LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2651-5628 / 2714-3988
Current Publisher: Lujosh Ventures Limited (10.36108)
Total articles ≅ 52
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S.I Shaibu, O.O Morenikeji, O.O Idowu, S Medayese, C.B Ohadugha, M. S Oliver, M. Y. Jimoh
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 5, pp 18-27; doi:10.36108/laujoces/0202/50(0130)

Abstract:
Education is the key to development in any society and it is true that the educational institutions in any given society reflect the standard of living and the attitudes towards life of that society. This study presents a spatial framework of public primary schools in Munya Local Government Area of Niger state with the specific objectives of identifying the various public primary schools in the study area, attempt a spatial mapping and distribution pattern of the schools; determine spatial equity and accessibility of pupils to the schools and finally to advance appropriate planning policy measures to resolve the identified problems. The main sources of data for the study are through the primary and secondary sources. The location quotient, distributional equity, Gini co – efficient and P – median techniques were used for data analysis. It is observed that primary school’s provision has surpassed the maximum required in the area. It is therefore recommended that there should be be guided in the sitting of future schools, while maintenance of the existing ones should be pursued to sustain the likely future growth in school’s enrolment. Furthermore, the establishment of future public schools should be based on threshold population in the study area.
, I. M. Kanyi
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 5, pp 60-72; doi:10.36108/laujoces/0202/50(0170)

Abstract:
A reddish-brown lateritic soil obtained from Zaria; Nigeria was treated with up to 2.5% nano-silica. Consolidation properties (i.e. Pre-consolidation pressure, compression index, coefficient of volume compressibility and coefficient of consolidation) of treated specimens were assessed using one dimensional consolidation test. The permeability property of treated soil was also evaluated. The results obtained showed that the pre-consolidation pressure generally increased with increasing percentage of nano-silica content and curing time. The compression index (Cc) increased steadily with higher percentage of nano-silica contents up to 2.5% treatment for 7 and 14 days of curing, but decreased after 28 days curing period. The recompression index (Cr) on the other hand generally increased with increase percentage of nano-silica content and curing period. The coefficient of volume compressibility (Mv) did not follow any definite trend, but at 2.5% nano-silica content, the Mv decreased for all curing periods considered. The coefficient of consolidation (Cv) also, did not give a definite trend with increase in nano-silica content, suggesting that increasing the amount of nano-silica content in the soil has little or no impact on the time rate of settlement. The coefficient of permeability (k) decreased as the soil was treated with nano-silica especially beyond loading pressure of 40kN/m2. This study showed that nano-silica (up to 2.5%) can be used to stabilize lateritic soil to improve its consolidation properties.
, M.A Anifowose, R. Abdulwahab, W.O. Oduoye
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 5, pp 131-145; doi:10.36108/laujoces/0202/50(0131)

Abstract:
Consideration on High Performance Concrete (HPC) has risen drastically because of the requirement for application of concrete volume with high strengths for construction work. In this study, the mechanical properties of HPC with Guinea Corn Husk Ash (GCHA) as supplement of cement was investigated. The proportioning of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with GCHA is from 0 - 20%. Design of the concrete mix was done to achieve a characteristic strength of 50 N/mm². The chemical composition of the GCHA was determined using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Slump and compacting factor of fresh HPC were determined. Concrete cubes (for compressive strength), beams (for flexural strength) and cylinder (for split tensile strength) samples were cast and cured in water for 7 - 56 days. Density, compressive, flexural, and split tensile strengths were determined on the hardened HPC and were further examined using SEM analysis. Compressive strength at 56 days showed that control and inclusion of 5% GCHA gave strength 56.85 N/mm2 and 57.76 N/mm2, respectively above the designed target strength of 56.56 N/mm2 while inclusion of 10% GCHA met characteristics strength of 50 N/mm2. However, 5% GCHA-concrete had the highest flexural and split tensile strengths at 56 days of curing. Integration of 10% GCHA as replacement of OPC would produce concrete of higher strengths compared to conventional HPC at longer curing age. Based on the SEM results, uniform distribution of filler was obtained at 10% GCHA inclusion. At higher percentage of GCHA, resulting composite presents multiple and distinct grains with possible weak interfaces.
A. C. Apata,
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 5, pp 146-153; doi:10.36108/laujoces/0202/50(0141)

