Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

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ISSN / EISSN : 1420-682X / 1420-9071
Current Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC (10.1007)
Total articles ≅ 32,647
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Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences pp 1-14; doi:10.1007/s00018-020-03755-w

Abstract:
The flavoenzyme d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) is deputed to the degradation of d-enantiomers of amino acids. DAAO plays various relevant physiological roles in different organisms and tissues. Thus, it has been recently suggested that the goblet cells of the mucosal epithelia secrete into the lumen of intestine, a processed and active form of DAAO that uses the intestinal d-amino acids to generate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an immune messenger that helps fighting gut pathogens, and by doing so controls the homeostasis of gut microbiota. Here, we show that the DAAO form lacking the 1–16 amino acid residues (the putative secretion signal) is unstable and inactive, and that DAAO is present in the epithelial layer and the mucosa of mouse gut, where it is largely proteolyzed. In silico predicted DAAO-derived antimicrobial peptides show activity against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but not on Lactobacilli species, which represent the commensal microbiota. Peptidomic analysis reveals the presence of such peptides in the mucosal fraction. Collectively, we identify a novel mechanism for gut microbiota selection implying DAAO-derived antimicrobial peptides which are generated by intestinal proteases and that are secreted in the gut lumen. In conclusion, we herein report an additional, ancillary role for mammalian DAAO, unrelated to its enzymatic activity.
Francesca Imbastari, Mathias Dahlmann , Anje Sporbert, Camilla Ciolli Mattioli, Tommaso Mari, Florian Scholz, Lena Timm, Shailey Twamley, Rebekka Migotti, Wolfgang Walther, et al.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences pp 1-18; doi:10.1007/s00018-020-03734-1

Abstract:
Metastasis Associated in Colon Cancer 1 (MACC1) is a novel prognostic, predictive and causal biomarker for tumor progression and metastasis in many cancer types, including colorectal cancer. Besides its clinical value, little is known about its molecular function. Its similarity to SH3BP4, involved in regulating uptake and recycling of transmembrane receptors, suggests a role of MACC1 in endocytosis. By exploring the MACC1 interactome, we identified the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME)-associated proteins CLTC, DNM2 and AP-2 as MACC1 binding partners. We unveiled a MACC1-dependent routing of internalized transferrin receptor towards recycling. Elevated MACC1 expression caused also the activation and internalization of EGFR, a higher rate of receptor recycling, as well as earlier and stronger receptor activation and downstream signaling. These effects are limited by deletion of CME-related protein interaction sites in MACC1. Thus, MACC1 regulates CME and receptor recycling, causing increased growth factor-mediated downstream signaling and cell proliferation. This novel mechanism unveils potential therapeutic intervention points restricting MACC1-driven metastasis.
Aneesha Kulkarni, Laura W. Bowers
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences pp 1-20; doi:10.1007/s00018-020-03752-z

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Y. J. Park, S. H. Kim, T. S. Kim, S. M. Lee, B. S. Cho, C. I. Seo, H. D. Kim, J. Kim
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences pp 1-16; doi:10.1007/s00018-020-03754-x

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Siyuan Luan, Yushang Yang, Yuxin Zhou, Xiaoxi Zeng, Xin Xiao, Bo Liu , Yong Yuan
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences pp 1-20; doi:10.1007/s00018-020-03751-0

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Susanne Klaus , Carla Igual Gil, Mario Ost
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences pp 1-16; doi:10.1007/s00018-020-03748-9

Abstract:
The mammalian system of energy balance regulation is intrinsically rhythmic with diurnal oscillations of behavioral and metabolic traits according to the 24 h day/night cycle, driven by cellular circadian clocks and synchronized by environmental or internal cues such as metabolites and hormones associated with feeding rhythms. Mitochondria are crucial organelles for cellular energy generation and their biology is largely under the control of the circadian system. Whether mitochondrial status might also feed-back on the circadian system, possibly via mitokines that are induced by mitochondrial stress as endocrine-acting molecules, remains poorly understood. Here, we describe our current understanding of the diurnal regulation of systemic energy balance, with focus on fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), two well-known endocrine-acting metabolic mediators. FGF21 shows a diurnal oscillation and directly affects the output of the brain master clock. Moreover, recent data demonstrated that mitochondrial stress-induced GDF15 promotes a day-time restricted anorexia and systemic metabolic remodeling as shown in UCP1-transgenic mice, where both FGF21 and GDF15 are induced as myomitokines. In this mouse model of slightly uncoupled skeletal muscle mitochondria GDF15 proved responsible for an increased metabolic flexibility and a number of beneficial metabolic adaptations. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying energy balance regulation by mitokines are just starting to emerge, and more data on diurnal patterns in mouse and man are required. This will open new perspectives into the diurnal nature of mitokines and action both in health and disease.
Deepika Watts, Johanna Stein, Ana Meneses, Nicole Bechmann, Ales Neuwirth, Denise Kaden, Anja Krüger, Anupam Sinha, Vasileia Ismini Alexaki, Luis Gustavo Perez-Rivas, et al.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences pp 1-14; doi:10.1007/s00018-020-03750-1

