Journal of Cancer Therapy

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 21511934 / 21511942
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 1,263
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Uchima Yasutake, Aomatsu Naoki, Tsujio Gen, Iwauchi Takehiko, Matsutani Shinji, Tanaka Hiroto, Miyamoto Hironari, Okada Takuma, Kurihara Shigeaki, Hirakawa Toshiki, et al.
Journal of Cancer Therapy, Volume 11, pp 35-43; doi:10.4236/jct.2020.112004

Abstract:
Background: The SOFT study was a phase III trial designed to validate the non-inferiority of S-1 and oxaliplatin (SOX) plus bevacizumab to mFOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab in terms of PFS in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who had not previously received chemotherapy. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed cases in which S-1 plus bevacizumab as maintenance therapy after induction of S-1 and Oxaliplatin (SOX) plus bevacizumab as first-line chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer was applied in order to evaluate its efficacy and safety in clinical practice. Material and method: Among the 40 patients with mCRC at the Fuchu Hospital who received SOX plus bevacizumab as a first line treatment between August 2013 and December 2018. The eligible patients had histologically confirmed mCRC. On day 1 of each 3-week period during the study, patients in the SOX plus bevacizumab received a 7.5 mg/kg intravenous infusion of bevacizumab, followed by an intravenous infusion of 130 mg/m2 oxaliplatin. S-1 (40 - 60 mg) was administered orally two times per day from after dinner on day 1 to after breakfast on day 15, followed by a 7-day rest. Results: The median PFS was 15.0 months and median OS was 36.0 months. The response rate (RR: complete pus partial response) was 85.0%, and the disease control rate (DCR: RR plus stable disease) was 92.5%. The most common adverse events with SOX plus bevacizumab were hypertension (50%), neurosensory toxicity (50%), anorexia (32.5%), fatigue (45%), pigmentation (39%), Neutrophil count decreased (30%), and platelet count decreased (40%). The most common grade 3/4 adverse events were neurosensory toxicity (5%) and fatigue (9%). Conclusion: This study revealed that the survival benefit of S-1 and oxaliplatin (SOX) plus bevacizumab in Japanese patients with mCRC was like that observed in previous clinical trials. Therefore, S-1 and oxaliplatin (SOX) plus bevacizumab can be considered as routine first-line treatment option for patients with mCRC.
Hatzidaki Eleana, Papadimitriou Maria, Papasotiriou Ioannis, Eleana Hatzidaki, Maria Papadimitriou, Ioannis Papasotiriou
Journal of Cancer Therapy, Volume 11, pp 44-54; doi:10.4236/jct.2020.112005

Abstract:
In recent years the use of natural supplements in order to prevent, treat or delay recurrence of cancer or reduce chemotherapy toxicity has attracted much attention. One such supplement is Capsol-T which consists of de-caffeinated green tea and chili pepper extracts. The aim of the study was the evaluation of Capsol-T effect on the proliferation of various cancer cell lines representing different cancer types. Cell lines that were used in the study were: DU145, LNCap, MCF7, HCT116 and MOR. The effect of various concentrations and incubation times of Capsol-T on cell viability was determined using the MTT method. The results do not show a common anti-proliferative pattern in all cancer cells. In some cell lines and certain concentrations cell growth was significantly decreased at 24 hr which became more evident at 48 hr. The role of Capsicum powder in cancer is unclear since both cancer cell proliferation and growth arrest have been demonstrated. Green tea on the other hand was found to decrease certain drugs’ bioavailability. Our results suggest that an anti-proliferative effect in certain types of cancer should not be generalized to other types as well. Different concentrations also affect the net result often having opposite effects. Overall, caution should be taken when using natural supplements for their anti-cancer effects.
Lauren Philp, Tracilyn Hall, Lisa Diver, Annekathryn Goodman
Journal of Cancer Therapy, Volume 11, pp 377-387; doi:10.4236/jct.2020.116033

