Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions

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Al Zahrani Ali M, Ali Hatim M, Ahmed Shaza A, Abdelakher Ahmed M, Al Zahrani Asma A, Bakhribah Hatoon
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions, Volume 2, pp 025-030; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jcmhs.1001012

Abstract:
Introduction: Cancer treatment and prognosis depend heavily on early detection. Survival in the early stages is excellent for almost all types of cancer. Unfortunately, in Saudi Arabia, a large number of cancer patients present with advanced disease, resulting in a poor prognosis. There are three levels of delay in the management of cancer patients. The first level is the time between the first cancer-related symptoms and the presentation to the health facility, the second level is from the presentation to the diagnosis, and the third level is between the diagnosis and the treatment. This study aims to determine if there is a delay, at what level and to study the factors causing such delays. Materials and methods: Two hundred cancer patients who presented to the Armed Forces Hospital Southern Region, Oncology Department, were interviewed from January 1st to June 30th, 2018. The interviews were conducted by trained physicians familiar with the questionnaire’s contents. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: a demographic section and three more sections to identify factors causing the delay at the three levels from the patients’ perspectives. All data were analyzed using the SPSS version 20.0. Results: The mean patient age was 63 years. A total of 112 patients were female and 88 were male. The most common cancer type was breast cancer (27.5%). Among the patients, 61% were illiterate and 25.5% had elementary school degrees, 86% expressed little or no general medical knowledge about cancer. More women than men paid attention to cancer symptoms (70% vs. 54%). 75% of the patients presented to the first health facility after 2 months from the first appearance of symptoms (level 1 delay). Only 2% of the patients presented within one week. 50% of the patients received a diagnosis after visiting two health facilities. All patients were diagnosed at hospitals. 40% of patients used alternative medicines, 70% of whom thought this was the cause of their delayed presentations. 67% had their diagnosis confirmed within one month (level 2 delay), and 66% started their definitive treatment within one month (level 3 delay). 75% of the patients blame themselves for the delay. Educational level (p = 0.03), knowledge about cancer (p < 0.01), and the use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) (p = 0.01) were significantly associated with delayed presentation of patients to the health facility. Conclusion: There is a delay in the presentation of cancer patients (level 1) in the southern part of Saudi Arabia. Educational level, knowledge of cancer symptoms, and use of complementary and alternative medicines are the main causes. There were no delays in diagnosis and start of treatment (level 2,3).
E Peters Grace, Victor Assi, E Oko Nnabuike, J Peters Etete
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions, Volume 2, pp 021-024; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jcmhs.1001011

Abstract:
Background: The endemic nature of poliomyelitis in Nigeria was a source of concern to many given the global efforts aimed at eradicating the scourge. In this study, the factors that influenced the eradication of this malady in South-South Nigeria (Akwa Ibom and Cross River State) were investigated. Four null hypotheses, drawn on these factors (including culture belief, religious difference, language and the prevalence of ethnic conflict) guided the investigation. The main thrust of this study was to examine how socio-cultural factors negatively influenced the eradication of polio in the study area. Methods: Through stratified random and purposive sampling techniques, 600 adult men and women who had children were selected for the study. A structured questionnaire constructed by the researcher was used in data collection. Data analysis was carried out using one-way ANOVA and independent t-test statistical tools. Results: The findings were that cultural belief and religious affiliation exerted significant influence on the people’s effort towards polio eradication. Conclusion: The study indicated that the low use of health services by the people was brought about by variation in these variables. Among other things, it was suggested that continuous awareness campaigns be carried out to educate the people on the need for immunization anchored in science and technology.
Gomes Rafael Senff, de Lima Passoni Luiza Cardoso, Sirigatti Ricardo,
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions, Volume 2, pp 015-020; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jcmhs.1001010

