Science and Education

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ISSN / EISSN : 2311-8466 / 2414-4665
Total articles ≅ 596
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Olha Forostian, Hanna Sokolova
Science and Education, Volume 2021, pp 53-59; https://doi.org/10.24195/2414-4665-2021-2-8

Abstract:
The article is devoted to an empirical study of the characteristics of emotional burnout of teachers who work with children with special educational needs. The problem is exacerbated by the need to meet high professional and personal standards, to provide educational services at a high level, to maintain their own mental health and the course of activities in special pedagogical conditions. All the selected factors of influence and compliance put the modern special educator in new conditions that significantly complicate his/her already intense activities. High stress of pedagogical activity creates risks of formation of emotional burnout. The conducted empirical research revealed the features of emotional burnout of teachers who work with children with special educational needs; it also identified areas of positive manifestations through the activation of which it is possible to carry out psychoprophylactic actions. It was found that a special role in the formation of emotional burnout belongs to resistance, which can perform the function of "psychological resistance" of the teacher to the conditions and specifics of his/her professional life; it allows him/her to perform professional duties. In the structure of emotional burnout of teachers who work with children with special educational needs, it is resistance that plays a leading role, allows without leaving the profession to carry out a complex procedure of psychological and pedagogical support of special children. The special role in prevention of emotional burnout of age and pedagogical experience of the specialist is shown. Life experience, personal maturity and stability of the value sphere contribute to greater resistance to the negative factors of intense psycho-emotional activity of the teacher; they eliminate the manifestations of many indicators of emotional burnout. Prospects for further research are to clarify and verify the identified trends, in particular, the empirical study of those features of emotional burnout of teachers who work with children with special educational needs related to professional experience, but may be "masked" by age.
, Natalia Tsumarieva
Science and Education, Volume 2021, pp 5-15; https://doi.org/10.24195/2414-4665-2021-2-1

Abstract:
Hardships experienced many times in the family and outside it in the past, have a negative impact on formation of children’s personality. Emotional deprivation is one of such factors. Long-term stay of elementary school children under emotional deprivation conditions results in a whole number of adverse effects. Being directly dependent on environment adverse changes and impacts emotional sphere is most vulnerable in this respect. The range of emotional deprivation adverse effects on elementary school children is quite wide: from mild emotional disorders that can be corrected with the help of correctional and developmental activities to severe mental disorders and diseases that require long-term treatment. Thus, the situation of emotional deprivation requires the use of prophylactic, corrective and rehabilitative actions. The purpose of the article is to reveal the features of psychotherapeutic methods application in arranging psychological follow-up of emotionally deprived elementary school children. To achieve the determined purpose we’ve applied a mix of speculative (analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization) and empiric (observation, survey, talk, expert evaluations, testing, quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the results obtained) research methods. The results of the literature sources analysis let us sum up by saying that such methods as adaptation, socialization, learning, development, correction, counseling, psychotherapy, follow-up and rehabilitation may be applied to cope with children’s emotional deprivation. We consider follow-up to be the most effective and comprehensive method. The psychological follow-up model developed and tested by us includes support provided to foster families in the course of coping with children’s emotional deprivation adverse effects and is based on the system of working with foster children and parents, as well as on conducting joint classes involving parents and children. We’ve applied various psychological correction and development methods (talk, games, exercises, drawing, fantasizing and relaxation) in combination with psychotherapeutic methods (symbol drama, art therapy and positive psychotherapy) to conduct psychological follow-up of children. Effectiveness and efficiency of the emotionally deprived elementary school children psychological follow-up model developed by us has been tested on the ground of repetitive psychodiagnostic testing and comparing its results of control and experimental groups. The application of remedial methods in combination with psychotherapeutic methods has made it possible to obtain constant and long-lasting results in emotional deprivation evidences reducing and elementary school children emotional intelligence level raising.
Valentyna Todorova, Olha Bondarenko, Marina Fidirko, Tetiana Pasichna, Hanna Titova
Science and Education, Volume 2021, pp 41-47; https://doi.org/10.24195/2414-4665-2021-2-6

