Science and Education

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ISSN / EISSN : 2311-8466 / 2414-4665
Total articles ≅ 610
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Victoriia Mendelo
Science and Education, Volume 2021, pp 45-55; https://doi.org/10.24195/2414-4665-2021-4-6

Abstract:
The article covers the process of the historical development of the emotional intelligence concept; as well as the classification of modern approach to this concept in the scientific literature has been created. The purpose of the article is to systemize the modern tendencies of the emotional intelligence research as a component of thinking. To achieve this goal several tasks needed to be solved: to clarify the psychological meaning of emotional intelligence; to systemize the main aspects used in the emotional intelligence research; to describe the psychological models of emotional intelligence. The complex of theoretical methods has been used to solve the given tasks: learning and analysis of scientific literature on the research topic, the systematization of data that characterizes the main aspects and the directions of the scientific process. The given article is the systematic study. The methodological basis of the research consists of the scientific works on psychology of J. D. Mayer, D. Halpern, W. Gray, A. Ortoni, J. Klor, A. Collins, L. S. Vygotskiy, S.L. Rubinstain, A. N. Leontiev, O. K. Tikhomirov, O. Ya. Chebykin etc. The following conclusions have been made during the study: despite the significant amount of types and components of intelligence, their final establishing is still hard to find out. As the result of the current research it was pointed out that the ability models more effectively reveal the emotional intelligence concept. Because they are characterized by the greater practical development and greater reliability of the diagnostic inventory.
Oleksiy Chebykin
Science and Education, Volume 2021, pp 23-29; https://doi.org/10.24195/2414-4665-2021-4-3

Abstract:
The article considers the possibilities of studying the psychological foundations of emotional health of people involved in learning activity under the COVID-19 pandemic conditions. It has been shown that the psychological foundations of emotional health have been indirectly studied for a long while in the context of mental health. The study has expanded in recent years, where various aspects of emotional health become the subject independently. The attempts, however, are often made to reveal its content only on the basis of certain features, such as anxiety, aggression, etc. There are furthermore the ambiguous approaches to its understanding as a purely psychological phenomenon. The cognitive process of this phenomenon has shown that the problem of emotional health of students and educators in quarantine restrictions due to the coronavirus epidemic and its recovery after this disease is of particular importance in modern conditions. Some factors of influence of quarantine restrictions on emotional health have been generalized. At the same time, both positive and negative tendencies in its manifestation are recorded. It has been noted that the problem of psychological foundations of emotional health of various people involved in learning activity under the coronavirus epidemic conditions, despite its relevance to the theory and practice of modern psychology, remains insufficiently studied. The emotional health was considered in the presented studies as a specific evaluative subjective reflection of the functioning of the sensory sphere in a person from a relatively positive-comfortable to a negative-uncomfortable state in different conditions of his/her life. On the basis of the performed work the Conditional Conceptual Model of Complex Study of Psychological Foundations of Emotional Health is constructed, in the maintenance of which such components as: factors of influence, signs of display, substantial characteristics, preventive and corrective means acted as leading ones. Preliminary empirical evidence on the characteristics of emotional health in individuals have been obtained in 60 days since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. The specific features of the emotional sphere that characterize people who have experienced stress in mild, moderate and severe forms have been highlighted. It has been shown that those people who experienced it in severe and moderate forms in 60 days did not actually recover the emotional health. Those who had a mild form of it, they have tendencies to recover the emotional health.
Svitlana Kaminska
Science and Education, Volume 2021, pp 55-62; https://doi.org/10.24195/2414-4665-2021-4-7

