LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2651-5628 / 2714-3988
Published by: Lujosh Ventures Limited (10.36108)
Total articles ≅ 119
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G. A Adebayo, L. A. Jimoda, Sonibare
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/2202.80.0170

Abstract:
This paper examined the impact of particulate matter (PM) along the Ibadan-Ilorin highway of Nigeria. The study was conducted in Ogbomoso-section of Ibadan-Ilorin highway of Nigeria at three different locations for the wet and dry seasons. The GT-321 particle counter was used to measure the PM. It has five selectable size ranges of 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 micron. The result of investigation showed that PM0.3 had highest percentage concentration values (87 – 96%) in all the selected location and in both seasons. The results of the research work showed that selected location and season had impact on the emission rate of the particle. All the selected sizes of PM had values more than ISO classes 1 -7 maximum concentrations limit. The study concludes that transport-related pollution is indeed significant within the study area with possible severe health consequences.
A. G. Adeogun
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/2202.80.0101

Abstract:
Watershed delineation is a required step when conducting any spatially distributed hydrological modelling. The prediction of water quality parameters in a basin entails delineation of watershed into different number of sub-basins. Thus, this research evaluated effects of watershed delineation on the prediction of water quality parameters in Gaa Akanbi area of Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria. The objectives are to model and predict water quality parameters in the watershed; delineate the selected watershed in various numbers of sub-basins and study the effects of watershed delineation in the prediction of water quality parameters of the basin. For proper implementation of this study, Geographical Information System (GIS) software, physically based watershed model – Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and other data processing software were used. Since the model is physically based, the surface properties (i.e. Digital Elevation Model (DEM), stream network, digital soil map, digital land use and land cover map, climatic and hydrological data) served as input in the model. The model was daily for a period of 30 years (i.e. January 1991 to December, 2020). The results showed that the watershed was successfully delineated to 3,7,11,21,32,53 sub-basins. Also, it was noted that the predicted values of water quality parameters (Nitrate, organic phosphorus and sediment concentration) are directly proportional to increase in the number of sub-basins delineated in the watershed.
R. O. Yusuf
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/2202.80.0190

Abstract:
The impact of anthropogenic activities in the airshed of a major Nigerian university community was evaluated in this study. Particulate matter (PM1.0, PM2.5, PM10 and TSP) concentration loads were measured in 20 sampling locations and the measured data was correlated with the prevailing microclimatic parameters using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) techniques. A high concentration of PM was measured in locations where the bulk of vehicular movements, and commercial and students activities were considerably high. The university’s main entrance was another hotspot for particulate matter emission due to the constant influx of vehicles during peak periods. The 8-hr average concentrations for the TSP, PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 in all the sample locations were 210.35, 15.45, 25.10, and 137.09 respectively while the 24-hr average concentrations for the TSP, PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 in the same locations were 154.65, 11.36, 18.46, and 100.79 respectively. Exposure to high PM rates was significant especially when there is increased pollution due to exhaust and non-exhaust emissions (like brake wear, dust resuspension, and tyre wear).
G. M Amusan
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/2202.80.0130

Abstract:
The quantities of waste generation in Nigeria have increased significantly; posing greater risk to public health owing to indecent manner of disposal. Some solid wastes had been recycled; however, studies on scrap rubber tyre have not been fully exhausted. This research therefore investigated the flexural behaviour of concrete produced using scrap rubber tyre as partial replacement of coarse aggregate. Scrap Rubber Tyres (SRT) were chopped into smaller sizes; with 19 mm maximum size and used to partially replace coarse aggregate within 0 to 12% at 3% interval. The constituents were batched by weight. 45 concrete beams of grade 20 were cast and cured for 7, 28 and 90 days. Flexural strength behaviour of the specimens was tested; and the 0% SRT concrete serves as control. Data were analysed using Analysis of Variance at 5% Significance level. The slump and compacting factor of the fresh concrete ranged from 29-100 mm and 89-99%, respectively. The flexural strength of the rubberized concrete at 28 days were 21.3, 14.0, 13.2, 12.2, and 13.3 N/mm2. Rubberized concrete at 3% partial replacement can be useful for light weight structural members. The scrap rubber tyres possess significant potentials which could advance its utilization under improve technology.
A. A. Salihu, Y. Ibrahim, S. Muhammad
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/2202.80.0110