Abstract:
The study identified areas for improvement of choreographic training in aerobic gymnastics. Improving the structure and content of choreographic training of athletes in aerobic gymnastics remains one of the central problems of the theory and methods of training athletes. The current level of world achievements in this sport, the growth of its popularity and the expansion of the geography of competitions requires the search for new scientifically sound, effective methods of choreographic training that meet modern trends in sports. One of the ways to improve the methodology of choreographic training in aerobic gymnastics should be intensified work on the technique of performing elements inherent in the sport, as well as choreographic movements. For this purpose, it is necessary to improve the program material on choreographic training, to systematize it according to modern tendencies of development of aerobic gymnastics, and also to adapt to a stage of preparation of the highest achievements of athletes. The article is aimed to increase the effectiveness of choreographic training in aerobic gymnastics at the stage of preparation for higher achievements. Materials and methods: theoretical analysis and generalization of data of scientific, methodical and special literature, documentary materials. The analysis of the data allowed to outline areas for improving the content of choreographic training at the stage of preparation for higher achievements in aerobic gymnastics: creating the latest methods of choreographic training, improving regulations, taking into account the specifics and trends of aerobic gymnastics in software development of choreographic training; development of a control system for choreographic training; improvement of means of education of expressiveness, improvement of compositions of competitive programs. The content of choreographic training of athletes at the stage of preparation for higher achievements in aerobic gymnastics has been improved, in which means and methods of improving choreographic training in accordance with modern requirements of the sport have been selected, the optimal amount of load has been established; means of education of expressiveness and a technique of perfection of competitive compositions have been introduced, means and methods of control of choreographic readiness of athletes have been developed.
Svetlana Doskach, Lіubov Kostyk
Science and Education, Volume 2021, pp 27-33; https://doi.org/10.24195/2414-4665-2021-2-4

Abstract:
The article presents a theoretical analysis of informative and manipulative influence on the socio-political consciousness and behavior of modern youth. The interpretation of consciousness in the psychological and political areas has been revealed, which makes it possible to consider information technologies as an important attribute of influence on political consciousness. There has been conducted the analysis of the psychological components of informative and manipulative technologies, which defined as the dominance of the spiritual state of the individual, the imposition of thoughts, ideas, attitudes, values and management of behavior in favor of the subject of influence. There has been revealed the idea that the favorable socio-political conditions encourage the media to exert influence by manipulating the political consciousness and behavior of young people. The opinion has been clarified, that the use of communication technologies, that optimize the implementation of policy actors of their tasks and responsibilities through rational means, sequence of actions, development of an appropriate algorithm of behavior, result in the implementation of human activities to achieve socially significant goals, including political one. In the context of this issue, the role of the media in the political processes of society has been revealed, where they act as a means of manipulative influence aimed at transforming the political consciousness of young people. The factors influencing the political consciousness of young people have been analyzed, where the most influential are: granting the right to edit, adding their own conjectures; distortion of information; submission of false information; being reticent about major events; being ahead of the curve. However, the main reason for the effects of informative and manipulative influence lies in the personal scope, where it is important to have the ability to think critically, to analyze, interpret, defend the point of view, have strong energy and will, to have different forms of verbal influence of optimal mechanisms of thought and actions appropriate to the situation. Methods of effective counteraction to informative and manipulative influences have been determined. The main one is the ability to distribute information in the associative space, when one constructs the absence of intersection of the discussed events by associative connection with other unrelated events. Due to effective approaches, modern youth has the opportunity to stop being a "passive mass" and become active citizens who defend their opinions, make independent decisions and form their own patterns of behavior.
Svetlana Zinchenko, Larysa Savchenko
Science and Education, Volume 2021, pp 59-65; https://doi.org/10.24195/2414-4665-2021-2-9

Abstract:
The article proposes tools for effective management of the trajectory of professional adaptation of military students (participants in military operations) to productive activities at a higher institution as an innovative pedagogical technology. The article identifies the practical ways to build, update and apply a set of pedagogical mechanisms for effective management of individual professional adaptation line to productive activities of students (participants in military operations) during higher education. An individual educational route is a personal program of effective management of a specialist’s professional adaptation according to his/her age and skills, interests, incentives based on an educational and professional program. The article indicates the influence of educational, training, research and organizational activities on positive dynamics of the professional adaptation line to the productive activities in the field of services of students participating in military operations. This influence is shown and reasoned by a schedule of professional adaptation line management. The article determines the conceptual framework of an integrated approach to effective management of the professional adaptation line of students participating in military operations, which is confirmed by practical effect. In our opinion, the development of the theory of productive professional activity in the field of services of a student-participants in military operations will solve this problem. The article defines the functions of effective management and improvement of the professional adaptation line. The article uses the theoretical research methods: analysis of scientific-methodical and program documentation; empirical methods: questionnaires, testing, surveys and experimental approaches, graphic and schematic interpretations.
Fred Voskoboynikov
Science and Education, Volume 2021, pp 20-26; https://doi.org/10.24195/2414-4665-2021-2-3

