LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2651-5628 / 2714-3988
Published by: Lujosh Ventures Limited (10.36108)
Total articles ≅ 93

Latest articles in this journal

O. O. Elemile, O. P. Folorunso
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 6; doi:10.36108/laujoces/1202.60.0210

In this study, the effects of boundary influence on flow characteristics of Rivers Ala and Orisa were investigated. Soil samples were collected from three points each from both rivers namely Glory Parish Area (GPA), Olusola Oke Area (OOA) and Fiwasaye; Aran-Orin Area (AOA), Rore and Omu-Aran on Rivers Ala and Orisa Respectively. A MGG/KL-DCB Portable Electromagnetic Velocity Meter was used to measure the in-situ readings of discharge and velocity at the various points. The sediments collected from the sampling points were placed in the Flume in the Hydraulic Laboratory of Civil Engineering Department, Landmark University. The Flume was then set with the measured parameter (Discharge) for each sampling point to apply the Flume to determine the Velocity for both Rivers at slopes of 0.008 to 0.056 respectively. The velocities obtained at the different slopes were inserted into Manning’s Coefficient equation to obtain the flow characteristics. The relationship between the velocity and Manning’s Coefficient was determined using the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. All analyses were done at P-value less than 0.05 level of significance. The velocity varied between 0.0237± 0.0004 and 0.0587± 0.0004 m/s; 0.0542± 0.0004 and 0.0701± 0.0003m/s and 0.0789± 0.0005 and 0.0172± 0.1323m/s for GPA, OOA and Fiwasaye for Ala River and between 0.0751± 0.0007 and 0.1008± 0.0006m/s; 0.0628± 0.0007 and 0.0839± 0.0004m/s and 0.0421± 0.0005 and 0.1076± 0.0004m/s for AOA, Rore and Omu-Aran for Orisa River. The results of the effects of soil boundary influence showed that the velocity was inversely proportional with the Mannings’ coefficient at all sampling points of both rivers if the geometry of the river channel is kept constant. This indicates that areas with high velocities are prone to flooding. Further studies should be carried out on more sampling points on the rivers to confirm flow characteristics of the rivers.
O.O. Akinkurolere
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 6; doi:10.36108/laujoces/1202.60.0201

Concrete durability, especially in water-logged environments might not be possible with conventional constituents of concrete. A combination of mineral and chemical admixtures in different proportions is used to study water absorption, sorptivity, and permeability behavior of concrete. The water absorption, sorptivity, and permeability test were carried out using nine (9) trial mixes of different proportions of Calcined Clay (CC), Sawdust Ash (SDA), Crystalline Based Admixture (CBA), and Superplasticizer (SP). The results showed that treating concrete with 5% CC + 5% SDA+1% CBA combination gives optimum performance in terms of sorptivity with reduced water absorption value of 4.60%. While the permeability coefficient of concrete is reduced when CC and SDA are added to concrete mix separately, the reactivity between their combination (CC and SDA) significantly increased permeability coefficient of the concrete. The study demonstrates that production of concrete with the right proportions of admixture and pozzolanas improve the durability of concrete structures.
Olaniyi Segun Ojo, Fidelis Monday Idieunmah
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 6; doi:10.36108/laujoces/1202.60.0240

Timbers are used as structural members in various areas of construction works. Hence the knowledge of properties of wood especially strength and factors affecting the strength of timber is very important. This study was conducted to determine the effect of age on the structural strength of timber. The wood species studied are Iroko (Chlorophora excelsa), Nigerian Mahogany (Khaya anthotheca) and Ita (Celtis mildbraedii). The age of timber were determined by counting the number of annual growth rings, which is the combination of early wood and late wood and samples of different ages of timber, were obtained by personal visit to the forest where fresh timber was cut. The samples obtained were machined and trimmed to standard size with respect to BS 373 1957 (imprint 1999), 20mm X 20mm X 60mm for the determination of maximum compressive strength parallel to grain (MCS//), 20mm X 20mm X 20mm for static shear strength and 20mm X 20mm X 300mm to determine the bending strength. The samples obtained were carried to the laboratory at Forestry Research Institutes of Nigeria (FRIN) in Ibadan for testing using Instron Tensiometer machine. SPSS was used to analyze the relationship between strength and age of timber. The result obtained showed that the maximum compressive and Shear strength for Iroko, were at 120years, whereas it has maximum bending strength at 70years. Nigeria Mahogany and Ita has maximum compressive, bending and shear strength at 80 years, and 70 years respectively and among the three timber samples Ita is better in compression and shear strength and iroko is better in bending strength. It was concluded that age of timber has significant influence on timber strength
D. O Adeoye, O.O Odunola, S. B. Oladimeji
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 6; doi:10.36108/laujoces/1202.60.0250

