LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2651-5628 / 2714-3988
Published by: Lujosh Ventures Limited (10.36108)
Total articles ≅ 108
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B. L Olajiire-Ajayi
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/1202.70.0190

Abstract:
The high cost of purchasing inorganic fertilizer and its impacts on the soil and the environment remains a major concern in environmental management. Consequently, there is the need to explore other ways to enhance soil fertility. The study investigated the effects of Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. and Gliricidia sepium (Jacq) charcoal powders on the growth of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq). Benth seedlings. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 13 treatments and 9 replicates each. Seeds were sowed directly into polyethene pots while the various treatments were added a week after sowing seeds. Watering was done daily while weeding was done periodically. Growth parameters of seedling height (cm), stem diameter (mm) and leaf count were assessed weekly for 16weeks. Data collected was subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at 5% level of significance while the means were separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The result obtained showed that 15g of Gliricidia sepium charcoal powder + 2kg of topsoil) performed best in height and leaf production with values of 15.85cm and 20.58 respectively.5g of Bambusa vulgaris charcoal powder + 2kg of topsoil) performed best with the value of 0.41mm for stem diameter.2kg of topsoil had the least performance for all parameter assessed. The ANOVA result showed that there was significant difference at P>0.5 among the treatments at 5% level of probability in terms of plant height, stem diameter, leaf production. The study concludes that the addition of charcoalas soil additive enhanced growth of Parkia biglobosa seedling at nursery stage.
O. O. Odunola
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/1202.70.0180

Abstract:
This study assesses locational and environmental effects of religious centres on adjourning development in Ibadan South-East Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria. Primary and secondary data were utilized. Geographic coordinates of religious centres were collected using GPS for a location-based mapping and nearest neighbour analysis in ArcGIS 10.3. A Multi-stage sampling technique was employed and systematic sampling procedure was used to administered 210 copies of questionnaires to respondents. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics which were frequency distribution and absolute mean in SPSS. Results showed that the nearest neighbour index (Rn) is 0.01 with critical value of <-2.58, p-value is 0.704138 and the nearest neighbour ratio equals 0.61799. Most religious centres were located without planning development permits and therefore are restricted by law to operate in the residential areas they were sited. Other key findings were based on three indices that were developed which are Proliferation Influencing Index (PII), Environmental Impact Index (EII) and Precaution Measures Index (PMI). The highest PII of 3.82 indicated that the proliferation of religious centres is majorly caused by “beliefs and practices”. An EII of 4.03 showed that environmental impact is highly due to “non-compliance with conditions of existing consents already in place” while “payment of fine by defaulters” with the highest PMI of 3.85 is the most used control measure. This study concludes that religious centres have been encouraged in residential areas by use of fines as against the enforcement of planning regulations as contained appropriately in urban and planning regional law.
J. O Iji
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/1202.70.0160

Abstract:
Sustainable water supply system is a necessity in growing communities. This study identified Governments, NGO’s (Donor and Joint Partnership), and Private Sector (Communities) as the three major promoters of public water supply facilities in a developing country like Nigeria. Secondary data retrieved from the National Water Supply and Sanitation database in the six States of South-West Nigeria was used for the study. The Kruskal-Wallis Test was adopted for the data analysis and description which showed an indication of performance mean rank of promoters. The results indicated that the promoters with highest percentages of operational facilities in the six States are: Communities (ranging between 89% and 100%); and NGO’s which comprises of both Joint Partnership between two or more promoters and Donor (ranging between 75% and 100%, and 56%) respectively. The federal government has the highest percentage of non-operational facilities in five of the six States ranging between 46% and 73%. In the other remaining State (Osun), LGA (Local Government Authority) had the highest percentage of non-operational facilities of 34.1%. There were more operational facilities in 50% of the States compared to the non-operational. The non-operational facilities are grounded due to broken down machines, poor construction or lack of maintenance and supervision.
A. A. Ganiyu
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/1202.70.0170

Abstract:
Subcontracting is widely employed in the construction industry owing to the variation of methods, materials, magnitude, and function of the infrastructures. However, the rapport between parties in construction are mostly adversarial and plagued with hitches, which negatively impact construction productivity. This research investigates the problems associated with subcontracting strategies of contractors in industrial projects in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia via questionnaire survey. The questionnaire contains a list of thirty-three likely problems affecting subcontracting strategy of contractors organised under the three categories of planning, awarding, and contracting issues. The respondents matched the likely problems with the project value drivers (quality, cost, and time) with which they impact, and rated the magnitude of the problems on project performance. The survey identified incompatibility of the subcontractor/supplier’s time schedule with the project’s time schedule as the topmost problem related to planning issues. Unethical practices is ranked highest among problems related to awarding issues, while incompatibility of subcontracts’ terms and conditions with the main contract’s terms and conditions is rated top among the topmost problems related to contracting issues. The findings revealed that the three problem categories have negative impacts on all the project value drivers in different combinations and are almost equally significant in the view of contractors while making subcontracting decisions. Contractors are therefore advised to critically evaluate the schedule, cost, and quality performance of industrial projects during the planning, awarding, and contracting phase of subcontracting in industrial projects.
A. O. Ajayeoba
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/1202.70.0130

