Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2327-6045 / 2327-6053
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Former Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 602
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Mohd Afizi Mohd Shukran, Muhamad Naim Abdullah, Mohd Sidek Fadhil Mohd Yunus
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Volume 9, pp 51-57; doi:10.4236/msce.2021.91005

Abstract:
Digital image collection as rapidly increased along with the development of computer network. Image retrieval system was developed purposely to provide an efficient tool for a set of images from a collection of images in the database that matches the user’s requirements in similarity evaluations such as image content similarity, edge, and color similarity. Retrieving images based on the content which is color, texture, and shape is called content based image retrieval (CBIR). The content is actually the feature of an image and these features are extracted and used as the basis for a similarity check between images. The algorithms used to calculate the similarity between extracted features. There are two kinds of content based image retrieval which are general image retrieval and application specific image retrieval. For the general image retrieval, the goal of the query is to obtain images with the same object as the query. Such CBIR imitates web search engines for images rather than for text. For application specific, the purpose tries to match a query image to a collection of images of a specific type such as fingerprints image and x-ray. In this paper, the general architecture, various functional components, and techniques of CBIR system are discussed. CBIR techniques discussed in this paper are categorized as CBIR using color, CBIR using texture, and CBIR using shape features. This paper also describe about the comparison study about color features, texture features, shape features, and combined features (hybrid techniques) in terms of several parameters. The parameters are precision, recall and response time.
Wakana Nagaki, Norihito Doki, Masaaki Yokota, Kazuo Yamashita, Toshiji Kojima, Toshiyuki Tanaka
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Volume 09, pp 38-45; doi:10.4236/msce.2021.94005

Abstract:
Calcium carbonate, the main component of lime, has been widely used in industry due to its stability and economy. Calcium carbonate has three types of crystalline polymorphism, calcite, aragonite and vaterite, each with different properties. Therefore, the control of crystal polymorphism is required for industrial applications. In addition, the control of crystal size and shape is similarly required for different applications. In this study, the effect of SrCO3 on the size control of fine aragonite-type calcium carbonate crystals by uniform urea precipitation and the effect of SrCO3 addition was investigated by adding solid strontium carbonate and dissolved strontium carbonate. The addition of solid strontium carbonate affected the crystal polymorphism and size of the calcium carbonate produced, depending on the properties of the solid particles and the amount of SrCO3 added. Experiments on the addition of dissolved SrCO3 showed that the supersaturation formation rate could be controlled to control the crystal polymorphism.
Zayedul Hasan, A. K. M. Ayatullah Hosne Asif, Abdur Razzaque, Rakibul Hasan, Sudip Sur, Omar Faruque
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Volume 9, pp 1-15; doi:10.4236/msce.2021.91001

Abstract:
This research work was designed to explore the effect of different washing processes (enzyme wash, enzyme stone wash, enzyme stone wash with bleaching, heavy enzyme stone wash with bleaching) on various properties of stretch denim fabric. Different properties like tensile strength, tear strength, dimensional stability to washing, color fastness to washing, color fastness to water, color fastness to perspiration, color fastness to light, color fastness to rubbing, changes in fabric weight were investigated in context with different washing processes for stretch denim fabric. All tests were carried out according to the ISO (International Organization for Standardization). Enzyme washed fabric illustrated better performance regarding tear strength, tensile strength and dimensional stability; but showed moderate performance in different color fastness properties. But the color fastness to rubbing of heavy enzyme stone wash was excellent. No significant change was observed regarding the grade of color change and color staining for color fastness to wash, color fastness to perspiration and color fastness to light with respect to different types of washing processes like enzyme wash, enzyme stone wash, enzyme stone wash with bleaching and heavy enzyme stone wash with bleaching. The grade for dry rubbing and wet rubbing was comparatively better for enzyme wash rather than other washing processes. The GSM (gram per square meter) of stretch denim fabric also increased accordingly after different kinds of washing process rather than untreated stretch denim fabric. The dimensional stability of stretch denim fabric also altered after going through different washing process. The highest shrinkage was occurred in weft direction for heavy enzyme stone wash with bleaching.
Robert H. B. Miller, Shugang Hu, Sonkarlay J. Y. Weamie, Saavia A. Naame, Dauda G. Kiazolu
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Volume 09, pp 68-104; doi:10.4236/msce.2021.94008

