Journal of Critical Studies in Language and Literature

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ISSN / EISSN : 2732-4605 / 2732-4605
Total articles ≅ 89
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Andrew Bula
Journal of Critical Studies in Language and Literature, Volume 3, pp 7-14; https://doi.org/10.46809/jcsll.v3i2.130

Abstract:
The theory of intertextuality as formulated by French scholar, Julia Kristeva, is much too misunderstood in critical circles. In many instances, the line of thinking is that intertextuality is simply a matter of influence – that is, the influence of one author on another or of one text (book) or more on another book or other books, et cetera. This study, therefore, purposes to understand Kristeva’s theory of intertextuality; and, what is more, to unearth the central meaning of the theory, and the role of culture in the discourses. As a consequence, the full range of the theory, enumerated under these headings: The Novel as an Utterance, the Symbol as Ideologeme, the Sign as Ideologeme, Text Production, Intertextuality: An Analysis of Utterances, are all duly taken into account in this reading. In the end, it is laid bare that indeed the meaning of intertextuality does not in the main reside in the general notion of influence associated with the theory, although influence is implicated in it in principle. Rather, it is uncovered that the thrust of intertextuality is really what Kristeva designates as citation and narration, citation being dialogue and therefore the speech act of the character and narration being writing and hence the speech act of the narrator in the text of the novel.
Zhang Youwen
Journal of Critical Studies in Language and Literature, Volume 3, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.46809/jcsll.v3i2.129

Abstract:
Based on the dynamic evaluation theory, combined with the characteristics of English language teaching and teaching objectives, this paper constructed a dynamic evaluation mode for the "Advanced English" course. The evaluation mode divided Advanced English teaching into four teaching sections: pre-class online self-learning, classroom partner interaction internalization, after-class study notes evaluation and feedback, and subject paper project refinement and improvement; through the establishment of a " curriculum learning portfolio", evaluation runs through the entire teaching process, promotes the organic combination of teaching and evaluation, and realizes the cultivation of students' individual cognitive strategies and the stimulation of their learning potential. The dynamic evaluation mode of Advanced English course plays a positive role in shaping the cognitive structure of students and developing other related course evaluations.
Azadeh Mehrpouyan, Elahesadat Zakeri
Journal of Critical Studies in Language and Literature, Volume 3, pp 41-46; https://doi.org/10.46809/jcsll.v3i1.125

Abstract:
Distance education and e-learning became widespread and necessary with the miracle of the internet and its increasing influence among the individuals much within the days of a pandemic outbreak of COVID-19. Many universities, institutions, and learners encourage using e-learning and begin growing in this field. This paper examines the merits and demerits of distance and online education teaching for English literature educators and students. Technology and increasing demand for education, traditional strategies do not meet the growing requirements of academic communities and virtual education and e-learning with all their benefits and drawbacks attempt to meet these needs. This paper investigates e-teaching and e-learning infrastructure, needs, benefits, and limitations, in addition to opportunities and challenges of online education within the days of the coronavirus occurrence. The research method of the current study was conducted through a library study along with empirical study and descriptive analysis. New challenges of English literature educators and students in pandemic COVID-19 were identified and new approaches to remove the constraints are suggested. The results confirm online education is a constant educational need not limited to pandemic period and have to be compelled to develop productivity and creativity in learning with the appearance of recent technologies such as computers, the web, and social networks. These skills development can assist educators to find solutions for these difficulties in various areas of educational, cultural, and social issues. Blended learning can contribute to post-pandemic English literature classes and sustainable higher education.
Laura Haruna-Banke, Iorwuese Gogo
Journal of Critical Studies in Language and Literature, Volume 3, pp 32-40; https://doi.org/10.46809/jcsll.v3i1.124

