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EISSN : 2227-7099
Current Publisher: MDPI AG (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 474
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Published: 19 April 2021
Economies, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/economies9020062

Corruption reflects a set of illegal activities that jeopardize the smooth functioning of economies, society, and climate and environmental issues. This article tests the relationships between economic growth, corruption, renewable energies, international trade, and carbon dioxide emissions using panel data for European countries, namely Portugal, Spain, Italy, Ireland, and Greece, from 1995–2015. As an econometric strategy, this research uses the panel fully modified least squares (FMOLS), panel dynamic least squares (DOLS), and panel two-stage least squares estimator (TSLS). Considering the variables utilized in the research and the panel unit root test, we observed that the variables are integrated I (1) in the first difference. The variables of corruption, economic growth, renewable energies, international trade, and carbon dioxide emissions are cointegrated in the long run, using the Pedroni and Kao residual cointegration test arguments. The methodology of Dumitrescu–Hurlin to test the causality between carbon dioxide emissions, corruption, economic growth, and renewable energy shows that there is unidirectional causality between carbon dioxide emissions and corruption and economic growth and corruption. The results suggest that the corruption index and economic growth have a statistically significant positive impact on carbon dioxide emissions. However, renewable energies and international trade reduce climate change and improve the environmental quality.
Published: 17 April 2021
Economies, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/economies9020061

In this paper, we theoretically analyze the effects of three types of land taxes on economic growth using an overlapping generation model in which land can be used for production or consumption (housing) purposes. Based on the analyses in which land is used as a factor of production, we can confirm that the taxation of land will lead to an increase in the growth rate of the economy. Particularly, we show that the introduction of a tax on land rents, a tax on the value of land or a stamp duty will cause the net price of land to decline. Further, we show that the nationalization of land and the redistribution of the land rents to the young generation will maximize the growth rate of the economy.
Published: 15 April 2021
Economies, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/economies9020060

Most studies on the determinants of poverty do not consider that the relative importance of each of these determinants can vary depending on the degree of poverty suffered by each group of poor people. For Mexico’s case, the studies carried out so far do not contemplate this approach, even though there is wide variation in the degree of poverty among the different groups of the poor. Investigating these differences is important to design better policies for fighting poverty, which consider how each variable that explains poverty affects each group of people who suffer from poverty differently. This article examines the determinants of poverty for Mexican households. Using data from the Mexican National Household Income and Expenditure Survey (ENIGH) 2018, the study estimates a probit model and a quantile regression model to examine the extent to which the determinants of poverty vary across the poverty spectrum. The results from the probit model indicate that households with more than one member, having a female head, or speaker of an indigenous language are more likely to be poor. The results obtained in the quantile regressions indicate that there are significant differences with the results of the simple ordinary least squares model, especially for households in extreme poverty but also for the other income categories analyzed for several of the explanatory variables used in the models. Households in the categories extremely poor and deeply poor are most affected if they are in the southern region or if the household head speaks an indigenous language or is an elderly person. It is observed that achieving a higher educational level is an effective way to increase income across the poverty spectrum.
Published: 15 April 2021
Economies, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/economies9020059