Abstract:
Introduction: Morbidity and Mortality (M&M) rounds can identify adverse events and improve patient safety however adoption in cancer centers is not routine. Herein we report the results of a chemotherapy-specific gynecologic oncology M&M rounds and identify reasons for hospital admission Methods: Between July 2014 and April 2016, all admissions Results: 585 patients were admitted, 78% of whom had ovarian cancer and 43% of whom had recurrent disease. Overall, 47% of admissions were unplanned and these were significantly longer than planned admissions (5.6 vs. 2.4 days, p = 0.0003). Of unplanned admissions, 43% were due to chemotherapy, and 57% were due to disease burden. 74% of patients had received >1 prior line of chemotherapy, and 22% were on clinical trial. The most common causes of unplanned admission were nausea, vomiting or failure to thrive (28.9%), fever (17.9%) and small bowel obstruction (19.9%). Conclusions: There is a high rate of unplanned admission
Vladimir Zaichick
Journal of Cancer Therapy, Volume 11, pp 1-17; doi:10.4236/jct.2020.111001

Abstract:
Objective: Prostate specific antigen (PSA) does not provide the high reliability and precision that is required for an accurate screening for prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of our study was to search for a simple, rapid, direct, preferably non-invasive, and highly accurate biomarker and procedure for the screening for PCa. Method: The levels of trace elements (TE) Br, Fe, Rb, Sr, and Zn were prospectively evaluated in expressed prostatic fluid (EPF). Also Zn/Br, Zn/Fe, Zn/Rb, Zn/Sr concentration ratios as well as ZnRb and (ZnRb)/Fe concentration combinations were calculated for EPF samples, obtained from 38 apparently healthy males and from 33, 51, and 24 patients with chronic prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and PCa, respectively. Measurements were performed using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent (EDXRF) microanalysis. Results: It was found that in the EPF of cancerous prostates the levels of Rb, Zn, Zn/Br, Zn/Fe, Zn/Sr, ZnRb, and (ZnRb)/Fe were significantly lower in comparison with those in the EPF of normal, inflamed, and hyperplastic prostates. For example, in comparison hyperplastic with cancerous prostates p values obtained using Student’s t-test and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U-test were Conclusions: The levels of TE and their combinations in EPF, obtained by EDXRF, is a fast, reliable, andnon-invasive diagnostic tool that can be successfully used by local, non- urologist physicians at the point-of-care to provide a highly effective PCa screening and as an additional confirmatory test before a prostate gland biopsy.
Azza M. Adel, Dalia AbdelGhani
Journal of Cancer Therapy, Volume 11, pp 26-34; doi:10.4236/jct.2020.111003

Abstract:
Background: Breast cancer is defined according to molecular subtypes. Each molecular subtype defines different disease behavior and requires different treatment. The different molecular subtypes have different risk factors and different distribution across age classes. Aim of the study: To detect the incidence of cancer breast subtypes by age among Egyptian patients treated at the Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, in the period between April 2016 and December 2018. Patients and Methods: Inclusion criteria: Cases with proven pathological diagnosis and underwent IHC studies for the molecular subtype while exclusion criteria were: Bilateral cases, cases with unknown molecular subtype or age at presentation, cases with multiple primaries, cases with in situ cancer, male breast cancer cases, and cases diagnosed during pregnancy. Age classes were computed in four groups: from 20 - 35, >35 - 50, >50 - 65 and those older than 65 years of age. Immunohistochemical studies were done; ER, PR and HER2 were recorded for each case, Molecular subtypes were defined as follows: HR+/HER2-, HR+/HER2+, HER2 overexpressed (HER2 positive, HR-) and Triple Negative Breast Cancer; TNBC (HER2 negative, ER negative and PR negative). Results: one thousand and two cases were included in the study. The median age was 51 years and the mean age was 51.64 ± 11.74, with range from 24 to 85 years. The total number of ER positive patients was 706 patients (70.5%), the total number of PR positive patients was 667 (66.6%), and the total number of Her2 positive patients was 286 patients (28.5%). While there were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of ER and PR positivity among all age classes, Her2 over expression decreased with age and the difference was statistically significant (P-value: 0.012). Her2 overexpression subtype incidence decreased by age and it was highest in the younger age group 17.6% compared to 8.2% in the older age group and the difference was statistically significant. Similarly, HR+/HER2- tumors incidence were higher in patients older than 65 (57.4%) and lower in the younger age group (40.5%) (P-value: 0.031). Triple negative tumors incidence ranged from 14.9% for those younger than 35 to 17.2% for those older than 65 years. Conclusion: This study shows that there are significant differences in the age distribution by molecular subtype and the incidence of Her2 overexpression subtype decreases by age. The study also shows that the nature of the breast cancer in the group of Egyptian patients studied is more of the favorable hormonal positive subtype.
Andreia Cruz, Sarah Lopes, Maria Leitão, Sónia Carvalho, Olga Sousa, Manuela Machado
Journal of Cancer Therapy, Volume 11, pp 18-25; doi:10.4236/jct.2020.111002

