic conditions (e.g., Germany and Sweden) and the volume of one of the most attractive composite sorbent materials reported in the literature, i.e., multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-LiCl, using water as the working fluid, needed for covering the variable space heating demand in a Nearly Zero Energy Building (NZEB) was calculated. In the case of Swedish buildings, it ranges from about 3.5 m3 when 10% of the space heating demand is provided by the STES, up to 11.1 m3 when 30% of the space heating demand is provided by the STES.
Energies, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/en13051038
Abstract:This paper presents a small-signal analysis of different grid side controllers for full power converter wind turbines with inertia response capability. In real wind turbines, the DC link controller, the drivetrain damping controller and the inertial response might present contradictory control actions in a close bandwidth range. This situation might lead to reduced control performance, increased component stress and non-compliance of connection agreements. The paper presents an analysis of the internal wind turbine dynamics by considering different grid-side converter control topologies: standard current control used in the wind industry, standard current control with inertia emulation capabilities and virtual synchronous machines. Comments are made on the similarities between each topology and the negative effects and limits, and possible remedies are discussed. Finally, the conclusion poses that the inclusion of a DC link voltage controller reduces the ability of a converter to respond to external frequency events without energy storage. The degradation increases with the DC link voltage control speed.
Energies, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/en13051039
Abstract:In recent years, the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) operates in a weak grid, rather than a strong grid due to the high proportion of wind energy into the power grid. The impedance interaction between the DFIG system and series and parallel compensated weak grid might cause the subsynchronous resonance (SSR) and high frequency resonance (HFR) in the DFIG system, respectively. Phase locked loop (PLL) is a popular grid synchronization technique, and the high bandwidth PLL can cause resonance at middle frequencies in the DFIG system. However, the impact of PLL types and their controller dynamics on the resonance in the DFIG system are not adequately researched. The impact of the PLL controller with different types, such as synchronous reference frame (SRF) and Lead/Lag PLL, is studied in this paper to fill this gap. Additionally, an improved PLL is proposed, which can guarantee the high phase margin and decrease the likelihood of the resonance at middle frequencies in the DFIG system under a weak grid. Moreover, the phase margin of the DFIG system impedance with an improved PLL is less sensitive to its controller parameters. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Energies, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/en13051040
Abstract:Mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants are of increasing concern around the world. In this study, field tests were carried out to understand the Hg emission characteristics and its migration behaviors in a commercial CFB boiler unit with the electricity generation capacity of 25 MW. This boiler is equipped with one electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and two fabric filters (FFs) in series for removing particulates from the flue gas. The EPA 30B method was used for simultaneous flue gas Hg sampling at the inlet of the ESP and the outlet of the second FF. The Hg mass balance in the range of 104.07% to 112.87% was obtained throughout the CFB unit by measuring the Hg contents in the feed fuel, the fly ash and the bottom ash, as well as in the flue gas at the outlet of the particulate control device (PCD) system. More than 99% of Hg contained in the feed fuel was captured by the fly ash, whilst less than 1% of Hg was remained in the bottom ash or the flue gas after passing the PCD system. The gaseous Hg obviously migrated from the flue gas to the fly ash in the air pre-heater, where the flue gas temperature decreased from 250 °C at the inlet to 120 °C at the outlet. Other gaseous Hg migrated from the flue gas to the fly ash in the PCD system, as the Hg concentrations in the flue gas ranged from 3.14 to 4.14 μg/m3 at the inlet of the ESP and ranged from 0.30 to 0.36 μg/m3 at the outlet of the second FF. The average Hg contents in the fly ash samples collected from the ESP, the first FF and the second FF were 912.3, 1313.6 and 1464.9 ng/g, respectively, while the mean particle diameters of these fly ash samples tend to decrease along the flow pass in the PCD system. Compared to large fly ash particles, smaller fly ash particles exhibit higher Hg capture performance due to their high unburned carbon (UBC) content and large specific surface area. The migration of gaseous Hg from the flue gas to the fly ash downstream of the CFB boiler unit was easier than that downstream of the PC boiler unit due to high UBC content and specific surface area.
Energies, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/en13051041
Abstract:The continuous development in the field of industrial automation and electric mobility has led to the need for more efficient electrical machines with a high power density. The improvement of electrical machines’ slot filling factors is one of the measures to satisfy these requirements. In recent years, this topic has aroused greater interest in the industrial sector, since the evolution of the winding technological manufacturing processes allows an economically sustainable realization of ordered winding arrangements, rather than random ones. Moreover, the manufacture of electrical machines’ windings must be preceded by an accurate design phase in which it is possible to evaluate the maximum slot filling factor obtainable for a given wire shape and for its dimensions. For this purpose, this paper presents an algorithmic approach for the evaluation of maximum slot filling factors in electrical machines under an ideal geometric premise. In particular, this algorithm has a greater degree of flexibility with respect to the algorithm approaches found in the literature, since the study has been extended to round, rectangular and hexagonal wire sections. Furthermore, the slot filling factor calculation was carried out both for standard and non-standard slots. The algorithmic approach proposed can be considered as an additional useful tool for the fast design of electrical machine windings.
Energies, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/en13051042
Abstract:Increasing energy prices make space heating more expensive every year in The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries. Thermochemical heat storage systems (THSS) can be used to reduce residential energy consumption for space heating and to control humidity. Utilizing compressed thermochemical pellets as heat storage materials is a way to increase volumetric energy storage capacity and to improve the performance of the THSS. In this work, expanded natural graphite (ENG), activated carbon (AC), strontium bromide, and magnesium sulphate were mixed in different mass ratios and compressed under applied pressures in a range of 0.77 to 5.2 kN⋅mm−² to form composite pellets with a diameter of 12 and 25 mm, respectively, and a thickness from 1.5 to 25 mm. These pellets were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Cyclic tests of hydration at 20 °C and dehydration at 85 °C were conducted to investigate changes in the surface morphology and the heat and mass transfer characteristics of the composite pellets. The permeability and thermal conductivity of the composite pellets were also measured. It was found that the structural stability of the pellets was enhanced by increasing the compression pressure. Utilizing AC and ENG in the composite mixture enhanced the porosity, thermal conductivity, and the permeability of the pellets.
Energies, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/en13051043
Abstract:The present paper investigates a new paradigm to control a swarm of moving individual vehicles, based on the introduction of a few random long-range communications in a queue dominated by short-range car-following dynamics. The theoretical approach adapts the small-world theory, originally proposed in social sciences, to the investigation of these networks. It is shown that the controlled system exhibits properties of higher synchronization and robustness with respect to communication failures. The considered application to a vehicle swarm shows how safety and security of the related traffic dynamics are strongly increased, diminishing the collision probability even in the presence of a hacker attack to some connectivity channels.