The global COVID-19 pandemic has caused a transformation of virtually all aspects of the world order today. Due to the introduction of the world quarantine, a considerable share of professional communications has been transformed into a format of distance interaction. As a result, the specific weight of traditional components of the investment attractiveness of a region is steadily going down, because modern business can be built without the need for territorial unity. It should be stated that now the criteria according to which investors decide if they are ready to invest in a region are dynamically transforming. The significance of the following characteristics is increasingly growing: the sustainable development of a region, qualities of the social environment, and consistency of the social infrastructure. Thus, the approaches to evaluating the region’s investment attractiveness must be transformed. Moreover, the investment process at the federal level involves the determination of target areas of regional development. Despite the universal significance of innovative development, the region can develop much more dynamically when a complex external environment is formed that complements its development model. Interregional interaction, as well as an integrated approach to innovative development, taking into account not only the momentary effect, but also the qualitative long-term transformation of the region, will significantly increase the return on investment. At the same time, the currently existing methods for assessing the investment attractiveness of the region are usually heuristic in nature and are not universal. The heuristic nature of the existing methods does not allow to completely abstract from the subjectivity of the researcher. Moreover, the existing methods do not take into account the cyclical properties of the innovative development of the region, which lead to the formation of a long-term effect from the transformation of the regional environment. This study is aimed at forming a comprehensive methodology that can be used to evaluate the investment attractiveness of a certain region and conclude about the lines of business that should be developed in it as well as to find ways to increase the region’s investment attractiveness. According to the results of the study, a comprehensive methodology was formed to evaluate the region’s investment attractiveness. It consists of three key indicators, namely, the level of the region’s investment attractiveness, the projected level of the region’s investment attractiveness, and the development vector of the region’s investment attractiveness. This methodology is based on a set of indicators that consider the status of the economic and social environment of the region, as well as the status of the innovative and ecological environment. The methodology can be used to make multi-dimensional conclusions both about the growth areas responsible for increasing the region’s innovative attractiveness and the lines of business that should be developed in the region.
Published: 14 April 2021
Economies, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/economies9020058

As it is predicted that there will be a decrease in production at the oil and gas facilities that are currently operating, it becomes necessary to start developing new oil and gas fields. This results in changes to the state’s policy regarding the participation of private companies in the development and implementation of oil and gas offshore exploration and production new projects. Access to unique fields can be provided to the most socially responsible companies. The purpose of this study is to present the author’s methodology for assessing the dynamics of corporate sustainability. The methodology is based on the assessment of individual, well-founded indicators of sustainable development of companies. The proposed methodology takes into account factors in areas such as occupational health and safety, environmental protection and economic efficiency and identifies two performance indicators. The first indicator is an aggregated index for three groups of factors to assess company ratings relative to the performance of the best company. The second indicator is an assessment of the dynamics within the company relative to the previous values of indicators of corporate social responsibility. The research results obtained using the proposed methodology show that oil and gas companies differ significantly in terms of corporate sustainability. The developed methodology for assessing corporate sustainability is of practical importance and can be used by companies in the analysis and planning of operating and investment activities that ensure the achievement of goals of corporate social responsibility.
Published: 13 April 2021
Economies, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/economies9020057

COVID-19 has brought about a substantial change in urban mobility, as well as an unprecedented increase in e-commerce throughout the world due to the emergence of new ways of shopping and consumption habits. In this context, urban logistics plays a crucial role in the triple bottom line of sustainability. The present document establishes a holistic vision of the problem aiming to (i) measure and compare the traffic generated in the Madrid Central area (low-emission zone) during the periods before and after the pandemic, and (ii) quantify e-commerce orders made by residents, as well as the Light Commercial Vehicles (LCV) required to deliver these parcels, measuring their environmental impact. The results show that road traffic in the Madrid Central area decreased by approximately 2/3 compared to normal levels and 1/2 in the case of LCVs. With regards to e-commerce, the number of parcels delivered doubled. This fact entailed an increase in the number of LVCs dedicated to package delivery in the central district and more pollution, but to a lesser extent than the growth of e-commerce. The challenge faced by urban logistics in the post-Covid era is managing to blend new mobility within large cities with the high volumes of e-commerce deliveries demanded by residents.
Published: 9 April 2021
Economies, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/economies9020056

Government funding actively engages in private R&D investment to enhance firm innovation. At the same time, firms are forced to find additional sources of competitive advantage, e.g., through cooperation based on the triple- or quadruple-helix principles. This paper analyses whether government funding and cooperation based on the triple-helix and quadruple-helix principles spur firms’ product and process innovation rather directly or indirectly, taking into account the role of firms R&D. For this purpose, we collect data from the Community Innovation Survey and analyse 5045 Norwegian firms by using partial least squares structural equation modelling. Our results confirm hypotheses that public funding and both triple-helix and quadruple-helix cooperation significantly influence firms’ research and development activities. Surprisingly, on the one hand, we showed that neither public funding nor triple- and quadruple-helix cooperation affect firms’ product innovation directly. Moreover, the results show a negative influence of government funding and triple- and quadruple-helix cooperation on Norwegian firms’ product innovation. On the other hand, process innovation is influenced positively and directly by firms’ cooperation based on the triple- and quadruple-helix principles. The results of our analyses clearly show the key role of firm’s R&D, which has proven to be a mediator of the effects of public funding and triple- and quadruple-helix cooperation on the product and process innovation activities of Norwegian firms.
Published: 9 April 2021
Economies, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/economies9020055