Abstract:
This paper is a realist interpretation of Chika Unigwe’s On Black Sisters’ Street. The text is considered for study here because it dwells on the popular, the modern and social issues that define realist works. The paper involves realism of subject-matter and social realism as its theoretical tools for the evaluation of the research subject. Realism of subject-matter deals with themes that are common to society while social realism looks at the poor social conditions of the middle and lower classes. The paper is a qualitative research and it is based on a content analysis of the select text for study. The paper probes the ugly life of four young girls in Nigeria who are trafficked into Antwerp, Belgium, to work as prostitutes and earn income for their traffickers. The girls suffer from sexual abuse and deceit from their parents and older men. They undergo hardship as a result of lack of proper parental care, unemployment, insecurity and poor social services which make them frustrated. All of these make their lives vulnerable. Therefore, the study concludes that, well placed individuals, parents, civil society organizations and the government should make efforts to improve and secure the lives of vulnerable young women in Nigeria in order to help them escape from their vulnerabilities. Also, the novel’s authentic representation of life and society and its focus on character more than plot, including its attention to the lower class, the social and the contemporary issues fits it into the realist agenda.
Reza Abbaszadeh
Journal of Critical Studies in Language and Literature, Volume 3, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.46809/jcsll.v3i1.118

Abstract:
The US election is an influential event, not just in the USA itself but in the world. The present study aims to analyze Joe Biden’s inauguration speech after winning the presidential election in January 2021 and becoming the 46th president of the United States. Moreover, this paper attempts to investigate the USA’s possible policies toward their own nation and, of course, the other countries. This analysis goes through predicting probable upcoming policies of Biden’s administration comparing to the previous president of the USA, Donald Trump, who breached several international agreements. To this end, Halliday’s systemic functional linguistics (SFL) (Halliday, 1978; Halliday & Matthiessen, 2014) has been employed in Biden’s first speech after winning the election and beginning of the democratic administration to observe his political intentions by means of a critical approach and using appraisal resources of Martin and White (2007) to clarify the attitude, graduation, and engagement of his speech. Overall, designating the number of vocabularies related to any of the mentioned appraisal resources, it is concluded that Biden’s tendency, based on his inauguration speech and the lexical and grammatical (‘lexicogrammar) choices, is to compensate Trump’s actions, such as breaching 2015 JCPOA agreement and breaking 2015 Paris Climate Accord, and make peace with whom Trump had fueled conflicts.
Kun Chu, Lingling Lou
Journal of Critical Studies in Language and Literature, Volume 3, pp 22-31; https://doi.org/10.46809/jcsll.v3i1.122

Abstract:
Negative transfer of mother tongue is a major difficulty that every second language learner has to overcome, especially for those students whose target language is quite different from their mother tongue. With the in-depth development of pluralism in the world, people pay more and more attention to the learning of various languages, especially English. In this situation, the concerns of language researchers on the negative transfer of mother tongue are inevitably boosting. Given this, based on the pertinent theories of the negative language transfer, this study aims to explore the impact of negative language transfer on Chinese college students’ English learning through a questionnaire poll with some students of Zhejiang Yuexiu University as the research objects. The results of the study are mainly shown in two aspects: the impact of the negative transfer of mother tongue on college students’ oral learning and college students’ writing learning. At the end of the article, the author puts forward the cultural differences between China and the Western countries that lead to the negative transfer of mother tongue, and some effective methods to help Chinese college English learners reduce the negative transfer of mother tongue in their process of English learning.
Namkil Kang
Journal of Critical Studies in Language and Literature, Volume 3, pp 9-21; https://doi.org/10.46809/jcsll.v3i1.119

Abstract:
The ultimate goal of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of rely on and depend on in the Corpus of Contemporary American English and the British National Corpus. The COCA clearly shows that the expression rely on government is the most preferred by Americans, followed by rely on people, and rely on data. The COCA further indicates that the expression depend on slate is the most preferred by Americans, followed by depend on government, and depend on people. The BNC shows, on the other hand, that the expression rely on others is the most preferred by the British, followed by rely on people, and rely on friends. The BNC further indicates that depend on factors and depend on others are the most preferred by the British, followed by depend on age, and depend on food. Finally, in the COCA, the nouns government, luck, welfare, people, information, state, fossil, water, family, oil, food, and things are linked to both rely on and depend on, but many nouns are not still linked to both of them. On the other hand, in the BNC, only the nouns state, chance, government, and others are linked to both rely on and depend on, but many nouns are not still linked to both rely on and depend on. It can thus be inferred from this that rely on is slightly different from depend on in its use.
Nawel Zbidi
Journal of Critical Studies in Language and Literature, Volume 2, pp 28-34; https://doi.org/10.46809/jcsll.v2i6.94

