Biomedical Materials

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ISSN / EISSN : 1748-6041 / 1748-605X
Published by: IOP Publishing (10.1088)
Total articles ≅ 1,786
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Ashley Ward, Debora Morgante, John Fisher, Eileen Ingham,
Published: 15 October 2021
Biomedical Materials, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-605x/ac2ab8

Abstract:
Bladder acellular matrix has promising applications in urological and other reconstructive surgery as it represents a naturally compliant, non-immunogenic and highly tissue-integrative material. As the bladder fills and distends, the loosely-coiled bundles of collagen fibres in the wall become extended and orientate parallel to the lumen, resulting in a physical thinning of the muscular wall. This accommodating property can be exploited to achieve complete decellularisation of the full-thickness bladder wall by immersing the distended bladder through a series of hypotonic buffers, detergents and nucleases, but the process is empirical, idiosyncratic and does not lend itself to manufacturing scale up. In this study we have taken a mechanical engineering approach to determine the relationship between porcine bladder size and capacity, to define the biaxial deformation state of the tissue during decellularisation and to apply these principles to the design and testing of a scalable novel laser-printed flat-bed apparatus in order to achieve reproducible and full-thickness bladder tissue decellularisation. We demonstrate how the procedure can be applied reproducibly to fresh, frozen or twice-frozen bladders to render cm2 patches of DNA-free acellular matrix suitable for surgical applications.
Yogendra Pratap Singh, , , Ashish Kumar Agrawal
Published: 8 October 2021
Abstract:
This study was aimed at fabricating monetite nanoparticles impregnated gelatin based composite scaffold to improve chemical, mechanical and osteogenic properties. Scaffolds were fabricated using freeze drying technique of the slurry containing varying proportion of gelatin and monetite. The lyophilized scaffolds were cross-linked with 0.25 wt% glutaraldehyde (GTA) solution to obtain 3D interconnected porous microstructure with improved mechanical strength and stability in physiological environment. The fabricated scaffolds possessed > 80% porosity having 3D interconnected pore size distribution varying between 65–270 μm as evident from Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis. Average pore size of the prepared scaffold decreased with monetite addition as reflected in values of 210 m for pure gelatin GM0 scaffold and 118 μm registered by GM20 scaffold. On increase in monetite content upto 20 wt% of total polymer concentration, compressive strength of the prepared scaffolds was increased from 0.92 MPa in pure gelatin based GM0 to 2.43 MPa in GM20. Upto 20 wt% of monetite reinforced composite scaffolds exhibited higher bioactivity as compared to that observed in pure gelatin based GM0 scaffold. SBF study and alizarin red assays confirmed higher bio-mineralization ability of GM20 as compared to that exhibited by GM0. Human preosteoblast cells (MG-63) revealed higher degree of fillopodia and lamellopodia extensions and excellent spreading behavior to anchor with GM20 matrix as compared to that onto GM10, GM0. MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining study indicated that MG-63 cells found more conducive environment to proliferate and subsequently differentiate into osteoblast lineage when exposed to GM20 scaffolds rather than to GM10, GM0, and. This study revealed that upto 20 wt% monetite addition in gelatin could improve the performance of prepared scaffolds and serve as an efficient candidate to repair and regenerate bone tissues at musculoskeletal defect sites.
Abdulraheem M. N. Atya, Atakan Tevlek, Muhannad Almemar, Dincer Gökcen,
Published: 7 October 2021
Abstract:
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are responsible for the major number of deaths around the world. Among these is heart failure (HF) after myocardial infarction (MI) whose latest therapeutic methods are limited to slowing the end-state progression. Numerous strategies have been developed to meet the increased demand of therapies regarding CVDs. This study aimed to establish a novel electrically conductive elastomer-based composite and assess its potential as a cardiac patch for myocardial tissue engineering. The electrically conductive carbon aerogels used in this study were derived from waste paper as a cost-effective carbon source and they were combined with the biodegradable poly(glycerol-sebacate) (PGS) elastomer to obtain an electrically conductive cardiac patch material. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the conductive composites obtained by incorporation of carbon aerogels into PGS (CA-PGS). In this context, the incorporation of the Carbon Aerogels (CAs) into the polymeric matrix significantly improved the elastic modulus (from 0.912 MPa for the pure PGS elastomer to 0.366 MPa for the CA-PGS) and the deformability (from 0.792 MPa for the pure PGS to 0.566 MPa for CA-PGS). Overall, the mechanical properties of the obtained structures were observed similar to the native myocardium. Furthermore, the addition of CAs made the obtained structures electrically conductive with a conductivity value of 65×10-3 S‧m-1 which falls within the range previously recorded for human myocardium. In terms of biological performance, the in vitro cytotoxicity experiment with L929 mouse fibroblast cells showed that the CA-PGS composite was not cytotoxic properties. On the other hand, the studies conducted with H9C2 rat cardiac myoblasts revealed that final structures were suitable for myocardial tissue engineering (MTE) applications according to the successes in cell adhesion, cell proliferation and cell behavior.
Published: 4 October 2021
Abstract:
Islet cells transplantation has limitations like low survivability, which can be overcome by using extracellular matrix mimicking three dimensional (3D) scaffolds, which supports the growth and proliferation of seeded cells. This study was aimed to investigate the role of novel 3D Carboxymethyl guargum (CMGG) nanocomposite with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for proliferation of pancreatic islet cells (RIN-5F) and rate of insulin secretion of RIN-5F cells. SEM and FTIR results have demonstrated good porosity and the chemical interactions between CMGG and rGO. Mechanical testing and TGA of nanofibers have shown good tensile strength and thermal stability with rGO in the nanocomposite. These scaffolds demonstrated in vitro biocompatibility with acceptable ranges of biodegradability and hemocompatibility. The in vitro cell proliferation and viability of RIN-5F cells on 3D CMGG nanofibers have significantly increased compared to 2D cell control. Moreover, the glucose dependent insulin secretion of RIN-5F cells on CMGG nanocomposite has significantly increased upto 4-5 folds than cells on 2D cell control. The biomaterials used in this 3D nanofiber scaffold have shown to be biodegradable and hemocompatible and can be a promising platform for the proliferation and secretion of insulin from beta cells and can be effectively used in transplantation type-1 diabetes.
Marie Dubar, Martin Lizambard, Elisabeth Delcourt-Debruyne, Fareeha Batool, Olivier Huck, Florence Siepmann,
Published: 4 October 2021
Biomedical Materials, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-605x/ac254c

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