Abstract:
In this work we will consider some aspects of management as a scientific and applied discipline. Ensuring the effectiveness of management requires a new way of thinking characterized by the systemic, flexible, responsive, and a non-standard approach to the decision making. According to the systemic-structural activity theory, as a scientific basis for self-regulation, human activity is considered to be a goal-directed self-regulative system. The main focus of our discussion will be on what is essential for managerial activity from the psychological perspective. Specific attention will be paid to the way managers relate to subordinates and how this factor effects the group moral and psychological atmosphere in the workplace. Possessing only the technical knowledge in a chosen field of activity does not necessarily make a person effective manager. To achieve the desired objectives and maintain people satisfaction at work place one must be prepared to think of them in human terms. People are filled with thoughts and ideas and they want to experience satisfaction from their implementation. We will present some important factors of the psychological nature which should be applied to the practice of management. Such factors as consideration for subordinates’ personality features, their individual style of performance and their communicative anilities, as well as their goals, desires and objectives. The effect of a group environment on individual performance and the phenomenon of psychological compatibility are also considered in this work. We will also briefly dwell on the history of motivation in industry and the emergence of a new direction in managerial activity as a demand of the developing society. At this juncture we will emphasize on how the science of management first emerged in a form of applying a mechanistic approach in managing people’s activities in industries and, further, by bringing the human element into consideration in the search for efficiency.
Science and Education, Volume 2021, pp 34-40; https://doi.org/10.24195/2414-4665-2021-2-5

Abstract:
The discipline "Medical and psychological examination" was created in order to obtain more in-depth professional knowledge and competencies in such an applied field of clinical psychology as expert activity. Among the tasks solved by a clinical psychologist in health care, one of the main is his/her participation in various types of examinations. The purpose of this article is to highlight the features of the methodology of teaching a new discipline "Medical and psychological examination". To achieve this goal, the tasks were formed: to identify topical issues of this discipline, to establish and describe the content of competencies and expected results. Important tasks of studying medical and psychological examination are: mastering by students of practical skills and abilities used in medical and psychological examination; consolidation of skills of practical implementation of skills on preparation of the materials necessary for the substantiation of the description of the conclusion of medical and psychological examinations; the ability to draw up an expert opinion, following the rules of the sequence of registration. It is established that the subject "Medical and psychological examination" lays the foundations for students to study psychiatry, narcology and other clinical disciplines, and provides for the integration of teaching with these disciplines; provides the formation of skills to apply knowledge of medical and psychological expertise in the process of further training and professional activities; lays the foundations of a doctor's knowledge of the psychology of a sick person, prevention of mental disorders in the process of life and in various diseases, medical and psychological examination of patients. Based on theoretical analysis and practical developments, we were able to generalize and systematize approaches to studying the problem of teaching the discipline "Medical and psychological examination". It is established that at the present stage of the educational process of teaching the discipline "Medical and psychological examination" is a new, important and complex task that must be comprehensively solved and improved using different teaching methods.
Serhii Dolynnyi
Science and Education, Volume 2021, pp 15-19; https://doi.org/10.24195/2414-4665-2021-2-2

Abstract:
The article analyzes the most important psychological preconditions of a conflict situation on the basis of which the strategy and tactics of people's behavior in case of differences of their interests are formed. The main psychological models of conflict are presented in the study, which is used to interpret sociotypes that highlight the psychological portrait of the individual in the perspective of modernity. The purpose of the study is to substantiate the causal dysfunctions in the implementation of conflict situations and highlight ideas for avoiding conflict demonstrated by the individual. The study used the Keirsey questionnaire to assess the temperament of participants and K. N. Thomas' methodology to determine their typical ways of responding to a conflict situation, which identified the tendency of sociotypes to rivalry and cooperation, the desire for compromise, conflict avoidance and flexibility in decision making. The article considers a concept of personality types and their interaction in the structure of interpersonal relationships. According to the methodology of D. Keirsey, which is based on the typology of Carl Jung and the theory of information metabolism of A. Kempynsky, there are 16 types of information sharing between individuals. The formation of a sensitive image of a person as an adequate information subject characterizes the problem of defining a person’s personality in a continuous flow of information, communicative perceptions, innovative competencies and different value systems. Having followed the method of K. N. Thomas that is designed to determine the typical ways of individuals’ responds to conflict situations, we determine an inclination of the above mentioned sociotypes to competition and cooperation, as well as desire to compromise and avoid conflicts, and flexibility in decision making. In the framework of the Socionic model, the subjects of information influences make adequate assessment of their potential, find appropriate ways of self-realization, competitively and objectively perceive the abilities of others in order to form a harmonious relationship with them. The problem that arises in a conflict always stands in the way of the implementation of goals, which refer to both the interests and fears of person. Barriers that work against the implementation of needs and interests in a conflict are always associated with communication, since other people’s activities are often perceived as a dissonance of individual and his/her environment. A mixture of contradictions caused by different types of experience and behavior, character traits and other factors of interpersonal interaction provide the basis of conflict. The conceptual importance of personality covers a wide range of internal mental processes that determine the features of human behavior in different situations. The objective conflict management is the only way that leads to positive dynamics in the conflict of interest, with the main criterion being the ability to compromise, based on the understanding that contradictions can give ground to the development that, in its turn, can bring about effective cooperation.
Taleh Khalılov
Science and Education, Volume 2021, pp 47-52; https://doi.org/10.24195/2414-4665-2021-2-7

