Journal of Cancer Therapy
ISSN / EISSN : 21511934 / 21511942
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc, (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 1,226
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Cancer Therapy, Volume 11, pp 1-17; doi:10.4236/jct.2020.111001
Abstract:Objective: Prostate specific antigen (PSA) does not provide the high reliability and precision that is required for an accurate screening for prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of our study was to search for a simple, rapid, direct, preferably non-invasive, and highly accurate biomarker and procedure for the screening for PCa. Method: The levels of trace elements (TE) Br, Fe, Rb, Sr, and Zn were prospectively evaluated in expressed prostatic fluid (EPF). Also Zn/Br, Zn/Fe, Zn/Rb, Zn/Sr concentration ratios as well as ZnRb and (ZnRb)/Fe concentration combinations were calculated for EPF samples, obtained from 38 apparently healthy males and from 33, 51, and 24 patients with chronic prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and PCa, respectively. Measurements were performed using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent (EDXRF) microanalysis. Results: It was found that in the EPF of cancerous prostates the levels of Rb, Zn, Zn/Br, Zn/Fe, Zn/Sr, ZnRb, and (ZnRb)/Fe were significantly lower in comparison with those in the EPF of normal, inflamed, and hyperplastic prostates. For example, in comparison hyperplastic with cancerous prostates p values obtained using Student’s t-test and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U-test were Conclusions: The levels of TE and their combinations in EPF, obtained by EDXRF, is a fast, reliable, andnon-invasive diagnostic tool that can be successfully used by local, non- urologist physicians at the point-of-care to provide a highly effective PCa screening and as an additional confirmatory test before a prostate gland biopsy.
Journal of Cancer Therapy, Volume 11, pp 18-25; doi:10.4236/jct.2020.111002
Abstract:Retrorectal cystic hamartomas are rare congenital lesions that can undergo malignant transformation, and adenocarcinoma is the most frequently described histological type. The authors describe a case of a 53-year-old female patient with a localized well-differentiated adenocarcinoma that developed in a retrorectal cystic hamartoma. The patient was submitted to surgery (a Kraske procedure), with an R1 resection, followed by adjuvant radio-chemotherapy. After 23 months of follow up, the patient remains free from disease recurrence. Given the rarity of this entity, this case allows us to reflect on the differential diagnosis, therapeutic approach and patients’ follow-up.
Journal of Cancer Therapy, Volume 11, pp 26-34; doi:10.4236/jct.2020.111003
Abstract:Background: Breast cancer is defined according to molecular subtypes. Each molecular subtype defines different disease behavior and requires different treatment. The different molecular subtypes have different risk factors and different distribution across age classes. Aim of the study: To detect the incidence of cancer breast subtypes by age among Egyptian patients treated at the Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, in the period between April 2016 and December 2018. Patients and Methods: Inclusion criteria: Cases with proven pathological diagnosis and underwent IHC studies for the molecular subtype while exclusion criteria were: Bilateral cases, cases with unknown molecular subtype or age at presentation, cases with multiple primaries, cases with in situ cancer, male breast cancer cases, and cases diagnosed during pregnancy. Age classes were computed in four groups: from 20 - 35, >35 - 50, >50 - 65 and those older than 65 years of age. Immunohistochemical studies were done; ER, PR and HER2 were recorded for each case, Molecular subtypes were defined as follows: HR+/HER2-, HR+/HER2+, HER2 overexpressed (HER2 positive, HR-) and Triple Negative Breast Cancer; TNBC (HER2 negative, ER negative and PR negative). Results: one thousand and two cases were included in the study. The median age was 51 years and the mean age was 51.64 ± 11.74, with range from 24 to 85 years. The total number of ER positive patients was 706 patients (70.5%), the total number of PR positive patients was 667 (66.6%), and the total number of Her2 positive patients was 286 patients (28.5%). While there were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of ER and PR positivity among all age classes, Her2 over expression decreased with age and the difference was statistically significant (P-value: 0.012). Her2 overexpression subtype incidence decreased by age and it was highest in the younger age group 17.6% compared to 8.2% in the older age group and the difference was statistically significant. Similarly, HR+/HER2- tumors incidence were higher in patients older than 65 (57.4%) and lower in the younger age group (40.5%) (P-value: 0.031). Triple negative tumors incidence ranged from 14.9% for those younger than 35 to 17.2% for those older than 65 years. Conclusion: This study shows that there are significant differences in the age distribution by molecular subtype and the incidence of Her2 overexpression subtype decreases by age. The study also shows that the nature of the breast cancer in the group of Egyptian patients studied is more of the favorable hormonal positive subtype.