Abstract:
Objective: The study aimed to describe the epidemiological profile of the homeless population and report the social impact on healthcare services provided by a voluntary initiative during one-year of follow-up. Method: This is an investigational study, carried out in an important capital-city of southern Brazil, which included 509 individuals in 2019. Findings were divided into three segments: sociodemographic, substance use/abuse and impact on healthcare. Results: The sociodemographic profile found was predominantly male, white, single, heterosexual, educated in elementary or high school, in regular use of legal and/or illegal substances, and living as homeless for less than a year. The impact of assistance provided on the perception of individuals who returned in subsequent actions was evident. Conclusion: The significant increase in the number of homeless people in large urban centers can benefit from the support of non-profit organizations to address the deficiencies faced in accessing basic health services. Based on this, we seek to advance in the development of new policies that improve local healthcare for the vulnerable population, to be more assertive to their needs.
Pagolu Koteswara Rao, Raghava Rao T
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions, Volume 2, pp 007-013; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jcmhs.1001008

Abstract:
Background: In India, the genetic disease is a disregarded service element in the community health- protection system. This study aims to gauge the accessibility of services for treating genetic disorders and also to evaluate the practices on deterrence and management services in the district health system. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of selected health amenities from 454 medical officers (MO’s), 94 accredited social health activist (ASHAs) workers, 86 multipurpose health assistant-female (MPHA-F), 34 multipurpose health assistant-male (MPHA-M), 14 multipurpose health supervisors-female (MPHS-F), 10 multipurpose health supervisors-male (MPHS-M), 6 multipurpose health extension officer/ community health officer (MPHEO/CHO), 10 public health nurse (PHN), 45 lab technicians (LT’s) working in the government health sector and 254 in the private health sector, 409 nursing staff working in the government health sector and 995 in the private health sector, 15 primary health centers (PHC’s), 4 community health centers (CHC’s), 1 district government hospital (DGH), 3 referral hospitals (RH’s). From the side of private health institutions 25 corporate hospitals (CH’s), 3 medical colleges (MC’s), and 25 diagnostic laboratories (DL’s) were conducted. Results: The findings show that adequate staff was in place at more than 70% of health centers, but none of the staff have obtained any operative training on genetic disease management. The largest part of the DH’s had rudimentary infrastructural and diagnostic facilities. However, the greater part of the CHC’s and PHC’s had inadequate diagnostic facilities related to genetic disease management. Biochemical, molecular, and cytogenetic services were not available at PHC’s and CHC’s. DH’s, RH’s, and all selected medical colleges were found to have offered the basic Biochemical genetics units during the survey. In 24% of CH’s, the basic biochemical units are available and 32% (8 out of 25) of DL’s have the advanced biochemical genetics units by study. Molecular genetics units were found to be available in 28% (7 out of 25) of DL’s during the study. About 6 (24%) diagnostic centers of cytogenetic laboratories were located in the Visakhapatnam district under the private sector. Conclusion: The district health care infrastructure in India has a shortage of basic services to be provided for the genetic disorder. With some policy resolutions and facility strengthening, it is possible to provide advanced services for a genetic disorder in the district health system.
Casamayor Leiza Claudia Elvira, Pérez Yero Julio César, , Chávez Miguel Brayan
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions, Volume 2, pp 001-006; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jcmhs.1001007

Abstract:
Introduction: Suicidal behavior in teenagers constitutes a health problem that, given the necessary measures of social isolation taken by the global emergency of the COVID-19 pandemic, must generate timely actions for its prevention and control from the public health services. Objective: To propose an action plan for the prevention of suicide in teenagers of the Remedios municipality, subjected to voluntary home confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in the “XXX Anniversary” Teaching Community Polyclinic of the municipality Remedios. We worked with the population of 25 teenagers between 12 and 19 years old who made suicide attempts in the period 2019-2021. The empirical methods used were: bibliographic and documentary review, participant observation, focus group, semi-structured interview and questionnaire. Results: The suicide attempt was common in female teenagers aged 17 to 19 years not identified as risk, the lack of motivation due to the study activity and the previous suicide attempts by ingesting psychotropic drugs without serious intention of dying predominated. The most frequent psychological disorders were emotional disorders, stress, depression, irritability, apathy and insomnia. Actions are presented for the prevention of suicide and promote behaviors that contribute to mental health in the context of COVID-19. Conclusion: The prevention of suicidal behavior in teenagers in conditions of social isolation due to COVID-19, must include actions that facilitate the coping with stress, intra-family communication and resilience.
, Birlie Tekalign Amera, Tasew Sheganew Fetene, Amare Abraham Tsedalu, Tibebu Nigusie Selomon, Tiruneh Chalie Marew
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions, Volume 1, pp 026-034; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jcmhs.1001004

