Advanced Food and Nutritional Sciences

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EISSN : 2563-1640
Total articles ≅ 8
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Advanced Food and Nutritional Sciences, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21065/25631640.3.1

Abstract:
Liver has become a prime source for Campylobacter outbreaks and products are needed to allow processors a more efficient way of controlling foodborne pathogens. Campylobacter reductions in livers treated with a low pH processing aid (CMS PoultrypHresh), with and without a surfactant (PoultrypHresh Plus) were studied. Chicken livers (n=13/treatment group) were individually inoculated with a C. coli marker strain (107) and each dipped into sterile cups containing 100 mL of water, PoultrypHresh or PoultrypHresh Plus for 15 s, removed and allowed 5 s to drain. Each liver was placed into 50 mL buffered peptone water and hand shaken for 60 s; controls (n=10) same procedure, no treatment. Rinsates were serially diluted and plated onto Campy Cefex agar with 200 ppm gentamicin. Plates were incubated for 48 h at 42°C microaerobically, colonies counted and log transformed. Procedures were replicated 3 times. Significant reductions in treated compared to untreated for PoultrypHresh and PoultrypHresh Plus was 98.1% and 99.4%, respectively and with no change in appearance. Treating with this product may allow processors to meet rising performance standards on poultry livers.
Advanced Food and Nutritional Sciences, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21065/advfoonutrsci.4.8

Abstract:
IntroductionIdentification and handling of the food spoilage, food illness and food borne pathogens is a potential risk. That is continuously challenging the food experts, businesses owners and authorities. Subsequently, the manufacturing, supplying and distribution of finished food products become a crucial task and need constant check at every step. Thus, the standard laboratory testing may potentially assure the safety and efficacy of semimanufactured foods, edible ingredients, and finished products. Particularly, it helps to equip the industry with most current methods and high-level IT developed cutting edge technology. That simultaneously protects the manufacturer and consumers by complying with foodsafety standards. [2] Hence, the food and health expert are constantly working to review and update the blueprints of food microbiology testing. That is important to meet the requirement of the indigenous food and health standards. Whereas, the nutrition and composition analysis also offer the retailers, importers and manufacturers to understand and tackle the raised concerns. That may include the testing of nutrients, vitamins and other constituents of all range of food product destined for human consumption i.e. additives, excipients, preservatives, color, flavor etc.Thus, our local government official always encourages the local Canadian businesses to adopt the current art of technology, conduct accurate and timely examination of food. The food and nutrition tests should be performed under ISO/IEC 17025 accredited institutions under accredited and rigorous quality management system.
Advanced Food and Nutritional Sciences, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21065/advfoodnutrsci.4.13

Abstract:
Background: Aloe vera has long been used as a medicinal plant in the preparation of various gels, lotions and ointments besides its use in various food products.Methodology: The present study was carried out at the Plants Genetics Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. For the purpose of this study, an indigenous variety of Aloe vera was taken along with probiotics culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus helveticus. Aloe vera gel matrix was separated from outer cortex of leaves and media were prepared for the growth of respective probiotics cultures. Aloe vera was used in each probiotic culture against two pathogenic strains, i.e E. coli and S. aureus. In one plate, tryptone was replaced by 1% Aloe vera extract, while 0.5% and 1% Aloe vera extracts were added to other two plates. All the three probiotic cultures were separately inoculated in test tubes, which were incubated at 370C for 24 hours.Results: After incubation of 24 hours, plates were observed on the next day for the measurement of inhibition zones. Strong to medium zones of inhibition were formed against E. coli and S. aureus for all three probiotic cultures when 1% Aloe vera extract was used.Conclusions: This study revealed that the indigenous variety of Aloe vera exhibited significant anti microbial properties.
Advanced Food and Nutritional Sciences, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21065/advfoodnutrisci.5.1

