LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2651-5628 / 2714-3988
Published by: Lujosh Ventures Limited (10.36108)
Total articles ≅ 108
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A. J Gana, M. F. Amodu
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/1202.70.0150

Abstract:
Water resources sustainability is essential to life because all living things and some non-living things need it to complete their processes. The water usage is rising, hence pressure on the availability, and some instances rose to crisis level. These pressures were due to population growth, increases in irrigated land, deforestation, soil and land degradation, and wastages. Engineering is one of the majors’ components in tackling water resources sustainability. Therefore, this paper reviews the general concepts of sustainable water resources from an engineering and management perspective. The method adopted to realize the aim of the research was a thorough literature review. Engineering has three sub-components, these are Ecological, Economic, and social sustainability. Failure in one of these sub-components is a failure of the component. The literature revealed that Water resources sustainability is a multifaceted discipline therefore, engineering discipline alone would not solve it. However, this paper proffered some recommendations and the way forward. These recommendations are the steps required at the watersheds level, the engineering strategies aspects, and the management strategy. It concluded that a holistic approach where all shareholders will be involved is an ideal approach.
C. C. Osadebe, H. A. Quadri
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/1202.70.0120

Abstract:
The prevalence of flexible pavement deterioration in the country has been adduced largely by highway researchers to trucks or heavy vehicles carrying much in excess of permitted legal limits. This study investigated levels of deterioration of Abuja-Kaduna-Kano road (Northern region) and Port Harcourt-Enugu road (Southern region) caused by heavy vehicles through a 14 day traffic counts conducted at 5 strategic points each in the Northern and Southern regions. Traffic data generated were analyzed with AASHTO Design Guidelines (1993) to evaluate Equivalent Single Axle Loads (ESALs) and Vehicle Damage effects on the road. The Traffic Volume, Average Daily Traffic (ADT), and Heavy Vehicle per day (HV/day) were estimated to be 2,063,977; 147,427; and 12,246 respectively in the Northern region, while in the Southern region they were estimated to be 750,381; 53,670; and 20,951 respectively. Motorcycles, Passenger cars, Mini-buses/Pick-ups, and Heavy vehicles constitute 18.7%, 49.7%, 23.3% and 8.31% of the total traffic volume respectively in the Northern region while in the South they constitute 4.6%, 30.1%, 26.2% and 39.1% respectively. ESALs were estimated according to AASHTO Design Guidelines in the Northern and Southern regions as 547,730 and 836,208 respectively. An average Load Equivalency Factors (LEFs) of 3.43 and 3.02 were estimated for each heavy vehicle plying the Northern and Southern roads respectively and this could explain some failures (alligator cracks, potholes, depressions, linear or longitudinal cracks along the centre line amongst others) inherent on the road.
D. O Adeoye
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/1202.70.0110

Abstract:
Healthy housing is a function of provision of adequate physical, social and mental conditions for healthy environment. It is a function of both intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of housing that can influence human health. Environment and human activities are omen to development. The effects are manifested in generating land use problems such as congestion, sprawl development, incompatible land uses, building alterations and change of uses, the menace of temporary structures, alteration of land use functions, conversion of open and future spaces, and land degradation. Alagbede village is one of the areas that require such development drive. The study is required to facilitate this need. This research effort is to examine the environmental effect of squatter settlements in Alagbede village, Ikeja, Lagos State Nigeria. The paper examined housing conditions in terms of privacy, adequate space, physical accessibility, adequate security, security of tenure, structural stability and durability, adequate lighting, and ventilation, and basic infrastructure (such as water supply, sanitation, and waste management facilities including suitable environmental quality and health related factors and its influence on the residents of Alagbede area, Ikeja Lagos State. Approach includes the development of database and choice of appropriate data source (primary and secondary data sources). From the methodology, there were questionnaire administration, direct interview of respondents, collection and updating of the base maps, and the use of necessary field instrument for the study. The data gathered were analysed using descriptive method. The end result has revealed a number of environmental problems due to the existence of these settlements (Alagbede village). These problems are poor drainage system, noise pollution, illegal refuse dump sites, slum situations etc. Appropriate recommendations in form of short time and long term solutions were suggested to conclude the research work.
K. O. Oriola
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/1202.70.0101