Abstract:
The article describes and analyzes modern aspects and approaches to the definition of extracurricular activity. Its system, forms, content and functions were considered in this article and its structure was also analyzed. It is stated that the purpose of extracurricular activity is to prepare the student to perform his/her professional duties in the future, to overcome the language barrier and to socialize with crew members by means of communication. Significant time in the student's pastime is occupied by classroom activity, such as lectures and seminars, practical or laboratory classes, but it is extracurricular activity that gives students the opportunity to implement their knowledge and acquire new ones through self-education. The relevance of the presented material is about to the needs in additional hours of future maritime transport specialists allocated for the formation of foreign language communication during their studying for direct adaptation, socialization and professional communication during their marine practice and professional activity in the future. As well as increasing the requirements for professional foreign language communication of maritime transport professionals under modern conditions of competition in the labor market, which leads to the renewal of the system of professional culture. Extracurricular activity is a form of student's social work. The article reveals the role of extracurricular activity and the opportunities in the formation of communicative culture of future seamen. Extracurricular activity plays a role in improving the professional communication skills of the future maritime transport specialist. The priority in higher education institutions is given to classroom work, during which hard skills are formed and developed. The importance of extracurricular activity is becoming very important just recently due to the requirements of employers to develop soft skills that can be developed through foreign language communication. It is defined that extracurricular activity helps to increase students' interest in the chosen field of activity, to develop independent work and selfdevelopment, which stimulates the desire for a professional approach and creative search.
Anatolii Bosenko, Petro Plahtiy, Mariia Topchii, Yevhen Kozak, Olena Bosenko
Science and Education, Volume 2021, pp 30-36; https://doi.org/10.24195/2414-4665-2021-4-4

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the problem of making express diabetic honey to prevent and improve health, as well as to treat diabetic individuals. The disease has become extremely widespread both globally and in individual countries. It was registered that over 425 million people have diabetes for the current year. According to this situation, the medical expenses reach up to 727 billion US dollars, which could be spent to the improvement of the quality of living standards. The number of cases of diabetes is about 1.3 million adults against the backdrop of difficult demographic situation in Ukraine. Unfortunately, there is a negative trend in our country towards the spread of the disease among young people and children, even preschoolers. In accordance with a prognostic point of view, the prospect of today's young generation seems highly undesirable – that is, to be among people with this pathology all their lives. Therefore, solving the problem through prevention and healthy lifestyle is important. Due to shortages of medicines and financial support for certain population category, the solution in this case is seen in the expansion of folk remedies for prevention and treatment, the leading place among which are bee products. The aim of the study was to develop a method of making diabetic express honey from blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and to study its effect on changes in glucose, total protein and plasma protein fractions (PPF) of diabetics. According to studies of two groups of males (control and experimental) aged 50-70 years with a total of 24 people, it was found that the use of developed by the author's methodology of express diabetic honey from blueberries, Jerusalem artichokes and common beans helps to stabilize blood glucose levels; it has a positive effect on protein metabolism and immunity of diabetics, as well as enhances the effect of oral antidiabetic drugs.
Olena Kosianova, Olena Nazaruk
Science and Education, Volume 2021, pp 36-45; https://doi.org/10.24195/2414-4665-2021-4-5