Abstract:
Background: Corona virus disease is a highly infectious disease caused by the newly innovated corona virus. An emerging respiratory disease was abbreviated as COVID-19, after it has been first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan city of China. Ethiopia Ministry of health initiated multidisciplinary approach to tackle COVID-19 of which awareness creation is the main. The aim of this study is to assess knowledge, practice and associated factors towards prevention of novel corona virus among clients in Debre Tabor general hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, 2020. Methods: Institution based cross sectional study design was conducted in Debre Tabor General hospital from May 15 to May 30, 2020. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The data were entered into epi data version 4.4 and exported to SPSS window version 25 for analysis. Binary and multivariable logistic regression was fitted. Odds Ratios with 95% Confidence interval and p - value ≤ 0.05 were considered to assert significance. Result: A total of 345 clients were analyzed and the response rate was 96.4%. The mean age was 32.95 with S.D ± 13.18 years. Majority of the respondents were male (75.7%). Among the study participants 54.2% with (95% CI: [49.0, 59.2%]) and 49.0% with (95% CI: [43.5, 53.4%]) have good knowledge and god practice on COVID-19 preventions respectively. Sex AOR: 4.33 (2.06, 9.09), family size AOR: 2.49 (1.01, 6.15 and heard from social media AOR: 2.78 (1.21, 6.39) were significantly associated with knowledge of respondents. Knowledge AOR: 3.11 (1.59, 6.10) was significantly associated with practice of clients. Residency and those heard from TV were significant variables for both. Conclusion and recommendation: In this study the overall knowledge and preventive practices of the respondents were found to be low. Sex, family size, residency and sources of information were associated factors for knowledge. In addition to this knowledge was significant factor for practice. Health education programs aimed at mobilizing and improving COVID-19 related knowledge and practice intend to be strengthened.
, Ka Thomas, Mg Olujide
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions, Volume 1, pp 035-046; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jcmhs.1001005

Abstract:
Maternal mortality accounts for most deaths in agrarian communities of Nigeria due to poor access to midwives services and inadequate Skilled Birth Attendants (SBAs). The Midwives Service Scheme (MSS) was established to engage more SBAs and advocate better utilization of pre and post-natal care services. Studies have focused on maternal mortality reduction, however, information on underlying factors that predispose MSS target beneficiaries to its utilization is scarce. Therefore, utilization of MSS among women farmers in southwestern Nigeria was investigated. A four-stage sampling procedure was used. Three states from southwestern states (Oyo, Ogun and Ekiti) were randomly selected. Thereafter, ten Local Government Areas (LGAs) from eighteen LGAs that adopted MSS programme in the selected states were sampled. Also, 30% of the MSS facilities in the sampled LGAs were selected, resulting in 13 MSS facilities. Proportionate sampling technique was used to select 20% of registered women farmers in the selected 13 MSS facilities to give 207 respondents. Interview schedule was used to collect data on respondents’ socioeconomic characteristics, Maternal Health Information Sources (MHIS), Maternal Health Information Seeking Behavior (MHISB) and utilization of MSS. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. About (55.6%) of the respondents had formal education. MHISB and effectiveness of MSS was rated low by 53.2% and 55.6% of the respondents, respectively. MSS was moderately utilized by 64.7% of the respondents. The MSS utilization was 49.24 ± 11.39 (Oyo), 45.08 ± 9.28 (Ogun) and 44.00 ± 10.71 (Ekiti). Respondents’ education (χ2 = 12.85), family size (r = 0.02), monthly income (r = 0.48) related positively and significantly (r = 0.27) to MSS utilization.
Fakhari Ali, , Dehkharghani Keivan Fakhari
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions, Volume 1, pp 023-025; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jcmhs.1001003

Abstract:
Physician-patient communication is the most basic element and vital skill of physicians in the diagnosis, treatment, and establishing diagnostic protocols. As the risks of contagion and viral infection are higher in physicians and health workers, front line soldiers inpatient care units, so they should establish strict protective measures. However, patients value greatly face to face and close relationships with their doctors, including facial interviews and physical examinations. So social and physical distancing between physician and their patients can be remarked as a bigger toll than the risk of COVID-19 contagious.
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