Abstract:
Endogenous steroid hormones, especially glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, derive from the adrenal cortex, and drastic or sustained changes in their circulatory levels affect multiple organ systems. Although hypoxia signaling in steroidogenesis has been suggested, knowledge on the true impact of the HIFs (Hypoxia-Inducible Factors) in the adrenocortical cells of vertebrates is scant. By creating a unique set of transgenic mouse lines, we reveal a prominent role for HIF1α in the synthesis of virtually all steroids in vivo. Specifically, mice deficient in HIF1α in adrenocortical cells displayed enhanced levels of enzymes responsible for steroidogenesis and a cognate increase in circulatory steroid levels. These changes resulted in cytokine alterations and changes in the profile of circulatory mature hematopoietic cells. Conversely, HIF1α overexpression resulted in the opposite phenotype of insufficient steroid production due to impaired transcription of necessary enzymes. Based on these results, we propose HIF1α to be a vital regulator of steroidogenesis as its modulation in adrenocortical cells dramatically impacts hormone synthesis with systemic consequences. In addition, these mice can have potential clinical significances as they may serve as essential tools to understand the pathophysiology of hormone modulations in a number of diseases associated with metabolic syndrome, auto-immunity or even cancer.
Dipan Roy, Ari Sadanandom
Experientia pp 1-24; doi:10.1007/s00018-020-03723-4

Abstract:
Across all species, transcription factors (TFs) are the most frequent targets of SUMOylation. The effect of SUMO conjugation on the functions of transcription factors has been extensively studied in animal systems, with over 200 transcription factors being documented to be modulated by SUMOylation. This has resulted in the establishment of a number of paradigms that seek to explain the mechanisms by which SUMO regulates transcription factor functions. For instance, SUMO has been shown to modulate TF DNA binding activity; regulate both localization as well as the abundance of TFs and also influence the association of TFs with chromatin. With transcription factors being implicated as master regulators of the cellular signalling pathways that maintain phenotypic plasticity in all organisms, in this review, we will discuss how SUMO mediated regulation of transcription factor activity facilitates molecular pathways to mount an appropriate and coherent biological response to environmental cues.
Guido H. Wabnitz , Sibylle Honus, Jüri Habicht, Christian Orlik, Henning Kirchgessner, Yvonne Samstag
Experientia pp 1-22; doi:10.1007/s00018-020-03744-z

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Experientia pp 1-20; doi:10.1007/s00018-020-03715-4

Abstract:
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide leading to 31% of all global deaths. Early prediction and prevention could greatly reduce the enormous socio-economic burden posed by CVDs. Plasma lipids have been at the center stage of the prediction and prevention strategies for CVDs that have mostly relied on traditional lipids (total cholesterol, total triglycerides, HDL-C and LDL-C). The tremendous advancement in the field of lipidomics in last two decades has facilitated the research efforts to unravel the metabolic dysregulation in CVDs and their genetic determinants, enabling the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms and identification of predictive biomarkers, beyond traditional lipids. This review presents an overview of the application of lipidomics in epidemiological and genetic studies and their contributions to the current understanding of the field. We review findings of these studies and discuss examples that demonstrates the potential of lipidomics in revealing new biology not captured by traditional lipids and lipoprotein measurements. The promising findings from these studies have raised new opportunities in the fields of personalized and predictive medicine for CVDs. The review further discusses prospects of integrating emerging genomics tools with the high-dimensional lipidome to move forward from the statistical associations towards biological understanding, therapeutic target development and risk prediction. We believe that integrating genomics with lipidome holds a great potential but further advancements in statistical and computational tools are needed to handle the high-dimensional and correlated lipidome.
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