Abstract:
Many researchers in various fields of psychology, as well as specialists who are not related to psychological study, such as sociologists, political scientists, economists, have considered such a phenomenon as “life satisfaction” in recent decades. There is also a heightened interest in life satisfaction in the applied aspect. The state of the personality in the psychological point of view is determined more often by emotional stability, stress resistance, high motivation, therefore, in a word, harmonious relations in the world around and with oneself. The researchers are faced with the question: “How can you achieve life satisfaction using such a harmonious construction?”. Life satisfaction can act as a constant feature and tool for achieving and realizing a person's life path in general. This phenomenon is associated in psychological studies with such names as: M. Argyle, A. Maslow, V. Frankl, R. R. May, E. Benko, etc. According to the general life satisfaction, which is closely related to the given problem of important aspects of life (self-esteem; family; friendship; social aspects, such as: work, learning activity; economic and social status, etc.). In the meantime, all these person`s spheres of life are closely connected with one more phenomenon, namely the deceptiveness of personality. But as the study of different age periods shows, it is especially important that the characteristic feature of the personality is manifested in adolescents. It is in this age and the propensity to deceive can influence the future behavioral strategies and leave a mark on the whole path of life. The aim of this study was to find the features of life satisfaction and the specifics of delusional personality in adolescence. A total of 48 young people aged 18 to 23 took part in the study. The following research methods were used: theoretical (classification, structuring and analysis of approaches to the study and understanding of delusion and life satisfaction in the psychological literature); empirical (test methods: Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (M. M. Melnikova), The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWSL; E. Diner (1985)); Multidimensional-Functional Diagnosis of Lies (V. P. Pryadein, I. A. Tserkovnikov), “Motives of Telling Lies” by I. P. Shkuratova, as well as mathematical and statistical (data processing was done using Microsoft Excel, SPSS 26.0 for Windows XP). The correlation analysis revealed the presence of significant positive and negative relationships at the level of 1% and 5% between the causes and motivations of delusion, its components with life satisfaction. The obtained correlation relationships confirm the assumptions about the interconnectedness and mutual influence of the studied indicators of delusion and life satisfaction. The groups of subjects with high and low level of life satisfaction (according to E. Diner) were determined: the group with high value indicator of the general level of life satisfaction (HLS, n = 12) and the group with low value indicator of the general level of life satisfaction (LLS, n = 16 ), which made it possible to study the psychological features of deception, motivation to use deceptiveness in everyday life in all spheres of life and study the peculiarities of the content of the components of motivation to use deceptiveness in adolescence.
Oleksandra Kuzo, Liubov Kuzo
Science and Education, Volume 2021, pp 5-17; https://doi.org/10.24195/2414-4665-2021-4-1

Abstract:
The basic aspects of the importance of personal and semantic factors in the formation of generalized anxiety disorder are highlighted in the article. The model of understanding and psychotherapy of excessive worries, based on the reconstruction of the value system is proposed. Such reconstruction is possible due to the "rewriting" of the personal narrative, which in external manifestation functions as the equivalent of a speech act. It is through the psychosemantic aspect that the way to the field of meanings and understanding of "excessive worries" is opened and the access to the subjective world of a person in his/her own system of semantic and linguistic coordinates is provided. The cognitivebehavioral methodology of recognition of generalized anxiety disorder, Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), WWS-II (worry scale), author's questionnaire and psychotherapeutic interventions were used, which stand for the main tool for reconstruction of semantic spaces and individual value system. The study involved 150 people aged 19-24. The results show that significant aspects of personal and semantic factors in the formation of generalized anxiety disorder can be considered as follows: client perception of worries as those that help to solve problems, motivate to action and can prevent negative results. Such positive beliefs about the worries can significantly affect the dynamics of psychotherapeutic work. The article presents a clinical case and demonstrates the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions. An algorithm for dealing with clients is suggested, which is grounded on a current technique for the cure of generalized anxiety disorder and includes: qualified examination; reevaluation of the effectiveness of the worries; assistance in a realistic perception of ambiguous situations that are not necessarily threatening; reconsidering of attitudes to situations of uncertainty; use of exposures technique aimed at profound coping with the stimulus in a nonverbal way; skills of overcoming negative emotions without escaping from them. Such psychotherapy is also based on the provisions of psychosemantic analysis on the possibility of reconstructing the semantic space of algorithms of emotional-cognitive response. The article attempts to combine the clinical paradigm and the scientific position, the cognitive-behavioral model of psychotherapy and the position of psycholinguistics on cognitive processing of information on the basis of mental representations formed by the individual. The applied psycholinguistics has meaningful prospects for applied cognitive research.
Science and Education, Volume 2021, pp 17-23; https://doi.org/10.24195/2414-4665-2021-4-2