Abstract:
In recent years, superhydrophobic media has attracted tremendous attention due to its industrial applicability value, especially in anti-corrosion performance. The superhydrophobic coating, which has a robust and water-repellent capacity, can catch the air to form several “airbags” on the substrate’s surface, isolating the corrosion media. Various superhydrophobic coating preparation technologies have been suggested, but each has its own set of flaws. On the other hand, electrodeposition, as a relatively mature industrial processing application, offers distinct advantages. However, until now, there have been few reviews on the electrodeposition preparation of anticorrosive superhydrophobic coatings. Therefore, the author has described several fabrication techniques based on superhydrophobic coatings in this review, including the advantages and disadvantages. Superhydrophobic coatings conventional concepts and wettability, as well as the model wetting concepts, have been reviewed. The coating processing status and the corrosion-resistant potential through the electrodeposition of metal and comparable composite are detailly encapsulated. Furthermore, electrodeposition parameters, including current density, crystal modifiers, and a deposition time of the coating morphology, are reported, following the ultrasonic-assisted, jet, pulse, and magnetic field-induced electrodeposition, respectively, as the recently developed technologies for preparing a coating. Finally, technology limitation is shown as well as the obstacles and prospects, and the improvement of the superhydrophobic coating’s durability as a prospects research focus has been recommended.
Giulliano A. S. Boaventura, Ramon O. B. Santos, Renann P. Gama, Regina E. S. Cabette, Mariana F. B. Motta, Cesar A. Botura, Adriano C. M. Rosa, Any M. Rosa, Wilson F. Muniz, Carlos D. Jaeger, et al.
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Volume 09, pp 23-38; doi:10.4236/msce.2021.93003

Abstract:
This work contributed to a detailed study on a better understanding of the Jominy test, adopted a proportion of study to create the Jominy test device, exhibited favorable conceptions for the development of a prototype of the device, covering the four aspects of the project, being they: test device, test body heating system, test automation and instrumentation using embedded electronics and financial analysis for the elaboration of this project in Brazil. It was possible to observe in the results that the system is efficient, simple and functional, it was possible to obtain the first test carried out in the controlled environment the temperature data in degrees centigrade, the recorded data were automatically launched in Microsoft Excel by the PLX DAQ software, making the acquisition of the data. In the matter of preparing the test device, the drawings are presented in the 3D modeling software, cost tables of the materials used for assembly in Brazil. In terms of the heating system, a heating system was adopted that uses electromagnetic induction, the cost of materials related to the heating system design was also presented. Another relevant factor that contributes to the research and improvement of the prototype is the municipality, located in the Paraiba Valley region, located in the state of São Paulo, consisting of a fertile and relevant scenario of regional, national, international and multinational statistics, thus concluding the effectiveness for the mainly metallurgical industries. The results obtained were satisfactory and consistent, when they were created for the Jominy test device with the ability to submit small pieces for testing and mainly essential in the didactic point of view for a higher education institution of engineering and technology.
Mamadou Yaya Balde, Chantale Njiomou Djangang, Ramatoulaye Binta Diallo, Philippe Blanchart, Daniel Njopwouo
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Volume 09, pp 9-22; doi:10.4236/msce.2021.93002