Abstract:
Increased rate of noise-associated risk factors such as speech interference and reduction in productivity, necessitated that control and regulation measures be put in place, to contain anthropogenic noise pollution in the students’ hostels. Therefore, this study assessed the various anthropogenic sources of noise pollution in students’ hostels and developed a Sound Level Monitor and Control (SLMC) device. 1250 undergraduate students across 5 students’ residential zones were sampled for demographics and investigations were conducted into respondents’ perceived medical history, identification of noise sources, and evaluation of hearing loss. Effects of noise levels were evaluated using 100 respondents’ rooms per zone following standard procedures, considering Sound-System-Only (SSO), Generators-Only (GO), and combination of Sound-System-and-Generator (SSG), loud-conversations, etc., as sources of noise. However, a noise control device incorporated with a circuit breaker was developed. The respondents were 51.2% male and 48.8% female, with 58% in the age range 18 – 27 years. The medical history showed that 1.2 and 6.4% had a hearing problem in short and long times, respectively, while 43.6% affirmed that SSO was a major noise pollution causal factor. SSO, GO, loud conversations, traffic, and grinding machines were identified as the prominent sources of anthropogenic induced noise. The minimum average SL result gave a value of 62.8400dB for both ventilated and unventilated rooms, which is 14% above 55dB threshold value recommended by the National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency. The developed SLMC device gave notification at the SL above 55dB for 15 seconds before disconnecting the sound system if not regulated.
A. O Yiosese
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/1202.70.0111

Abstract:
In this study, the quality of sandcrete blocks produced along Oke-fomo, a rapidly developing area of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria was investigated. Seven commercial block industries were randomly selected from where five sandcrete block samples of 450 x 225 x 225mm were sourced. Fine aggregate samples were also obtained from each of these industries and transported to the materials laboratory of Ministry of works, Ilorin. The tests carried out include sieve analysis and compressive strength. The dimension of the blocks was also checked. The mix ratio, curing techniques/duration and batching method were obtained through interaction with the block manufacturers. The results obtained showed that the aggregates are suitable for block making having satisfied the overall grading requirement specified in BS EN 12620 (2002). The mix ratio adopted by the industries ranges from 1:12 to 1:14 which is against the standard 1:6 specified in NIS 87:2004. The compressive strength of the sandcrete blocks was found to be below the Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS) 87:2004 specification with an overall highest compressive strength of 0.98N/mm2 when compared with the NIS 2.5 and 3.5N/mm2 for non-load and load bearing walls respectively. The study concluded that block producer should adhere strictly to the laid down standard especially in mix ratio and curing duration. However, it was recommended that formal training should be periodically organized for block industries and the public should also be sensitized about the danger in using substandard sandcrete blocks. This will to a large extent improve the production of quality sandcrete blocks and promote the market for the standardized ones while averting consequences associated with weak sandcrete blocks such as collapse of walls.
A. J Gana, M. F. Amodu
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/1202.70.0150

Abstract:
Water resources sustainability is essential to life because all living things and some non-living things need it to complete their processes. The water usage is rising, hence pressure on the availability, and some instances rose to crisis level. These pressures were due to population growth, increases in irrigated land, deforestation, soil and land degradation, and wastages. Engineering is one of the majors’ components in tackling water resources sustainability. Therefore, this paper reviews the general concepts of sustainable water resources from an engineering and management perspective. The method adopted to realize the aim of the research was a thorough literature review. Engineering has three sub-components, these are Ecological, Economic, and social sustainability. Failure in one of these sub-components is a failure of the component. The literature revealed that Water resources sustainability is a multifaceted discipline therefore, engineering discipline alone would not solve it. However, this paper proffered some recommendations and the way forward. These recommendations are the steps required at the watersheds level, the engineering strategies aspects, and the management strategy. It concluded that a holistic approach where all shareholders will be involved is an ideal approach.
C. C. Osadebe, H. A. Quadri
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/1202.70.0120