Abstract:
Undeniably, Arab American women occupy a debatable position in mainstream culture and politics. Because of their former invisibility, they started to claim their presence and to fight for their rights in post-9/11 America. They ardently become aware of their submission to both Arab patriarchy and sexism and the necessity to fight against this denigrating position. Likewise, they realise that they were silenced in discourses against Arab and Muslim discrimination in the United States. This paper focuses on the ways they have been challenging these discriminatory and invisibilizing discourses against Arab women through shedding light on their Transnational Feminist concerns in their writings, in which they have created a site to communicate anti-discrimination discourses, and to oppose the stereotypical monolithic portrayals of Arab men that are mainly due to the hypervisibility and the demonization of Arabs in post- 9/11 America. Additionally, it highlights how the Shehrazadian narrative strategy in contemporary Arab American women’s writing engulfs several features and illustrations of confrontation and resistance to the stereotypical representations of Arab women, mainly in the American popular culture. Indeed, Shehrazade and her narrative strategies become in this context a collective means for re-writing, reviving and redefining grandmother figures from the past. Shehrazed’s storytelling, as a life-serving strategy, becomes a metaphor for the urgency of exploring why and how figures like Shehrazade are translated across cultures and how Orientalism shapes such translation.
Iorwuese Gogo
Journal of Critical Studies in Language and Literature, Volume 2, pp 35-39; https://doi.org/10.46809/jcsll.v2i6.114

Abstract:
This review article is a critical inspection of Andrew Bula's collection of poems, Turns of Thoughts (2020). As such, critical searchlights are thrown on poems as “Turns of Thoughts”, “Who Knows”, “Keeping Vigil”, “Love to Love”, “Wall Gecko”, “Far Out to the Woods”, “King on Fours in the Wilds”, “Trekking Home on a Windy Night”, ‘Presence and Space”, “Neighbour, Let’s Hate Hatred”, "Much Minuses & Little Pluses", "To Illumine our Rich, Fine World". In investigating these pieces, the aim really is to uncover the message and artistry of Bula's poetry. There are, of course, other pieces in the anthology that are simply mentioned in this review, without depth analyses. In such circumstances, the tendency is to liken them to other piece(s) or, quite simply, to take a cursory view of them. And then there is a showcasing of dominant literary devices as found in the poems as Rhetorical Questions, Paradox, Simile, Metaphor, Personification, Allusion, and Code Mixing. In the end, it is made out that Bula’s poetry is one of emotional elation and it reveals high moral awareness of, and gratitude to, important members of the public who have positively impacted society. Likewise, it is discovered that the poems also explore nature, love, and philosophical themes, while employing literary devices such as have already been mentioned.
Farhana Yeasmin, Samia Islam
Journal of Critical Studies in Language and Literature, Volume 2, pp 19-25; https://doi.org/10.46809/jcsll.v2i6.92

Abstract:
Afghan-American author Khaled Hosseini’s The Kite Runner and A Thousand Splendid Suns are two heart-wrenching novels that glorify the power of indestructible love and affection. The protagonists of both of the novels Amir and Mariam undergo several psychological, familial, and political plights in their life. They show their undefeatable and unconditional spirits in their quests to overcome their predicaments–to achieve their desired identities. In this way, they slowly walk on the path to parenthood. In their pursuits of life, they struggle to protect Sohrab and Laila and to ensure a bright future for them. Their indomitable effort to decorate the life of Sohrab and Laila gradually eradicates all their discontentment of life and turns them into contented parents. The study aims to focus on the concept of parenthood portrayed in the novels. It analyses how parenthood offers a new meaning of life to Amir and Mariam releasing them from the havocs that they have experienced in their life.
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