Abstract:
Assessing the potential uses as industrial mineral, bauxite from Débélé, Guinea, has been characterised by chemical and mineralogical analyses, the determination of the amorphous content, the rate of portlandite consumption in an aqueous solution, the strength activity index, and the thermal behaviour up to 1200°C. It was evidenced that the raw sample is gibbsite-rich type bauxite with about 45.06 wt% of alumina, 23.80 wt% of iron oxide, and 1.74 wt% of silica. It meets the chemical composition required for bauxites used for refractory cement. During heating, the raw bauxite undergoes high densification with low linear shrinkage, motivating a potential use in dense ceramic compositions with high thermal stability. Also, the heating at only 600°C gives a significant pozzolanic activity in combination with Portland cement. The correlation between the pozzolanicity, the amorphous phase content, and the specific surface area indicated that the raw and the calcined materials present an interesting reactivity for using them in alternative cement formulations.
Masaji Watanabe, Fusako Kawai
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Volume 9, pp 43-50; doi:10.4236/msce.2021.91004

Abstract:
This study demonstrates mathematical analysis of biodegradation processes of xenobiotic polymers. A model for microbial population is based on the fact that growth rate of microorganisms is proportional to the microbial population and consumption rate of parts of carbon sources. The model is paired with a model for weight distribution. Those models lead to inverse problems for a molecular factor and a time factor of degradation rate. Solution of the inverse problems allows us to simulate the biodegra-dation process.
Nan Lin, Wei Li, Hongli Liu, Lele Zhou, Xiuyun Li
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Volume 09, pp 11-23; doi:10.4236/msce.2021.92002

Abstract:
The effect of styrene on unsaturated phosphate ester polymers was investigated. Copolymerization was carried out by adding different proportions of styrene when the unsaturated phosphate was polymerized to obtain an unsaturated phosphate-styrene copolymer. The structure and crosslink density of the copolymer was determined by fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and gel fraction (G) testing. The heat resistance and flame retardancy of the polymer were tested by thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis, limiting oxygen index (LOI) and micro-combustion calorimeter (MCC). The infrared test proved that the styrene was successfully introduced into the polymer system. The gelation test results showed that the introduction of the rigid benzene ring increased the crosslink density of the copolymer. The tensile strength increased from 17.84 MPa to 34.63 MPa, and the impact strength remained stable within a certain range. At the same time, the solid ultraviolet absorption test results showed that the light transmittance of the materials was higher than 90%. The TG and DTG spectra showed that the heat resistance of the polymer was improved, but the residual carbon ratio was reduced from 30.47% to 25.54%. The LOI value decreased from 29.0% to 26.1%, and the UL-94 vertical burn rating was all V-0.
Yuhsin Tsai, Mu-Chen Kuo, Jyh-Horng Wu
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Volume 9, pp 1-10; doi:10.4236/msce.2021.92001

Abstract:
This investigation presents thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) based on poly (styrene-butadiene-styrene) (SBS) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) materials were prepared with varying compositions. A series of works were conducted on the relationships between rheological, optical properties, morphology, mechanical properties, abrasion resistance and thermostability given. The results showed that the shear viscosity of SBS not obvious effect with TPU content. The optical properties of the SBS/TPU blend that its uniform transparency. The morphology characteristics indicating the phase diversion and the variation in the size of the SBS domains from large to small as the TPU contents increased, with heterogeneous domain dispersions. Additionally, the mechanical properties, abrasion resistance and thermal resistance are improved as the amount of added TPU is increased, suggesting that the blending of SBS with TPU is consistent with the compound rule.
Jakaria Ahamed, Faysal Mahmud, Faysal Ahammed, Rony Mia, Zahid Hasan, Tarequl Hasan Khan, Golam Qibria Limon, Al Mojnun Shamim
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Volume 09, pp 1-8; doi:10.4236/msce.2021.93001

Abstract:
Day by day, the demand and popularity of denim have increased. With the increase in demand for denim, washing has also increased. When we washed a piece of denim fabric, then its properties also changed. The properties are tensile strength, GSM, color fading, stiffness, abrasion resistance, moisture regain, etc. In this study, we conduct different washing processes on denim fabric such are Stonewash, Caustic wash, Acid wash, Normal wash, Pigment wash, Sandblasting, and Super whitewash. After washing, the properties of denim fabric have been analyzed especially strength. The tear and tensile strength were measured by ISO standard. From the above washing method, Normal & pigment wash showed good strength properties comparing with others.
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