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the development of educational history in the regions and the factors affecting this development, to opine the results gained in the field of education that are important matters for our present and modern pedagogical science. That is, the research problem today is of social and political importance according to its pedagogical significance. On the other hand, this aspect, above all, serves the completeness and enrichment of the history of pedagogical thought in the country and helps to identify opportunities for the use of progressive traditions today. Although the history of education and training in Nakhchivan has its own specific features, the school and pedagogical ideas formed in this area are an integral part of all-Azerbaijani pedagogy. This educational experience is mainly conditioned by the national and cultural characteristics of the indigenous population of the region - the Azerbaijani Turks. The investigation of the development trends of national schools in the region, the formation of the Azerbaijani school and pedagogical ideas, and the study of a very important part of the development stages give a complementary and enriching nature to the research process. The success of the complex and difficult path through the various stages of the multidisciplinary education system is so interesting and multifaceted that each author's view of this process sheds a bright light on new realities, opens the way to suggestions, new ideas and considerations that serve progress. It is of particular importance to study the enlightenment movement in Nakhchivan, to discover its fruitful results, to identify pedagogical conceptions, the state of schools and public education, the factors influencing its development on a progressive basis. Because Nakhchivan is the land of Azerbaijan with long history, rich material and cultural monuments and ancient educational culture. Even in the Neolithic period, local tribes lived here, engaged in various economic and art fields, as well as in primitive training and educational works.
Yuri Chernozhuk, Irina Uzun
Science and Education, Volume 2021, pp 12-19; https://doi.org/10.24195/2414-4665-2021-1-2

Abstract:
The article presents the results of theoretical and empirical research aimed at studying the psychological inhibitors of intelligence of students who will work as teachers in the future. Analysis of the literature on the topic allowed to clarify the content of the main psychological phenomena being studied, to choose parameters that represent intelligence at the formal-dynamic and content-personal levels, as well as psychological properties that can hypothetically inhibit the intelligence of future teachers. Correlation analysis proved: 1) the complex and ambiguous nature of the relationships between the parameters under study; 2) the negative nature of the relationship of a number of indicators of general and social intelligence with indicators of anxiety and aggression, and positive one with indicators of conflict resilience; 3) only indicators of the style "field-dependence/field-independence" have significant negative links with hypothetical inhibitors of intelligence (indicator of personal anxiety) among a number of cognitive-stylistic indicators. Based on the purpose and research tasks, 6 groups of future teachers were created. The first group includes subjects with a low level of anxiety (LA) - 10 people, the second one with a high level of anxiety (HA) - 10 people, the third group - with a low level of aggression - 10 people (LA), the fourth - with a high level of aggression (HA) - 10 people, the fifth group - subjects with a high level of conflict resistance (HC), the sixth - with a low (LC). By means of the qualitative analysis the information on individual-typical features of intelligence of persons with various levels of the specified properties was received, their comparison was carried out. Future teachers with high anxiety, high aggression, low conflict resistance are inferior to colleagues with opposite characteristics in a number of parameters of general and social intelligence. As shown by the results of observations and conversations with these subjects, this leads to significant problems in their professional development, creates for them certain difficulties in various spheres of life. Qualitative analysis has shown that anxiety, aggression and conflict resilience can act as inhibitors of intelligence. However, firstly, it depends on their severity (high anxiety, high aggression and low conflict resistance can act as inhibitors) and secondly, if anxiety acts as an inhibitor, both at the cognitive-stylistic and content-personal levels of intelligence, aggression and conflict resistance act only on the latter one. In addition, their influence affects social intelligence and, unlike anxiety, does not extend to general intelligence.
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