Abstract:
Background: A non-destructive method such as a cloacal swab is very important to the poultry industry because it allows the breeder companies to determine if Salmonella is present in the valuable breeder chicks without the necessity of sacrificing any birds.Objective: To evaluate a nondestructive procedure to detect the presence of Salmonella in valuable breeder chicks.Methodology: Day-of-age broiler chicks from a commercial hatchery were orally gavaged with a marker strain of Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), and then placed in isolation units with drinkers, mesh flooring and feeders. At 7 and 14 days, 10 birds were cloacally swabbed (shallow and deep). Swabs were inserted 1 cm (shallow) into the cloaca and 2 cm deep (into the colon). Each swab was immersed in 5.0 ml of buffered peptone water (BPW), then streaked onto brilliant green sulfa agar plates with 200 ppm nalidixic acid (BGSN). Tubes and plates were incubated 24 h at 370C. When plates were negative, the pre-enriched tubes were vortexed and once again plated onto BGSN. The procedure for the frozen swabs was the same, except that 15% glycerol was added to the BPW and then frozen at -20C for 14 days. They were then thawed and analyzed as above. After swabbing, the chicks were sacrificed. The ceca was removed, placed in a stomacher bag, and macerated with a rubber mallet. Enumeration of the marker strain followed.Results: When the level of the marker ST was greater than 106 CFU/g of ceca and cecal contents, detection with either shallow or deep swab was the same 94% (47/50). When the level of ST was less than 106 CFU/g, detection with either method fell to 63.3% (38/60). After 14 days freezing the swabs at -20C, the shallow method detected 50% (32/64), and the deep swab detected 64% (41/64).Conclusion: Regardless of the level of ST in the ceca, there was no difference in the detection rate between the shallow or the deep swab. Even when using low inoculum levels, a high rate of ST colonization in the ceca was reached, allowing both the shallow and deep swabs to almost all be positive at 7 days of age. Since the poultry companies may not be able to analyze the swab results on the same day as collection, we decided to evaluate if freezing the swabs for as long as 14 days would have any adverse effect on the recovery of ST. Freezing did not seem to make a difference in sensitivity. For frozen swabs the deep colonal swab yielded better results than the shallow swab. So you can freeze if you must, but doing the analysis the same day as the swabbing (unfrozen) techniques seems to be slightly more reliable.
Advanced Food and Nutritional Sciences, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21065/advfoodnutrisci.4.1

Abstract:
Campylobacter is a major concern for poultry processors, as USDA performance standards have become stricter. This study evaluated CMS PoultrypHresh™, a low pH processing aid, and peracetic acid using consecutive and sequential dip treatments to reduce Campylobacter in thighs. Thighs (n=3/treatment group) were inoculated with a C. coli marker strain (108) and each dipped into bags containing 1 L of treatment 1 for 6 s. Thighs were allowed 5 s to drip, placed onto foil for 60 s, and dipped into treatment 2 for 6 s. After 5 s drip time, each was placed in a bag with 150 mL buffered peptone water and hand shaken for 60 s; controls same procedure, no treatment. Rinsates were serially diluted, plated onto Campy Cefex agar with 200 ppm gentamicin and incubated microaerobically for 48 h at 42°C. Procedures were replicated 5 times. Significant reductions compared to untreated using consecutive dips of PoultrypHresh™ and PAA were 98.2% and 99.3%, respectively. Treatments of PoultrypHresh™ then peracetic acid reduced Campylobacter 99.2% from untreated thighs. Peracetic acid then PoultrypHresh™ showed significant reductions compared to all other treatments (99.9% from untreated). Treating with this sequence may allow processors to meet the strict performance standards on Campylobacter in broiler parts.
Advanced Food and Nutritional Sciences, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21065/25631640.1.1

Abstract:
Apple, guava and strawberry are important fruits extensively grown in Pakistan. Owing to their considerable nutritional significance, often marketed as "super-fruits". Due to inappropriate handling, transportation and processing 40-45% of the fruits are spoiled. These losses of the seasonal surplus of the fruits can be avoided by processing and preserving the fruit into different products like mixed jam, juice, nectar and jelly. Keeping in view the perishable nature of fruits, current study was designed with an objective to prepare different treatments of mixed jam having acceptable quality parameters as well as consumer acceptability. For this purpose, five treatments of jam were prepared at laboratory scale. After preliminary analysis of fruits, all the five treatments were analyzed for physico-chemical (pH, TSS, Titratable acidity, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars), and sensory analysis for an interval of 7 days during 1 month storage period. The results of different treatments of jam showed a highly variable trend. pH, non-reducing sugars and all sensory parameters showed a decreasing trend during storage. Opposite is the case with acidity, total soluble solids, as well as reducing sugars. Sensory analysis indicated that the order of preference for jam treatments was T4>T3>T2>T0>T1>T5. Study suggests that losses in fresh fruits can be curtailed by processing it into mixed jam.
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