LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2651-5628 / 2714-3988
Current Publisher: Lujosh Ventures Limited (10.36108)
Total articles ≅ 76
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O. O. Elemile, O. P. Folorunso
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 6; doi:10.36108/laujoces/1202.60.0210

Abstract:
In this study, the effects of boundary influence on flow characteristics of Rivers Ala and Orisa were investigated. Soil samples were collected from three points each from both rivers namely Glory Parish Area (GPA), Olusola Oke Area (OOA) and Fiwasaye; Aran-Orin Area (AOA), Rore and Omu-Aran on Rivers Ala and Orisa Respectively. A MGG/KL-DCB Portable Electromagnetic Velocity Meter was used to measure the in-situ readings of discharge and velocity at the various points. The sediments collected from the sampling points were placed in the Flume in the Hydraulic Laboratory of Civil Engineering Department, Landmark University. The Flume was then set with the measured parameter (Discharge) for each sampling point to apply the Flume to determine the Velocity for both Rivers at slopes of 0.008 to 0.056 respectively. The velocities obtained at the different slopes were inserted into Manning’s Coefficient equation to obtain the flow characteristics. The relationship between the velocity and Manning’s Coefficient was determined using the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. All analyses were done at P-value less than 0.05 level of significance. The velocity varied between 0.0237± 0.0004 and 0.0587± 0.0004 m/s; 0.0542± 0.0004 and 0.0701± 0.0003m/s and 0.0789± 0.0005 and 0.0172± 0.1323m/s for GPA, OOA and Fiwasaye for Ala River and between 0.0751± 0.0007 and 0.1008± 0.0006m/s; 0.0628± 0.0007 and 0.0839± 0.0004m/s and 0.0421± 0.0005 and 0.1076± 0.0004m/s for AOA, Rore and Omu-Aran for Orisa River. The results of the effects of soil boundary influence showed that the velocity was inversely proportional with the Mannings’ coefficient at all sampling points of both rivers if the geometry of the river channel is kept constant. This indicates that areas with high velocities are prone to flooding. Further studies should be carried out on more sampling points on the rivers to confirm flow characteristics of the rivers.
O.O. Akinkurolere
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 6; doi:10.36108/laujoces/1202.60.0201

Abstract:
Concrete durability, especially in water-logged environments might not be possible with conventional constituents of concrete. A combination of mineral and chemical admixtures in different proportions is used to study water absorption, sorptivity, and permeability behavior of concrete. The water absorption, sorptivity, and permeability test were carried out using nine (9) trial mixes of different proportions of Calcined Clay (CC), Sawdust Ash (SDA), Crystalline Based Admixture (CBA), and Superplasticizer (SP). The results showed that treating concrete with 5% CC + 5% SDA+1% CBA combination gives optimum performance in terms of sorptivity with reduced water absorption value of 4.60%. While the permeability coefficient of concrete is reduced when CC and SDA are added to concrete mix separately, the reactivity between their combination (CC and SDA) significantly increased permeability coefficient of the concrete. The study demonstrates that production of concrete with the right proportions of admixture and pozzolanas improve the durability of concrete structures.
Olaniyi Segun Ojo, Fidelis Monday Idieunmah
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 6; doi:10.36108/laujoces/1202.60.0240

Abstract:
Timbers are used as structural members in various areas of construction works. Hence the knowledge of properties of wood especially strength and factors affecting the strength of timber is very important. This study was conducted to determine the effect of age on the structural strength of timber. The wood species studied are Iroko (Chlorophora excelsa), Nigerian Mahogany (Khaya anthotheca) and Ita (Celtis mildbraedii). The age of timber were determined by counting the number of annual growth rings, which is the combination of early wood and late wood and samples of different ages of timber, were obtained by personal visit to the forest where fresh timber was cut. The samples obtained were machined and trimmed to standard size with respect to BS 373 1957 (imprint 1999), 20mm X 20mm X 60mm for the determination of maximum compressive strength parallel to grain (MCS//), 20mm X 20mm X 20mm for static shear strength and 20mm X 20mm X 300mm to determine the bending strength. The samples obtained were carried to the laboratory at Forestry Research Institutes of Nigeria (FRIN) in Ibadan for testing using Instron Tensiometer machine. SPSS was used to analyze the relationship between strength and age of timber. The result obtained showed that the maximum compressive and Shear strength for Iroko, were at 120years, whereas it has maximum bending strength at 70years. Nigeria Mahogany and Ita has maximum compressive, bending and shear strength at 80 years, and 70 years respectively and among the three timber samples Ita is better in compression and shear strength and iroko is better in bending strength. It was concluded that age of timber has significant influence on timber strength
D. O Adeoye, O.O Odunola, S. B. Oladimeji
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 6; doi:10.36108/laujoces/1202.60.0250