Journal of Cancer Therapy, Volume 10, pp 642-653; doi:10.4236/jct.2019.108053
Journal of Cancer Therapy, Volume 10, pp 619-631; doi:10.4236/jct.2019.108051
Journal of Cancer Therapy, Volume 10, pp 371-381; doi:10.4236/jct.2019.105031
Abstract:Background:Adjuvant radiotherapy has increased disease-free and overall survival rates in breast cancer. Conventionally fractionated radiotherapy delivers 50 Gy over 5 weeks which is the standard approach. A shorter duration of hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) will be more convenient for patients and treatment providers if found safe and equally effective. Material and Methods: Fifty-four breast cancer patients who underwent breast conservative surgery (BCS) were enrolled in this study. The patients received 4005 cGy/15 fractions. A boost to the tumor bed was administered in all patients. In this study, radiotherapy induced toxicity was evaluated. Results: In this study, the median age of our patients was 48 years with age ranged from 28 to 69 years. Acute skin toxicity was assessed, and it was noted that grade 2 skin toxicity was shown in only 6 patients (11.1%) at the end of radiotherapy and disappeared after 6 weeks of treatment. Late skin toxicity (telangectasia, hyperpigmentation, and subcutaneous fibrosis) was assessed and showed that most patients had grade 0 toxicity with no grade 3 toxicity at all. Regarding pulmonary toxicity, 5 patients (9.3%) developed acute pneumonitis and as regards chronic lung toxicity, it was evident in only 3 patients, 2 patients (3.7%) were grade 1 and 1 patient (1.9%) was grade 2. Cardiac toxicity was evident in 2 patients (7.1%) of the left breast cancer patients. Regarding lymphoedema, most patients that showed lymphoedema were grade 1. Conclusion: The results confirm the safety and feasibility of adjuvant hypofractionated whole breast radiotherapy in breast cancer patients in terms of acute and late toxicity.
Journal of Cancer Therapy, Volume 10, pp 316-326; doi:10.4236/jct.2019.104025
Journal of Cancer Therapy, Volume 10, pp 495-509; doi:10.4236/jct.2019.107041
Abstract:MUC1 is an antigen that is overexpressed on the cell surface of many human breast adenocarcinomas and other types of cancer. The cancer immunity cycle has seven steps, starting with release of cancer cell antigen and following with cancer antigen presentation. Priming, activation and trafficking of T cells to tumors are the next steps and the infiltration of T cells into tumors, the recognition of cancer cells by T cells and killing of cancer cells are the final steps. We have tested a synthetic peptide for the MUC1 antigen and generated dendritic cells (DCs) that were pulsed with the specific peptide. Mature DCs were used to activate naive T cells to differentiate into antigen-specific CTLs. CTLs were tested for proliferation, cytokine release (IFNγ), activation markers and cytotoxicity against human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines. The cytotoxic effect of those CTLs was higher against MCF7 human cell line than against MDA-MB-231 human cell line.
Journal of Cancer Therapy, Volume 10, pp 708-715; doi:10.4236/jct.2019.108058
Abstract:Circulating tumor cells are cells that detach from the primary tumor site and migrate to the bone marrow or other tissues where they can initiate a metastatic site. Liquid biopsies are an emerging tool in the past decades that enables us to detect Circulating Tumor Cells in patients’ blood. Flow cytometry is a powerful tool used in liquid biopsy diagnostics. This aims to prove the sensitivity and specificity of a flow cytometric panel for the detection of CTCs in breast cancer patients using healthy individuals’ samples as controls. The study was blinded to the data analyzing researcher. Statistical analysis followed and results show 86.9% area under the curve which indicates that the particular method can be very promising for diagnosing breast cancer.
Journal of Cancer Therapy, Volume 10, pp 877-881; doi:10.4236/jct.2019.1011074
Abstract:Background: Researches have shown that cancer is one of the chief causes of death in most of the advanced and developed countries; and in the developing countries, cancer is the second leading cause of death. In Afghanistan, approximately twenty-thousand (20,000) people are diagnosed with cancer annually and fifteen-thousand among these patients die in the same year. Breast cancer in the women is reported to be the highest, stomach the second and blood cancer in the third category in Afghanistan. Method: A questionnaire-based survey during the public awareness campaigns in schools, universities and other public places was conducted by Afghanistan Cancer Foundation in 2018. In the campaigns, the participants were asked to fill the questionnaire; after their consent, the participants returned the questionnaires were analyzed by Afghanistan Cancer Foundation. Results: The survey was conducted over a total population of 238,491 including 121,192 females and 117,299 males. Death cases were reported to be 8335 while the total number of alive patients reaches up to 368. Furthermore, 121 cases of Breast, 64 of stomach, 50 of Leukemia, 19 of Liver, 11 of Esophagus, 9 of Cervix & Uterine, 9 of Brain and 85 cases of other types of cancer were reported. Conclusion: Breast, stomach and blood cancers are the frequently diagnosed cancer sites in Kabul.