Abstract:
In this study, the geochemical analysis of the subgrade at different locations of Ilaro-Papalanto highway was conducted using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD). The predominant oxides present in both soil samples are Silicon Oxide (40% - 45%) and Aluminium Oxide (31% - 34%), and the average silica content of Ilaro and Papalanto are 45.71% and 40.71% respectively, which implies that Ilaro soil sample is more chemically inert and structurally stable than Papalanto soil samples. The average sesquioxide content of Papalanto (36.27%) is higher than that of Ilaro (32.87%), while the silica sesquioxide ratio (SSR) of Papalanto (1.12%) is less than that of Ilaro (1.39%), therefore both soil samples are in advanced stage of weathering but Papalanto soil is more lateritic than Ilaro. Geochemical analysis using XRD indicated the presence of three clay minerals (Kaolinite, Illite and traces of Montmorrrilonite) and one major non-clay mineral, Quartz. The average proportion of Kaolinite in the soil samples are 9% (Ilaro) and 28% (Papalanto), but the average values of Quartz are 62% and 69% for Ilaro and Papalanto, respectively. The higher proportion of sesquioxide and Kaolinite from Papalanto samples is an indication of more failures observed in the region.
Arinkoola A. O, , T.O Salawudeen, G.O Abidemi, J.O Hamed, M.O Jimoh, O.A. Olufayo, Y.M Aladeitan
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 5, pp 114-130; doi:10.36108/laujoces/0202/50(0121)

Abstract:
Exploitation of Nigerian bentonitic clay deposit will offer economic advantage in terms of utilization for drilling purpose and prevent money spent on importation. Clay used for this analysis was beneficiated using sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) and the change in the elemental composition of the raw clay sample and treated clay with was estimated using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). The treated clay and locally sourced bio-materials were added to the formulation of drilling fluid using Reduced Central Composite Design (RCCD). The fluid loss and cake thickness of prepared drilling fluid were determined using filter loss test kit. The result of the investigation show that the maximum recorded fluid loss was 14.4 ml/30mins at 100 psi while cake thickness values improved with addition of the bio-materials to the drilling fluid formulation when compared with the standard values.
E. A Oluwasola, A Afolayan, O. O. Ipindola, M. O Popoola, A. O Oginni
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 5, pp 1-10; doi:10.36108/laujoces/0202/50(0110)

Abstract:
Aggregates constitute more than 90% of concrete and significantly determine the strength of concrete. In this study, the shape characteristics such as flakiness and elongation were determined using elongation and thickness gauge. The aggregate used for the study is granite. Aggregate crushing value and aggregate impact value tests were performed on the aggregate while slump test, water absorption test, compressive strength test and flexural strength test were carried out on concrete. A total of one hundred and thirty-two concrete cubes were produced using 1:2:4 and 1:3:6 mix each for the compressive strength test and forty-eight reinforced concrete beams were produced for flexural strength test. The slump for all the samples tested was examined to be true. The compressive strength of the concrete cube was greatly affected by the shape of aggregate used and it was noted that; for lower percentage of flaky and elongated aggregate the compressive strength is moderately high compared to when the percentage is high. The highest obtained compressive strength, 15N/mm2 is in compliance with the concrete compressive strength of normal 1:2:4 mix as stipulated in ASTM C109, Also, with 30% of elongated aggregate and 30% of flaky, the flexural strength of 7.03 N/mm2 was obtained. This shows that aggregate shape is a very important property of coarse aggregate that must be put into consideration in production of quality concrete for construction works.
, M.Y. Jimoh, A.B Ola, A.R. Suleiman, M. Ibrahim
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 5, pp 28-42; doi:10.36108/laujoces/0202/50(0140)

Abstract:
In recent years, many cities and rural areas are facing frequent waterlogging, run-off pollution, huge loss of resourceful rainwater, damaged ecosystem and many more rain water related problems. In regional perspective, how to construct a sustainable storm water management measures have been presented as an important issue in many cities and urban agglomeration in Nigeria. Ibeju Lekki area is usually faced with the problem of rain water leading to incessant flooding. This study therefore assesses storm water management in Ibeju-Lekki Area, Lagos state. The research employs a random sampling technique in selecting 204 (0.07  ) respondents for questionnaire administration. Descriptive and inferential statistical tools were employed in the analysis of the data. Pearson product moment correlation was used to test the relationship between the gradient analysis and vulnerability to runoff of Ibeju-Lekki. Also, the slope analysis of the study area was carried out using slope calculation. Findings revealed that natural green space, public parks and gardens and drainage system were the most available storm water management infrastructure in the area. The result of correlation analysis with r = 0.971 shows a strong positive correlation between gradient and vulnerability to runoff. The study concluded that physical planning policies such as thorough monitoring of building plan before approval and institution of effective development control agencies among others should be put in place to ensure proper management of storm water in Ibeju-Lekki local government area of Lagos state
, A. O Abiola, A. A Olanipekun, O. E Ajayi, A. O Onokwai
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 5, pp 43-52; doi:10.36108/laujoces/0202/50(0150)