The study examined a review of literature on African cultural belief on housing development and ownership by women, barrier and ways for management. Studies on gender and housing have focused on roles of women in housing development and involvement in decision making. The paper observed that in development of housing, women face challenges as cultural factors affect involvement in housing developments processes. Also, socio-cultural and traditional practices, norms and beliefs inhibit women’s engagement in housing developments processes. The study recommends government policies should be enacted to encourage female participants in housing development processes and patience is needed to achieve the desired goals in order to make urban housing development acceptable for both men and women.
K. A. Abdulraheem
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 6; doi:10.36108/laujoces/1202.60.0220

The effects of fire on soil properties have been widely studied in different ecosystems globally. However, only limited studies exist in the savanna tropics of Africa with mostly inconsistent results. The objective of this study is to characterize the effects of different fire intensities on soil properties in the Guinea Savannah of Nigeria through laboratory experiments. Three different grass species (Eleusine indica, Cynodon dactylon and Imperata cylindrica) and soils were collected from the forest zone of the University of Ilorin and prepared for laboratory investigation. Experimental fires were simulated in the laboratory to replicate field burning conditions on the prepared plots to determine precise effects of fire on soil properties. Three fire treatments (low, moderate and high) were considered, while the pre-burning and post burning samples of soils were taken for laboratory investigation, and the results statistically analyzed. The pH was observed to have increased between the range of 7.92 to 8.37. The average percentage decrease in organic matter content is 5%, 33% and 69% for low, moderate and high fire intensities, respectively. For total nitrogen, 8%, 16%, and 19% increase; calcium, 17%, 117% and 283% increase; magnesium, 11%, 30% and 84% increase; sodium, 7%, 20% and 54% increase; potassium, 24%, 20% and 49% decrease; available phosphorus, 8%, 18% and 29% increase. The results show the impacts of prescribed fire in the management of savanna ecosystem..
P. H. Kumaraiah
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 6; doi:10.36108/laujoces/1202.60.0280

Recently, low-cost adsorbents from sustainable sources are required for the remediation of textile wastewater. Carbonized Orange Peels (COPs) was utilized in remediating colour, Zinc and Copper from textile wastewater. The initial and final pH, colour and trace metals’ composition of the wastewater used were determined for the adsorption processes. Batch adsorption experiment was carried out on COPs and textile wastewater’s mixture to find effects of COP’s dosage, agitation, pH and contact time on the colour, Zinc and Copper’s removal from the wastewater. The adsorption isotherms and kinetic studies were conducted using Langmuir, Freundlich, Pseudo-first-order and Pseudo-second-order models. Findings established that the optimum removal of colour, Zinc and Copper respectively occurred at an adsorbent dosage of 2.5, 0.5 and 3.0 g/100ml, pH of 10, 4 and 2, rotating speed of 100, 250 and 250 rpm, contact time of 40, 60, and 40 mins. The adsorption isotherms revealed only copper adsorption as optimum and well fitted Langmuir isotherm. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model best suited adsorption data of the colour and metal ions with high correlation coefficient (R2) exceeding 0.95. Conclusively, COPs is effective in remediating the colour, copper and zinc from the wastewater, thus, recommended as suitable adsorbent for treatment of textile wastewater
Julius Olujimi, Temitope Akinbode, Ibraihim Badawi
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 6; doi:10.36108/laujoces/1202.60.0290

Environmental conditions of abattoirs in Minna, Nigeria was examined by assessing the level of facilities available, the extent of environmental damages, and the implications of operational activities of the abattoirs on the neighbouring communities. Multi-stage sampling technique was used for the questionnaire administration. Field data were collected by administering two different sets of structured questionnaires to abattoir operators and residents around the sampled abattoirs. In-situ observations and photographs of interesting scenarios were taken to support part of the findings. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics. The findings revealed that most of the abattoirs were inadequately equipped, un-hygienically managed and weakly regulated, which resulted to negative environmental impacts on the neighbouring land uses. Proper management, improvement on the design of the abattoir and ensuring good regulatory policies among others were suggested to reduce the negative impacts of the abattoirs.
J.O. Ige, W.M Raheem
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 6; doi:10.36108/laujoces/1202.60.0213