Abstract:
Productivity is the dominating aspect in construction as it encourages cost savings and effective utilization of resources. Poor labour productivity is one of the major causes of cost and time overrun in construction projects and as such requires attention. Previous studies have identified factors affecting labour productivity within building projects, however, there is need to understand these factors as it relates to their impact on cost and time. In view of this, the paper aimed at assessing the impact of factors affecting labour productivity on cost and time, with a view to minimizing their effects on construction projects. The study elicits knowledge gained by project managers actively engaged in construction projects within Abuja been the Federal Capital Territory and employed the use of a survey. A well-structured questionnaire was designed to collect data with respect to degree of impact of labour productivity factors on construction project cost, and time using a five-point Likert scale and distributed to 45 project managers using purposive sampling. Responses from the administered questionnaires were collated, interpreted, and analysed using descriptive statistics, and results presented in tables. The findings showed that material shortage at project site with a mean value of 3.68 had significant impact on construction project cost. Furthermore, lack of tools and equipment in the market, and workforce absenteeism with mean values of 3.65 and 3.62 respectively had significant impacts on construction project time. The study concludes that material shortage, lack of tools and equipment in the market, and workforce absenteeism are labour productivity factors that had significant impact on construction project cost and time. Thus, Construction managers should enforce the use of material supply schedule, and adopt appropriate financial incentives for employee’s that could curtail the problem of absenteeism.
R. O. Yusuf
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/2202.80.0180

Abstract:
Market activities emit pollutants that have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This study assessed various sizes of ambient particulate matter (PM) and the distribution of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in deposited particulates within some major marketplaces in Ilorin, Nigeria. Particulates fractions were measured at ten (10) foremost markets (MP1–MP10). PTEs in the deposited particulates were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The health and ecological risks of PTEs were evaluated for adults and children. The Life Cancer Risk (LCR) for Pb was the most prevalent of the carcinogenic PTEs detected in all the markets studied, with the highest risks at MP1 for adults (3.45E-04) and children (3.22E-03). The LCR values obtained for Pb surpassed the statutory allowable baseline set by USEPA. The Hazard Index (HI) obtained was within the safe limit in most markets except for Pb which recorded HI > 1 at MP1, MP3, MP6, MP7, and MP10 with values of 3.29, 1.10, 1.10, 2.74 and 1.28, respectively for children, indicating unacceptable non-carcinogenic risk. Estimation of Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) indicated low to moderate threat in the polluted dust of markets with MP4 bringing the highest risk concerning Cd (100) and Cu (70), both contributing 77% of total ecological risks (ERs) of the PTEs.
S. Olatunji, U. Issa, J. Ajadi
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/2202.80.0150

Abstract:
Dar-Zarouk parameters namely longitudinal conductance, transverse unit resistance, longitudinal resistivity, traverse resistivity, and coefficient of anisotropy, derived from electrical resistivity soundings, were employed in the western and south western portions of Sheet 223 Ilorin NW, Southwestern Nigeria to evaluate the subsurface water prospect. This is aimed at determining the potentiality and vulnerability of groundwater in the area. The longitudinal conductance values obtained range from 0.027 S at VES 3 in the north, indicating the poorest protective capacity, to 26440.95 S at VES 157 in the south, indicating the highest protectivity. Thus, the protective capacity rating of the study area shows very poorly, weak, moderate, good, and excellent ratings at VES stations 10, 12, 9, 2, and 178 respectively. The total transverse resistance range is 8.6 – 32733.87 Ωm2, with the lowest at VES 206 in the southeastern part, indicating high prospects, and the highest at VES 47 in the northern part of the area, indicating poor prospect. The lowest longitudinal resistivity (0.1951 Ωm), indicating high potential as well, occurs at the southern part and while the highest value of 8095.63 Ωm is obtained at the northern part.Furthermore, the coefficient of anisotropy in the area ranges between 0.029 and 5349.78. The south-western boreholes have values that fall between the standard range of 1.39-1.66, indicating that those areas have boreholes with high productivity. In conclusion, most parts of the study area have excellent protective capacities and high potentiality.
D. N. Kolo, J. O. Enwongulu
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/2202.80.0120