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become an innovative strategic management tool of socially and environmentally conscious business organizations in the 21st century. Although external CSR activities are better researched, firms’ internal CSR activities such as workplace health promotion and its impact on employee wellbeing are less understood, especially during a pandemic where job security is relatively lower in many sectors of employment. Additionally, wellbeing and good health have been recognized as important targets to achieve as part of the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goal 3. Therefore, this study investigates the relationship between health-related work benefits and employee wellbeing, satisfaction and loyalty to their workplace. Large scale survey research was performed with responses from 537 employees in Hungary and 16 hypotheses were tested. Data analysis and path modelling using PLS-SEM (Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling) reveal two-layers of factors that impact employee wellbeing, satisfaction and loyalty. We term this as ‘internal locus of control’ and ‘external locus of control’ variables. Internal locus of control variables such as mental and emotional health leads to wellbeing at the workplace but do not directly impact employee satisfaction and loyalty. In contrast, external locus of control factors such as healthcare support leads to wellbeing, satisfaction and loyalty. Employer commitment to healthcare support system is found pertinent especially during the pandemic. We discover wellbeing as a unique standalone construct in this study, which is vital as is it formed by mental and emotional wellbeing of employees, albeit not a determinant of employee workplace satisfaction and loyalty. We theorize workers’ self-reliance and preservation as possible explanations to the disassociation between employee wellbeing and loyalty to workplace during times of crisis and the pandemic.
Published: 7 April 2021
Economies, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/economies9020052

The race of states for digital leadership faces the challenges of digital transformation foresight, providing combinatorial effects and acceleration of digitalization processes, contributing to a more efficient allocation of limited financial resources. This situation determines the relevance of the authors’ study, which aims to develop an appropriate model for the allocation of funds for digital technologies. The methodology of the study is based on the concepts of technological modes and cyclical development of the economy. The paper presents the authors’ definition of the concept “digital space,” which is new to Russian scientific literature. The key research method is mathematical modeling. The scientific novelty of the paper is chronological architectonics of digital transformations, built by the authors, and the model of distribution of financing under the investment constraints due to the trust limit of the society institutions, the time of fluctuations of the system of technological adaptation, and the response of the institutional environment to the digital limits of the transformations. The practical significance of the proposed models is the identified tandem interconnected digital technologies of the areas of combinatorial effects that accelerate the dynamics of Industry 4.0, as well as the resulting tools for the effective management of digital technology financing. The obtained theoretical and empirical results are desirable for the heads of government agencies, foundations, corporations, and development agencies, as well as enterprises interested in accelerating digital transformation and increasing strategic competitiveness in the digital space.
Published: 7 April 2021
Economies, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/economies9020053

An adequate image of a tourist destination is a key instrument to attract tourists who will contribute to the development and economic growth of the place. The objective of this study is to analyze the formation and measure of the destination image. It contains a novel analysis which breaks down the heterogeneous aspects traditionally included in the cognitive dimension of the image into factors that provide more in-depth knowledge of it. A model is used in which the image is related to the corporate image of companies abroad. An exploratory factorial analysis and a structural equation model are used to test the hypotheses formulated. The sample consists of 409 questionnaires submitted to citizens of South Korea. A new scale is proposed, including four basic elements which are essential for any destination. They will serve as the basis for the diagnosis of the tourist competitiveness of the same, facilitating the action on them and their improvement. Additionally, this scale, known as the four core elements, enables the measurement of a destination image to be standardized.
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