The study is a methodological approach to measuring crime in distressed cluster in different geographic resolutions in Oke-Ogun Region of Oyo State with a view to examining spatial variation in crime concentration in the area. Crime reports of Oke-Ogun Region were collated from the Nigeria Police records on eighteen typologies of crime categorised in police blotter into crime against person and property from 2005 to 2015. Analytical techniques adapted to examine crime concentration were Zscore and Location Quotient of Crime (LQC). For the purpose of having the real picture of crime concentration as one moves across different spatial scales of settlements, settlements in the area were spatially disaggregated into three levels; urban, semi urban and rural settlements. Analysis with the use of Z-score showed that store breaking and arson for crime against property and murder for crime against person were more concentrated in rural settlements than every other crime type relatively. House breaking for crime against property, and breach of peace for crime against person were more concentrated in semi urban settlements, while burglary for crime against property, rape and indecent assault and unnatural offence for crime against person were conspicuously concentrated in urban settlements. Concentration of property crime therefore decreases as one move from rural areas to urban areas with Z scores of -1.15, 0.33 and 1.84 in urban, semi urban and rural areas respectively. However, the concentration of crime against person increases as one move from rural areas through semi urban to urban settlement, with Z scores of 4.06, 0.56 and -3.72 in urban, semi urban and rural areas respectively. Further analysis with LQC was done, and it was observed that rural settlements had (LQC =0.98) a disproportionately low share of 2% of crimes against person relative to urban settlement and that armed robbery, arson and false pretense / cheating are endemic nature of both semi urban and rural settlements. The study concluded that the cluster of aggregated crime types conformed to regular spatial pattern with declining crime cluster as one move from urban areas through semi urban to rural settlement.
J. O. Jeje
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 6; doi:10.36108/laujoces/1202.60.0212

This research centres on the study of the filtration and backwashing operations of the filtration unit of the Opa Waterworks and a detailed laboratory study of the filtration and backwashing characteristics of the filter medium being used at the treatment plant. A detailed study of the filtration unit of Opa Waterworks was undertaken with particular emphasis placed on the estimation of the volume of water used during backwashing, the backwashing procedure and the average backwashing time. Specific properties of the filter medium used in the gravity filter such as porosity, density, equivalent density, specific gravity and unhindered settling velocity were investigated in the laboratory. The backwashing properties of the filter medium was also studied using the DSF (Dynamic Shape Factor) and Sphericity models and the predicted results obtained were compared to the actual laboratory results. Based on works carried out, the volume of wash-water required for the gravity filters was estimated as 14,200 litres (14.2 m3) which is about 3.12% of the total volume of the clear water tank, with an outflow rate of 0.01 m3/s. The accuracy of the Blake – Kozeny equation in predicting head loss across a filter bed using clean water runs was investigated and found to be reasonably accurate, and the prediction errors
N. A. Musa, G. K. Ojo, F. Oladele
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 6; doi:10.36108/laujoces/1202.60.0211

Effective training through selection of suitable methods is imperative for students to acquire necessary skills and competences required for employment. Suitability of the methods adopted for training the students the use of dedicated quantity surveying software packages is in doubt due to the increasing rate of unemployment among the graduates. Hence, this paper examined the methods adopted for training the students with a view to determining their suitability. Primary data were obtained through questionnaires administered virtually through email and WhatsApp social medium due to COVID-19 pandemic on the total population of 21 lecturers responsible for training the students in the 20 fully accredited tertiary institutions in the country. In addition, secondary data were obtained from the end of the semester students’ raw score sheets of the ICT courses from the lecturers’ records. A total of 18 properly completed questionnaires representing 85.7% return rate, were received via email and WhatsApp social medium. The data obtained were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics such as means, percentages, and Cramer’s V test using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25. The results obtained revealed that the lecturers were not academically qualified in both ICT and pedagogy thus playing roles they were not trained for. It further revealed that the lecturers were adopting only two forms of traditional training method (Lecture and Discussion) which could not produce the required learning outcome. Thus, the study concluded that the adopted methods of training were unsuitable and recommended capacity building in both ICT and Teaching for the lecturers.
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