Abstract:
This study aims at determining the energy content from campus wastes and estimation of electricity generation. Samples of solid wastes generated within Landmark University were collected, separated, classified, dried in the oven at 105°C till constant weight was attained, pulverized and sieved using a sieve size of 500 μm. The moisture contents of the waste samples were determined, in triplicates. The digital bomb calorimeter (C-200 Bomb Calorimeter) was used to determine the calorific value of the prepared waste samples. Correlation analysis was carried out to determine coefficients and significant levels; while regression equations were generated, using ANOVA to relate the dependent variable - Potential Electricity Generated (PEG) with independent variables- Total Energy Content (TEC) and Specific Energy Content (SEC). The moisture contents are plastic bottles (0.78%), water sachet (0.82%), and food packs (5.37%), wood wastes and ash (5.35%), food wastes (5.95%), and paper wastes (5.56%). Calorific values of plastic bottles, polythene products, Wood wastes and ash, food wastes, paper wastes and polystyrene (food pack) are 31,246.63, 29,084.24, 17,243.56, 14,360.49, 12,975.42 and 4575.10 kJ/kg, respectively. The total energy content from the campus wastes was estimated at 32,999.30 MJ/day. This implies a possibility of about 0.38MW of electricity generation from daily steam production. There was high level of correlation between the energy value parameters (R > 0.99) and significant at < 0.01. The energy content is expected to grow with the expansion of the campus.
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 5, pp 85-96; doi:10.36108/laujoces/0202/50(0190)

Abstract:
A laboratory study of the hydraulic conductivity, (HC), and unconfined compressive strength, (UCS), of compacted bentonite enhanced waste foundry sand (BEWFS) treated with rice husk ash, (RHA) for possible use as liner material is presented. The bentonite enhanced waste foundry sand, BEWFS, was obtained by blending waste foundry sand (WFS) with 12% bentonite by weight of the WFS and mixing the resulting blend thoroughly to obtain a homogenous mix. RHA was added to the BEWFS in increment of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% respectively of the dry weight of the BEWFS. The entire blended material was thoroughly mix together to obtain sample with different content of RHA. Index tests, compaction, UCS and HC tests were carried out on the blended materials to determine the effect of RHA on the behaviour of the BEWFS. HC as well as UCS of the materials were study using three compactive efforts of British standard light, (BSLC), West African standard, (WASC) and British standard heavy, (BSHC) compactive efforts respectively. The results obtained show that addition of RHA to BEWFS affected the index properties of the material marginally where the liquid limit increased to 35 from 32 %, plastic limit reduced from 12 to 11% and plasticity index increased from 20 to 25% respectively. The HC of the material was found to increase slightly from 6.28 x 10-08 to 3.90 x 10-08, 2.64 x 10-09 to 2.07 x 10-08 and 8.55 x 10-11 to 1.83 x 10-10 m/s with addition of up to 10 % RHA content and compacted at BSLC, WASC and BSHC respectively. Similarly, the UCS was found to increase to peak values of 177.22, 288.48 and 454.26 kN/m2 at same RHA content and compactive efforts. The implication of this result is that the addition of RHA up to 10% to BEWFS slightly increase the HC but does not compromise it while the strength gain in term of UCS can be said to compensate for the slight lost in HC. It is recommended that BEWFS treated with between 8 to 10% RHA content and compacted at BSHC compactive effort can be applied as liner in engineered waste containment system.
K. I Zakariyyah, A. A Soyingbe, J. A. Adenekan
LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies, Volume 5, pp 72-84; doi:10.36108/laujoces/0202/50(0180)

Abstract:
Studies have established that comfort level, emotional balance, wellbeing and productivity are linked to the functionality of buildings. Functional buildings, however, require less energy for sustainability purposes. To achieve these advantages, there is a need to seek improvement in the existing stock of buildings or procure newer ones. Seeking improvement connotes reducing building defects/failures and improving occupant-comfort. Dampness plagues both new and old buildings and contributes more than 50% of building envelopes’ defects, discomfort, or failure. This study, therefore, examined dampness in halls of residence in selected tertiary institutions in Lagos metropolis, using the University of Lagos as a case study. The objectives were to evaluate the incidence and causes of dampness in the halls of residence in the institution. As a preliminary assessment of dampness evaluation in halls of residence, the institution used is the University of Lagos, as a case study. This is selected based on its location and proximity. The study population consists of undergraduate and postgraduate halls of residence while the sample frame is undergraduate male hostels. The four undergraduate male hostels are taken as the sample size, using the census as the sampling technique. From the four male halls of residence; eighty rooms and two maintenance staff per block were selected using a purposive sampling technique. Analyses were done using mean, percentage, and relative importance index. The results revealed the presence of the four types of dampness, with dampness from leaking pipes as the most prevalent. The dampness originated from a combination of a host of factors, with those emanating from the negligence of maintenance culture and lack of materials/workmanship consideration as the top two causes. The study concluded that symptoms of the four dampness types are in existence in the four sampled halls of residence and the factors causing dampness are many and allen compassing, but if the issue of maintenance and materials/workmanship are professionally handled, dampness will reduce, hence better comfort and building longevity can be guaranteed. The symptoms of buildings deterioration and defects can be minimised with ease of maintenance and through the use of professionals that are apt in the knowledge of materials and components inter-relationship. The study emphasised the significance of a healthy building and recommended that such should be procured with all hands-on deck and handled by the professionals in the built environment.
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