Abstract:
The evaluation of agro-industrial by-products as alternative construction materials is becoming more significant as the demand for environmentally friendly construction materials increases. In this study, the workability and compressive strength of concrete produced by combining Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) and Rice Husk Ash (RHA) was investigated. Concrete mixes using a fixed content of 15% RHA as replacement for cement and 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% PKS as replacement for crushed granite by volume with the mix ratios of 1:1½:3, 1:2:4 and 1:3:6 were produced. The water-to-cement ratios of 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 were used for the respective mix ratios. Concrete without PKS and RHA served as control mix. The fresh concrete workability was evaluated through slump test. The concrete hardened properties determined were the density and compressive strength. The results indicated that the workability and density of PKSC were lower than control concrete, and they decreased as the PKS content in each mix ratio was increased. The compressive strength of concrete at 90 days decreased from 27.8-13.1 N/mm2, 23.8-8.9 N/mm2and 20.6-7.6 for 1:1½:3, 1:2:4 and 1:3:6, respectively as the substitution level of PKS increased from 0-100%. However, the compressive strength of concrete increased with curing age and the gain in strength of concrete containing RHA and PKSC were higher than the control at the later age. The concrete containing 15% RHA with up to 40% PKS for 1:1½:3 and 20% PKS for 1:2:4 mix ratios satisfied the minimum strength requirements for structural lightweight aggregate concrete (SLWAC) stipulated by the relevant standards. It can be concluded that the addition of 15% RHA is effective in improving the strength properties of PKSC for eco-friendly SLWAC production..
J. O. Faremi
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/1202.70.0141

Abstract:
A recent development within the metropolis of Lagos State, Nigeria is the emergence of smart buildings aimed at providing safer, more secure, productive and comfortable business environment. A major challenge to the sustenance of such edifice is the delivery of strategic facilities management services to maximise the building’s efficiency and achieve expected return on investment. This study investigates sustainable facilities management practices in smart buildings using the Heritage Place as a case study. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 19 facilities management personnel and 68 users of the facility. chart, mean score and Spearman’s Correlation were used as the descriptive and inferential statistical tools, respectively. The results show the most frequently practiced sustainable facilities management practice to include: compliance to the preventive maintenance schedules for Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems and prompt response to repairs and corrective work activities in the facility with mean scores of 5.00 and 4.90, respectively. The results further show that the facility users were dissatisfied with the level of implementation of sustainable facilities management practices, except in integrated pest management and optimised waste management where marginal satisfaction were recorded, respectively. The study recommends a sustained effort by smart buildings stakeholders at implementing sustainable facilities management practices in order to significantly and continually improve operations and maintenance activities in the buildings. And that the efforts of facilities managers for smart buildings should be geared at the delivery of strategic facilities management services that meet the expectations of users of the facilities.
F. Uthman
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/1202.70.0131

Abstract:
Biogas is a renewable source of energy that is obtained from the anaerobic digestion of agricultural residues, animal dung, energy crops, domestic wastes and industrial wastes. These categories of waste that produce biogas are promising sources of energy and the biotechnology process of biofuel is environmentally friendly. This study aimed at modifying, fabricating and evaluating a floating drum digester. The modified floating drum digester consists of the digester tank, gas holder tank, feeding inlet pipe, gas collector outlet, slurry outlet, thermometer and hose. The gas holder tank was inserted into the digester tank while the biogas is generated in the digester tank by pressure. The biogas was produced from the mixture of cattle dung 30 % and 50 % plant wastes. Hence, the organic waste mixed with water in the ratio of 1: 2 for the digestion process. The digestion temperature was recorded daily for a period of 21 days at constant pressure of 1.32 KN/m2 throughout the experiment. The result revealed that the minimum and maximum average temperatures are 25 to 33 oC. This shows that the ambient temperature affects the temperature in the digester and the amount of gas produced is a function of the accumulated temperature in the digester. It was observed that the biogas generated increase as temperature rise. The modified floating drum digester is affordable and it is recommended for small- and large-scale production.
S. O. Adetola, S. A. Akinyemi
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/1202.70.0121

Abstract:
Concrete reinforcement with fibers is undergoing findings in order to manufacture concrete with low cost but improve mechanical and microstructural properties. Chicken feather fiber(CFF) possesses characteristics, which can improve the mechanical and microstructural properties of the concrete. Concrete is a brittle material with no tension. In this study, samples A (control sample), B1 and C1 constitute of 0%, 1% and 3% by weight of CFF while B and C constitute of 0.5% and 1.5% equal proportion of CFF and Synthetic hair fiber(SHF) respectively. Concrete with CFF and CFF/SHF composites were tested to determine water absorption (WA), thickness swelling (TS), compressive strength (CS) and splitting tensile strength (STS) between 7 to 28 days of curing. Results of WA of concrete increased after 28 days to 10.01%, 12.52% and 23.11% for samples A, B1, C1 and 11.83% and 17.67% for samples B and C respectively. Similarly, TS increased after 28 days to 0.13%, 0.22% and 0.32% for samples A, B1and C1 and for samples B and C it remains stable at 0.25%., respectively. CS of samples A and B1 increased with curing days to values of 20.66 MPa and 9.36 MPa, respectively. However, for samples C1, B and C it decreased to 3.74 MPa, 9.98 MPa and 4.29 MPa. STS of A, B1 and C1 increased with curing days with values of 13.94 MPa, 8.91 MPa and 2.26 MPa respectively while samples B and C decreased with curing days with values of 5.43 MPa and 2.39 MPa respectively, after 7 days. Results of SEM deduced that CFF improves the ductility of ICBs but increased in the proportion resulted in reduction of the STS of the concrete. Similarly, SHF offers higher CS but also serves the purpose of reduction in micro cracking and increasing structural stability.
A. A Raheem
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/1202.70.0140