Abstract:
The study examined a review of literature on African cultural belief on housing development and ownership by women, barrier and ways for management. Studies on gender and housing have focused on roles of women in housing development and involvement in decision making. The paper observed that in development of housing, women face challenges as cultural factors affect involvement in housing developments processes. Also, socio-cultural and traditional practices, norms and beliefs inhibit women’s engagement in housing developments processes. The study recommends government policies should be enacted to encourage female participants in housing development processes and patience is needed to achieve the desired goals in order to make urban housing development acceptable for both men and women.
D.O Adeoye
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 6; doi:10.36108/laujoces/1202.60.0260

Abstract:
Access to housing finance by all income groups is essential for the provision of adequate shelter for all. The study examined the mechanisms for financing incremental housing for the low and moderate income households in Ibadan, Nigeria and their effectiveness with a view to providing information that could inform policy towards effective incremental housing delivery in the study area. Primary data was collected with the use of questionnaire from 742 respondents from 4 randomly selected suburban local government areas of Ibadan, Nigeria. Two sets of questionnaires were used to obtain the data needed for the study. The results of the quantitative data were presented in both descriptive and inferential statistics while qualitative data were contextually reported. The results for housing development of the low and moderate income groups occurred in phases with the incremental process taking as much as 8-12 years for construction while improvement of the existing structure took about five and a half years. Chi-square analysis with values being significant at p<0.05indicated the financing mechanisms for incremental housing construction at the level of foundation (0.007), main structure (0.0005), roofing (0.002) and internal fixtures (0.000) vary significantly with the exception of land purchase and drainage cum sewage stages. Funding for the incremental housing process can be improved if the socio-economic and traditional attributes of the people in the area are promoted. This needs to be encouraged as a way of directing the financing mechanisms devoid of interest rate and default risks to incremental housing.
Z. H Ishaq
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 6; doi:10.36108/laujoces/1202.60.0270

Abstract:
Construction projects are prone to a number of risks due to their complexity, dynamic nature, capital intensive nature and involvement of many stakeholders. These risks if left unmanaged will negatively influence the completion cost and other primary objectives of construction projects. Numerous studies have been conducted globally to determine the potential risks that negatively impacts construction projects; however, the risks aren’t alike across all the regions and the potential degree of impact may changes with time. This study assessed the impact of risk factors on completion cost of construction projects in Nigeria. Data was collected using structured questionnaires administered to 192 construction practitioners using convenience sampling technique. Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) were used to analyse the data. The study found ‘inadequate cost estimate’ (MS = 4.39), ‘risk incurred due to bribery and corruption’ (4.30), ‘increase in prices of materials’ (4.25), ‘increase in cost of labour’’ (4.11), ‘poor cash flow management’ (4.04) ‘mistakes/errors in design’ (4.04) and ‘mistakes during construction’ to be the topmost risk factors that impact on project completion cost. The study concludes that ‘economic’, ‘financial’ and ‘contract administration and project management’ related factors group are those with high impact on project completion cost.
J. O. Jeje
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 6; doi:10.36108/laujoces/1202.60.0212