Abstract:
The article examines the system of organizational principles of communication in the educational environment with manifestations of ostracism and the influence of ostracizing tendencies in school groups on the academic and social development of students and the professional achievements of teachers. The peculiarities of the communication system formation in educational institutions are analyzed. It is determined that the administration of the educational institution and the teaching staff acts as a catalyst both in the formation of cooperative relations and in the implementation of educational work of the school unit. The aim of the study was to carry out a theoretical analysis of organizational aspects of communication systems in the educational environment with signs of ostracism. The structure of conditions for ecological communication in the educational system was formed: participants feel safe, the presence of an atmosphere without grading during the educational process, a sense of warmth, active interest in students, the compassion of adults, no corporal punishment in case of violation of rule or other unacceptable behaviour. Such general scientific theoretical methods of information study as analysis, synthesis, abstraction, generalization, induction, deduction, explanation and classification were used to achieve the aim of the study. Risk factors that affect the success of interpersonal interaction are revealed: a number of external factors, such as natural phenomena or social events (conflict, change of collective, disturbance of the structure of educational space - change of leader), or internal factors, such as the behaviour of teachers and staff, number of students, group composition, entry of new persons into an already formed group, an accident in the group, etc. The classification of Marshall factors that affect communication during the learning space is included: the number and quality of interactions between adults and students; learning environment, including buildings, classrooms, available materials, as well as the perception of this space by teachers and students; student's success; the presence of an atmosphere of equality between all subjects of educational activity. The role of the management personnel in the process of creating an ecological educational space is indicated, because the communication skills of the administration of the institution largely determine the effectiveness of the educational space and the achievement of goals. The characterological features of the administration are reflected, which are a manifestation of a high level of emotional intelligence, as a consequence of possibility of building an effective system of communicative ties: self-awareness, empathy, social responsibility, focus on reality, sociability, control of impulses.
Svitlana Yanovskaya, Pavlo Sevostianov, Rimma Turenko, Inna Zakutnya
Science and Education, Volume 2021, pp 5-12; https://doi.org/10.24195/2414-4665-2021-3-1

Abstract:
The article examines the relationship between self-assessment of human greed and assessment of the greed of the others. It has been shown that young people's perceptions of greed are ambivalent: greed is described as a defect, something bad that makes a person vulnerable, lowers his/her self-esteem, causes trouble, prevents him/her from living a full life and reduces the ability to acquire what is desired. On the other hand, young people pay attention to the fact that due to their greed they are careful about their own funds, control costs and consolidate resources for large purchases. The greed of others is also ambiguous: it can be an obstacle to satisfying the desires of young people, or it can be one that does not affect their goals achievements. The greed of the others is an obstacle to satisfying the desires of young people, achieving their goals. The assessment of the others' greed varied depending on the degree of these people intimacy. The characteristics of relatives, friends, people who they study or work with, were similar to the data obtained in the self-assessment of greed. However, when assessing the greed of the people who run the city and the country, the subjects attributed to them a higher degree of greed. The positive connection between the assessment of one's own greed and the assessment of the greed of relatives, friends and colleagues is determined. No significant relationship was found between the assessment of one's own greed and the greed of the people who run a city or country.
Viktor Plokhikh, Liliia Suponeva
Science and Education, Volume 2021, pp 12-21; https://doi.org/10.24195/2414-4665-2021-3-2