Abstract:
Concrete is strong in compression but weak in tension hence, considerable effort is required to improve concrete’s tensile strength by the use of pre-stressed concrete and addition of admixtures or additives. In this study, the use of recycled iron and steel slag (RISS) aggregate to improve the tensile strength of concrete was considered. The paper assessed the mineralogical composition of RISS and granite aggregates, and gradation. It also determines the effects of RISS aggregate on the flexural strength of concrete beams of 150 × 150 × 600 mm containing 0, 10, 20, 40 and 60% RISS aggregate replacement in mix ratios 1:1½:3, 1:2:4 and 1:3:6 with water cement ratios 0.65,0.60 and 0.55 respectively. Diffractograph of RISS and granite aggregate showed that RISS contains Magnetite, Ilmenite and Quartz, while granite contains Quartz, Annite, Microcline and Albite as the predominant minerals. The coefficient of uniformity and concavity of RISS and granite aggregate for maximum aggregate size of 37.5 mm are 4.35 and 1.33; and 4.64 and 1.76 respectively. Both aggregates contain quartz as the predominant mineral and are well graded. The result of the Flexural strength at 28 days curing is within 0.135 – 0.250 MPa specified byBS8500 – 2:2015. Flexural strength of concrete beams cast with RISS aggregate is relatively higher than concrete cast with granite aggregate. Flexural strength, a measure of tensile strength of concrete is improved as percentage RISS aggregate increased.
I. A. Akinlabi
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/1202.70.0151

Abstract:
The use of the electrical resistivity method provides cost-effective subsurface information faster and allows reliable interpolation to be made between the tested points. It is therefore desirable to generate consistent data from resistivity measurements by using empirical relationships while only few zones of interest will require testing. This study, therefore, developed empirical relationships between electrical resistivity sounding and cone penetrometer test data for engineering site investigation using a case study from the Basement Complex Terrain of Southwestern Nigeria. Regression analysis was used to assess the correlation between the soil resistivity and cone resistance and the validity of the empirical relation was evaluated by comparing values estimated from the soil resistivity vs. cone resistance cross plot with field values obtained from cone penetration tests. The values of allowable bearing pressure computed by using both values in Meyerhof’s equation were also compared with the allowable bearing capacity deduced with laboratory values of soil strength parameters (cohesion, angle of internal friction, soil unit weight) in Terzaghi’s general formula. The results show close agreement between the measured and estimated values with the differences typically less than 10%. The standard errors of the estimates for the cone resistance and allowable bearing capacity are 2.70 and 4.16 respectively, implying reliability of the estimates. The proposed empirical relationships, therefore, appear to provide reasonable estimation of soil cone resistance and allowable bearing capacity from soil resistivity. Few complimentary cone penetrometer and laboratory tests will thus be required while the cost and duration of site investigation for engineering structures are expected to reduce.
B. L Olajiire-Ajayi
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/1202.70.0190

Abstract:
The high cost of purchasing inorganic fertilizer and its impacts on the soil and the environment remains a major concern in environmental management. Consequently, there is the need to explore other ways to enhance soil fertility. The study investigated the effects of Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. and Gliricidia sepium (Jacq) charcoal powders on the growth of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq). Benth seedlings. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 13 treatments and 9 replicates each. Seeds were sowed directly into polyethene pots while the various treatments were added a week after sowing seeds. Watering was done daily while weeding was done periodically. Growth parameters of seedling height (cm), stem diameter (mm) and leaf count were assessed weekly for 16weeks. Data collected was subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at 5% level of significance while the means were separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The result obtained showed that 15g of Gliricidia sepium charcoal powder + 2kg of topsoil) performed best in height and leaf production with values of 15.85cm and 20.58 respectively.5g of Bambusa vulgaris charcoal powder + 2kg of topsoil) performed best with the value of 0.41mm for stem diameter.2kg of topsoil had the least performance for all parameter assessed. The ANOVA result showed that there was significant difference at P>0.5 among the treatments at 5% level of probability in terms of plant height, stem diameter, leaf production. The study concludes that the addition of charcoalas soil additive enhanced growth of Parkia biglobosa seedling at nursery stage.
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