Abstract:
Concrete is an assemblage of Cement, aggregates and water. The most frequently used fine aggregate for concrete production is sand sourced from river banks. The continuous use of this river sand as a result of rapid infrastructural development has resulted in its scarcity and often high cost. This paper examines the suitability of using quarry dust (QD) as partial replacement for fine aggregate in concrete production. Preliminary test (specific gravity) was conducted on the aggregates to determine their suitability for concrete production. Concrete with 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% QD – Fine aggregate content was cast with a mix ratio of 1:2:4. The freshly prepared Quarry Dust Concrete (QDC) was cast in moulds measuring 150 x 150 x 150mm and cured using ponding method. The Compressive strength result shows that replacement of fine aggregate with QD leads to a general increase in compressive strength of concrete. Statistical package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 was utilised to develop the linear regression models for the 7 and 28 days compressive strength of the QDC. The developed models were found to be sufficient in predicting the 7 and 28 days compressive strengths with R2 values of 98.9% and 95.2 % respectively.
N. A Lamidi
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/2202.80.0140

Abstract:
In Nigeria recently, less-used timber species have been introduced into the main stream of timber markets, as a relief for over-exploitation of well-known species that are going into extinction due to over-exploitation for construction purposes. This study successfully classified four timber species grown in Nigeria into different strength classes in accordance with EN338, such as Ako-(Brachystegia eurycoma), Ara-(Pterocarpus erinarceus), Obobo-(Guarea cedrata) and Epuu-(Ricinodendron heudelotii) timber species. These timbers were obtained from famous timber market in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. All timber specimens used for physical and mechanical tests were prepared and tested in accordance with EN 13183-1 and EN 408 for structural timber. Four- point bending test was used for determining the bending strength and modulus of elasticity of each specimen using Universal Testing Machine. Characteristic values of the bending strength, modulus of elasticity and density were determined. The average moisture content of Ako, Ara, Obobo and Epuu were 11.78, 12.71, 23 and 24 %, respectively. Timber classification was conducted after properties values adjusted to 12 % moisture content as specified by EN 384. For density, Ako had the highest of 747.26 kg/m3 density followed by Ara and Obobo and Epuu had the lowest density of 481.71 and 477.15 kg/m3and also assigned to strength classes D 50, D 24, D 18 and C 16 respectively, in accordance with EN 338.
Ogungbesan, K. A. Sanni
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/2202.80.0111

Abstract:
Hydrochemistry of the surface water in Oba Dam, Ogbomoso was investigated to determine the chemical characteristic and evaluate the water quality for drinking, domestic and agricultural usage. Twenty selected water samples collected at different points within the reservoir were analysed for pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Hardness (TH) and major ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, HCO3). The pH values (6.5-7.9) of the samples suggest circumneutral to weakly alkaline nature of the water in Oba Dam. The cations are dominantly Na+ and K+, while the anions are mainly NO3-, Cl- and SO42-. The plot of the chemical data in Piper diagram revealed the water samples as Na-K-Cl water facie suggesting that the water chemistry is being controlled mainly by anthropogenic inputs. Comparing the analysed water samples with WHO and Nigerian water quality standards shows that all the chemical parameters were within the desirable limits for drinking purpose. Similarly, the computed water quality index (WQI) values (15-21) for the studied water samples suggest excellent quality for drinking and domestic purposes. Calculated parameters like sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), percent sodium (%Na) and Keller index (K1) reveal that most of the analysed water samples are suitable for irrigation usage. However, higher Na+ content of few samples restrict the suitability for irrigation purposes. Therefore, this calls for regular monitoring of sodium contents to ascertain suitability for agricultural irrigation.
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