Abstract:
Retrorectal cystic hamartomas are rare congenital lesions that can undergo malignant transformation, and adenocarcinoma is the most frequently described histological type. The authors describe a case of a 53-year-old female patient with a localized well-differentiated adenocarcinoma that developed in a retrorectal cystic hamartoma. The patient was submitted to surgery (a Kraske procedure), with an R1 resection, followed by adjuvant radio-chemotherapy. After 23 months of follow up, the patient remains free from disease recurrence. Given the rarity of this entity, this case allows us to reflect on the differential diagnosis, therapeutic approach and patients’ follow-up.
Masahiro Kitada, Shunsuke Yasuda, Masahiro Abe, Nana Yoshida, Satoshi Okazaki, Kei Ishibashi
Journal of Cancer Therapy, Volume 11, pp 154-159; doi:10.4236/jct.2020.113013

Abstract:
Background: Male breast cancer is rare, accounting for approximately 0.5% - 1.0% of all breast cancer cases; hormone-dependent luminal type male breast cancer is the most common. The proportion of hormone receptor-negative and human epithelial growth factor Receptor type 2-positive breast cancer is extremely low among male breast cancer. A patient with advanced HER2 type breast cancer, a rare male breast cancer, was successfully treated with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and eribulin therapy. Case Presentation: A 75- year-old man presented to our hospital with induration of the right anterior chest and lymphoedema of the right upper limb. Based on the results of core needle biopsy, he was diagnosed with HER2 type invasive ductal carcinoma associated with bone metastasis (stage IV). Chemotherapy with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and eribulin was started. The drugs were remarkably effective, and his lymphoedema tended to improve. Conclusion: We reported a successful case of chemotherapy and targeted therapy for a rare male breast cancer of HER2 positive and hormone negative type.
Paudel Sharad, Zhichun Huang, Xin Yang, Wu Cao, Ghimire Pratiksha, Kharbuja Naresh
Journal of Cancer Therapy, Volume 11, pp 160-171; doi:10.4236/jct.2020.113014