Abstract:
This research centres on the study of the filtration and backwashing operations of the filtration unit of the Opa Waterworks and a detailed laboratory study of the filtration and backwashing characteristics of the filter medium being used at the treatment plant. A detailed study of the filtration unit of Opa Waterworks was undertaken with particular emphasis placed on the estimation of the volume of water used during backwashing, the backwashing procedure and the average backwashing time. Specific properties of the filter medium used in the gravity filter such as porosity, density, equivalent density, specific gravity and unhindered settling velocity were investigated in the laboratory. The backwashing properties of the filter medium was also studied using the DSF (Dynamic Shape Factor) and Sphericity models and the predicted results obtained were compared to the actual laboratory results. Based on works carried out, the volume of wash-water required for the gravity filters was estimated as 14,200 litres (14.2 m3) which is about 3.12% of the total volume of the clear water tank, with an outflow rate of 0.01 m3/s. The accuracy of the Blake – Kozeny equation in predicting head loss across a filter bed using clean water runs was investigated and found to be reasonably accurate, and the prediction errors
K. A. Abdulraheem
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 6; doi:10.36108/laujoces/1202.60.0220

Abstract:
The effects of fire on soil properties have been widely studied in different ecosystems globally. However, only limited studies exist in the savanna tropics of Africa with mostly inconsistent results. The objective of this study is to characterize the effects of different fire intensities on soil properties in the Guinea Savannah of Nigeria through laboratory experiments. Three different grass species (Eleusine indica, Cynodon dactylon and Imperata cylindrica) and soils were collected from the forest zone of the University of Ilorin and prepared for laboratory investigation. Experimental fires were simulated in the laboratory to replicate field burning conditions on the prepared plots to determine precise effects of fire on soil properties. Three fire treatments (low, moderate and high) were considered, while the pre-burning and post burning samples of soils were taken for laboratory investigation, and the results statistically analyzed. The pH was observed to have increased between the range of 7.92 to 8.37. The average percentage decrease in organic matter content is 5%, 33% and 69% for low, moderate and high fire intensities, respectively. For total nitrogen, 8%, 16%, and 19% increase; calcium, 17%, 117% and 283% increase; magnesium, 11%, 30% and 84% increase; sodium, 7%, 20% and 54% increase; potassium, 24%, 20% and 49% decrease; available phosphorus, 8%, 18% and 29% increase. The results show the impacts of prescribed fire in the management of savanna ecosystem..
P. H. Kumaraiah
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 6; doi:10.36108/laujoces/1202.60.0280

Abstract:
Recently, low-cost adsorbents from sustainable sources are required for the remediation of textile wastewater. Carbonized Orange Peels (COPs) was utilized in remediating colour, Zinc and Copper from textile wastewater. The initial and final pH, colour and trace metals’ composition of the wastewater used were determined for the adsorption processes. Batch adsorption experiment was carried out on COPs and textile wastewater’s mixture to find effects of COP’s dosage, agitation, pH and contact time on the colour, Zinc and Copper’s removal from the wastewater. The adsorption isotherms and kinetic studies were conducted using Langmuir, Freundlich, Pseudo-first-order and Pseudo-second-order models. Findings established that the optimum removal of colour, Zinc and Copper respectively occurred at an adsorbent dosage of 2.5, 0.5 and 3.0 g/100ml, pH of 10, 4 and 2, rotating speed of 100, 250 and 250 rpm, contact time of 40, 60, and 40 mins. The adsorption isotherms revealed only copper adsorption as optimum and well fitted Langmuir isotherm. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model best suited adsorption data of the colour and metal ions with high correlation coefficient (R2) exceeding 0.95. Conclusively, COPs is effective in remediating the colour, copper and zinc from the wastewater, thus, recommended as suitable adsorbent for treatment of textile wastewater
Julius Olujimi, Temitope Akinbode, Ibraihim Badawi
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 6; doi:10.36108/laujoces/1202.60.0290

Abstract:
Environmental conditions of abattoirs in Minna, Nigeria was examined by assessing the level of facilities available, the extent of environmental damages, and the implications of operational activities of the abattoirs on the neighbouring communities. Multi-stage sampling technique was used for the questionnaire administration. Field data were collected by administering two different sets of structured questionnaires to abattoir operators and residents around the sampled abattoirs. In-situ observations and photographs of interesting scenarios were taken to support part of the findings. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics. The findings revealed that most of the abattoirs were inadequately equipped, un-hygienically managed and weakly regulated, which resulted to negative environmental impacts on the neighbouring land uses. Proper management, improvement on the design of the abattoir and ensuring good regulatory policies among others were suggested to reduce the negative impacts of the abattoirs.
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