Abstract:
The prevalence of flexible pavement deterioration in the country has been adduced largely by highway researchers to trucks or heavy vehicles carrying much in excess of permitted legal limits. This study investigated levels of deterioration of Abuja-Kaduna-Kano road (Northern region) and Port Harcourt-Enugu road (Southern region) caused by heavy vehicles through a 14 day traffic counts conducted at 5 strategic points each in the Northern and Southern regions. Traffic data generated were analyzed with AASHTO Design Guidelines (1993) to evaluate Equivalent Single Axle Loads (ESALs) and Vehicle Damage effects on the road. The Traffic Volume, Average Daily Traffic (ADT), and Heavy Vehicle per day (HV/day) were estimated to be 2,063,977; 147,427; and 12,246 respectively in the Northern region, while in the Southern region they were estimated to be 750,381; 53,670; and 20,951 respectively. Motorcycles, Passenger cars, Mini-buses/Pick-ups, and Heavy vehicles constitute 18.7%, 49.7%, 23.3% and 8.31% of the total traffic volume respectively in the Northern region while in the South they constitute 4.6%, 30.1%, 26.2% and 39.1% respectively. ESALs were estimated according to AASHTO Design Guidelines in the Northern and Southern regions as 547,730 and 836,208 respectively. An average Load Equivalency Factors (LEFs) of 3.43 and 3.02 were estimated for each heavy vehicle plying the Northern and Southern roads respectively and this could explain some failures (alligator cracks, potholes, depressions, linear or longitudinal cracks along the centre line amongst others) inherent on the road.
D. O Adeoye
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/1202.70.0110

Abstract:
Healthy housing is a function of provision of adequate physical, social and mental conditions for healthy environment. It is a function of both intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of housing that can influence human health. Environment and human activities are omen to development. The effects are manifested in generating land use problems such as congestion, sprawl development, incompatible land uses, building alterations and change of uses, the menace of temporary structures, alteration of land use functions, conversion of open and future spaces, and land degradation. Alagbede village is one of the areas that require such development drive. The study is required to facilitate this need. This research effort is to examine the environmental effect of squatter settlements in Alagbede village, Ikeja, Lagos State Nigeria. The paper examined housing conditions in terms of privacy, adequate space, physical accessibility, adequate security, security of tenure, structural stability and durability, adequate lighting, and ventilation, and basic infrastructure (such as water supply, sanitation, and waste management facilities including suitable environmental quality and health related factors and its influence on the residents of Alagbede area, Ikeja Lagos State. Approach includes the development of database and choice of appropriate data source (primary and secondary data sources). From the methodology, there were questionnaire administration, direct interview of respondents, collection and updating of the base maps, and the use of necessary field instrument for the study. The data gathered were analysed using descriptive method. The end result has revealed a number of environmental problems due to the existence of these settlements (Alagbede village). These problems are poor drainage system, noise pollution, illegal refuse dump sites, slum situations etc. Appropriate recommendations in form of short time and long term solutions were suggested to conclude the research work.
K. O. Oriola
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.36108/laujoces/1202.70.0101

Abstract:
The evaluation of agro-industrial by-products as alternative construction materials is becoming more significant as the demand for environmentally friendly construction materials increases. In this study, the workability and compressive strength of concrete produced by combining Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) and Rice Husk Ash (RHA) was investigated. Concrete mixes using a fixed content of 15% RHA as replacement for cement and 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% PKS as replacement for crushed granite by volume with the mix ratios of 1:1½:3, 1:2:4 and 1:3:6 were produced. The water-to-cement ratios of 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 were used for the respective mix ratios. Concrete without PKS and RHA served as control mix. The fresh concrete workability was evaluated through slump test. The concrete hardened properties determined were the density and compressive strength. The results indicated that the workability and density of PKSC were lower than control concrete, and they decreased as the PKS content in each mix ratio was increased. The compressive strength of concrete at 90 days decreased from 27.8-13.1 N/mm2, 23.8-8.9 N/mm2and 20.6-7.6 for 1:1½:3, 1:2:4 and 1:3:6, respectively as the substitution level of PKS increased from 0-100%. However, the compressive strength of concrete increased with curing age and the gain in strength of concrete containing RHA and PKSC were higher than the control at the later age. The concrete containing 15% RHA with up to 40% PKS for 1:1½:3 and 20% PKS for 1:2:4 mix ratios satisfied the minimum strength requirements for structural lightweight aggregate concrete (SLWAC) stipulated by the relevant standards. It can be concluded that the addition of 15% RHA is effective in improving the strength properties of PKSC for eco-friendly SLWAC production..
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