Abstract:
Background: Narrow band imaging (NBI) is reported to improve the diagnostic importance of nasopharyngeal cancer. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the diagnostic significance of NBI in the literature and compare it to the conventional white light endoscopy. The use of narrow band imaging (NBI) and further technological achievements concerning the resolution and magnification of endoscopic images have in the past 15 years. With the use of NBI, superficial mucosal lesions, which may be missed by standard WLI endoscopy, can be identified easily by their neoangiogenic pattern. Objective: To assess diagnostic value of the narrow band imaging and white light endoscopy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and compare diagnostic values (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value) with white light endoscopy. Search Methods: From 2010 to 2020, data was searched from electronic databases such as PubMed, web of science. We used narrow band imaging as a key word accordance with diagnostic modalities such as sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV and data were collected. Results: We have found mainly 6 studies have discussed about diagnostic value of endoscopy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the total of 2746 suspected patients. Among them, 5 studies have compared diagnostic values such as sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value between NBI and WLE. Among 5 studies, 4 studies have found higher sensitivity in NBI, 2 studies found higher 1 equal to WLE specificity in NBI. 3 studies have compared PPV and NPV between NBI and WLE. Among them, all the studies found higher PPV and NPV in NBI than WLE. Conclusion: Recently developed narrow band imaging has a great significance in the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Although NBI has also encountered some problem such as contact bleeding and darker image. So, further evaluation should be done.
Hafsa Saif, K. S. Rajesh Kumar, Suhail Sayeed Mufti, Ritesh Giri, V. Hrishi, Vinu Sarathy, Veena Ramaswamy, Diganta Hazarika, Radheshyam Naik
Journal of Cancer Therapy, Volume 11, pp 172-187; doi:10.4236/jct.2020.113015

Abstract:
Background: According to the GLOBOCAN 2018 report, the estimated incidence of lung cancer in India was 67,795 in both sexes. The treatment of advanced Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) saw a major paradigm shift with recent advances in molecular-targeted therapy. Immune checkpoint blockade therapy is one such novel strategy with promising clinical benefits in advanced NSCLC. Programmed cell death receptor-1/Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway is one such checkpoint and has thus become the current area of interest in the treatment of lung carcinoma. The PD-1/ PD-L1 pathway is under active investigation as it represents a promising therapeutic target in NSCLC. The expression of PD-L1 in tumor cells has been suggested as a predictive marker of the clinical response to PD-1/ PD-L1-targeted therapy. Methods: This study was carried out at the Department of Pathology, Health Care Global Specialty Hospital, Bangalore from May 2018 to May 2019. In this study, we analyzed pattern of PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry testing using our own Laboratory Developed Test (LDT) in NSCLC patients. Results: Our study group comprised 50 patients of NSCLC. Among our study population, 40% of the patients exhibited PD-L1 immunopositivity (≥1%) with 28% of them having any expression (TPS 1% - 49%) and 12% of them having a high expression (TPS ≥ 50%) of PD-L1. Majority of them exhibited adenocarcinoma type of NSCLC under which the solid subtype showed a direct correlation with PD-L1 positivity (p-value: 0.004) with a poorly differentiated tumor histology being common in our population in relation to PD-L1 positivity (p-value: 0.043). PD-L1 expression did not correlate with age, gender, smoking status or clinical stage in our study. No association was found between tumor histology (SCC or AC) and driver mutation status with expression of PD-L1 in the present study. Conclusions: In our study, PD-L1 immunopositivity was found in 40% of patients and majority of them exhibited adenocarcinoma type of NSCLC. There was no correlation of PD-L1 expresion with age, gender, clinical stage, smoking status and tumor histology.
Junyi Shi, Ai Shen, Tong Mou, Zhongjun Wu
Journal of Cancer Therapy, Volume 11, pp 115-123; doi:10.4236/jct.2020.113010

Abstract:
The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) is very poor although sorafenib is recommended as the first-line treatment. Therefore, an effective treatment regime is needed for treating HCC with PVTT. This review summarized seven potential treatment regimes which including transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), TACE combined with sorafenib, TACE combined with radiotherapy (RT), hepatectomy, hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC), HAIC combined with sorafenib and HAIC combined with RT in the treatment of HCC with PVTT. In conclusion, hepatectomy or the combination of HAIC and sorafenib may be a more effective modality in the treatment of HCC patients with type I - II PVTT. HAIC combined with or without sorafenib/RT or the combination of RT and TACE is an alternative treatment choice for HCC patients with type III - IV PVTT. Further randomized controlled studies are warranted.
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