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic and its accompanying quarantine restrictions have changed the way people live. People find themselves in a situation of social deprivation, distance work and learning, anxiety, fear and stress. The specific attitudes and reactions of student youth to COVID-restrictions became relevant issues for the study. The purpose is to determine features of the psychological defenses activation in their connection with life time perspective organization of students in the terms of COVID-restrictions. The study includes 97 students in the six-month period before the COVID19 pandemic (group 1) and 87 students – 18 months later after the pandemic started (group 2). Such methods as "Lifestyle Index" (Plutchik, Kellerman); "Questionnaire of time perspective" (Zimbardo); "Styles of self-regulation of behavior" (Morosanova); "Internet Addiction Scale" (A. Zhichkin); "Predisposition to addictive behavior" (Mendelevich) were used in the study. Test subjects commented on the degree of concern about COVID-restrictions. The threats from COVID-19 in group 2 led to a relatively high level of activation of such psychological defenses as: denial (U=2604.50; p<.001); displacement (U=2236.00; p<.001); regression (U=2820.00; p<.001); substitution (U=1552.00; p<.001); intellectualization (U=3350.00; p=.016); reaction formations (U=3298.50; p=.011). One quarter of the subjects from group 2, who are most concerned about Covid-restrictions, have relatively the highest level of total stress protection (χ2=6,615; p=.037), compensation (χ2=7,399; p=.025), reaction formations (χ2=8,470; p=.015), the highest (primarily compared to moderately concerned subjects) focus on the Present Hedonistic (U=166.00; p=.031). Almost half of the subjects in group 2 with indifference to COVID-restrictions have the highest level of protection of displacement (χ2=9,811; p=.007) and intellectualization (χ2=7.423; p=.024). The students' psychological defenses under COVID-restrictions are reinforced along with overt or covert anxiety and worry, and are combined with numerous reinforcing connections to the Present Hedonistic and Present Fatalistic, and weakening connections to the Future. Indifference to COVID-restrictions in almost half of the subjects is accompanied by relatively highest activity of the defense of displacement and intellectualization. The high level of concern of COVID-restrictions of a quarter of the subjects is associated with high stress regression protection, compensation, reaction formations, expressiveness of orientation to the Present Hedonistic, increased likelihood of addiction (in particular, Internet addiction).
Svitlana Sytnik, Oleksiy Chebykin
Science and Education, Volume 2021, pp 22-29; https://doi.org/10.24195/2414-4665-2021-3-3

Abstract:
The results of an empirical study of the influence of different types of orientation in communication on the formation of personal resource of interpersonal interaction are presented in the article. The analysis of the results of the study consisted of three successive steps to test the hypothesis that the type of orientation in communication affects the formation of the personal resource of interpersonal interaction. First, it is the clarification of the general trends in the manifestation of different types of communication orientation in modern youth. Second, it is the establishing the nature of the relationship between the types of communication orientation with the personal components of interpersonal interaction. Third, it is the comparison of groups studied by different types of orientation in communication. As a result of the study, it was determined that three tendencies are most common in the communication of modern youth: a) to build it on mutual trust, respect, mutual understanding and openness; b) focus efforts on voluntary and selfless centering on the partner; c) treat partners as a means, an object of covert manipulation. It is established in the process of correlation analysis that all types of communication orientation in some way affect the formation of the personal resource of interpersonal interaction. This is most evident in the direct links of alterocentric tendencies with motivational, emotional, cognitive components and the general indicator of the effectiveness of interpersonal interaction; as well as in the negative links of authoritarian and indifferent orientation with motivation, emotional and volitional regulation, and as a consequence, the personal basis of interpersonal interaction in general. Furthermore, the direct correlations of dialogic orientation of communication with the motivational component, manipulative and conformal orientation with the cognitive component of interpersonal interaction were revealed. It was found by comparing groups of subjects with the dominance of different types of orientation in communication, that the alterocentric type more than other types contributes to the highest manifestation of personal resource of interpersonal interaction, manifested both at the level of all its components and overall efficiency of this process. Authoritarian type leads to a deficient nature of the formation of personal resources, which reduces the effectiveness of interpersonal interaction. Dialogic orientation of communication is characteristic of young people with a moderate formation of all components of interpersonal interaction. A feature of young people with a predominance of conformal type of orientation is high self-confidence, independence, endurance and self-control. The dominance of the indifferent type leads to a lack of communication skills, and therefore representatives of this type often distort the feelings of partners; they do not know how to negotiate.
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