European Journal of Applied Physics

Journal Information
EISSN : 2684-4451
Current Publisher: European Open Science Publishing (10.24018)
Total articles ≅ 49
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Nikolai Mykola Kobasko
European Journal of Applied Physics, Volume 3, pp 6-12; doi:10.24018/ejphysics.2021.3.3.76

Abstract:
In the paper it is shown that quenching in slow agitated water salt solution of optimal concentration and in low concentration of inverse solubility polymers is intensive quenching creating maximal temperature gradients at the beginning of cooling. The evidence to support such idea were collected by analyzing quenching process in liquid media where any film boiling process was completely absent. In this case, surface temperature at the beginning of cooling drops closely to saturations temperature of a liquid within the interval 1–2 seconds, independently on nature of water solution, and then during transient nucleate boiling process maintains at the level of boiling point of a liquid which is often called self–regulated thermal process. The computer modeling of such cooling processes provided Kondrat’ev numbered Kn which are strongly linear function of time. At the beginning of cooling Kondrat’ev number is almost equal to 1 while average Kondrat’ev number Kn≥0.8. According to US Patent, intensive quenching starts when Kn=0.8. Based on achieved results, it is possible to perform intensive quenching in slow agitated of low concentration water salt and polymer solutions, usually initiated by hydrodynamic emitters. Along with liquid agitation, emitters generate resonance wave effect which destroys film boiling processes making cooling very uniform and intensive. The proposed IQ process works perfectly when martensite starts temperature Ms>Ts. If saturation temperature Ts≥Ms, intensive austempering process via cold liquids can be successfully performed to replace slow cooling of molten salts and alkalis by intensive quenching in liquid media.
Saddam Husain Dhobi, Arjun Panthi, Subash Panthi, Roshan Subedi
European Journal of Applied Physics, Volume 3, pp 1-5; doi:10.24018/ejphysics.2021.3.3.70

Abstract:
To study the variation of temperature with the collision of the air molecules, with aircraft the authors consider the random velocities of the air molecules or aerosol and aircraft. After this, the authors start to develop and extend the old relation of gases, collision, velocities, and temperature. On combining, the authors derived a new equation and relation among these parameters. The derivation for this work assumes some suitable and considerable, assumptions based on collision theory. The relation shows, on collision between the aircraft and air molecules the velocity of the aircraft does not change while the velocity of the air molecules goes on change, which is our goal. The change in velocity of gases is used to develop and study the variation of temperature of the atmosphere, the variation of temperature takes place because the speed of aircraft and air molecules are exchangeable in some cases. Therefore, two relations are developed (24) and (25), finally, which depend upon the initial velocities of aircraft and air molecules. On considering the case for initial velocities of aircraft is greater than initial velocities of air molecules, after the collision, the velocities of gases go on the increase, and hence the temperature increase and vice-versa in case of initial velocities of aircraft is less than the initial velocity of air molecules.
Robert A. Sizov
European Journal of Applied Physics, Volume 3, pp 21-28; doi:10.24018/ejphysics.2021.3.3.78

Abstract:
The author's experimental studies shown that magnetic poles (magnetic charges) are real structural components of atoms and substance. It is the magnetic poles, and not the electrons moving are direct sources of all magnetic fields in nature. The main reasons for ignoring magnetic charges in physical science are the hard conditions for their confinement in the structures of substance which is fundamentally different from the confinement of electrons, as well as the vicious electric magnetism of Maxwell (1873). True magnetic poles have been “buried alive” in physical theory under such theoretical surrogates as the magnetic moments of electrons. The electromagnetic shells of atoms composed of electric and magnetic charges are the sources of gravitational field which is the vortex electromagnetic field and is described by vortex vector rot[E – H]. Depending on the state of vortex vectors rot[E – H] in the composition of gravitational fields (GF) emitted by atoms, these fields are subdivided into paragravitational (PGF) and ferrogravitational (FGF). The sources of ferrogravitational field are repelled from sources of paragravitational field, for example, from Earth. The forces of such repulsion depend on the degree ferropolarization of gravitational field of atom - source of FGF, and the physical manifestation such repulsion is еthe effect of the ferrogravitational levitation (FGL), which discovered and investigated by the author. The FGL effect is also realized between the atoms emitting PGF and FGF in the formulations of chemical compounds. When an external FGF acts on CO2 molecule the process ferropolarization of gravitational field of oxygen atom is realized, which should be defined as the gravito-plastic source. In this case, the carbon atom, which is the gravito-stable mass, remains of paragravitational. At interatomic distances <1 Å the forces of the gravito-levitation repulsion may be very significant and lead to the rupture of chemical bonds between oxygen and carbon atoms and to the disintegration of the molecule CO2. It is highly probable that the process of decomposition of CO2, similar to that described above, is carried out in the cells of leaves of green plants, which emit precisely the ferrogravitational field. The decomposition of CO2 by FGF and the supply of oxygen to green plants is natural process that takes place in leaf cells called photosynthesis. However, photons in this process are only a stimulating factor contributing to the ferropolarization of gravitational field emitted by atoms oxygen in the composition of green plant cells.
A. Sfarti
European Journal of Applied Physics, Volume 3, pp 13-15; doi:10.24018/ejphysics.2021.3.3.79

Abstract:
In the current paper we present a generalization of the transforms from the frame co-moving with an accelerated particle for uniformly accelerated motion into an inertial frame of reference. The motivation is that the real life applications include accelerating and rotating frames with arbitrary orientations more often than the idealized case of inertial frames; our daily experiments happen in Earth-bound laboratories. We use the transforms in order to generalize the Thomas-Wigner rotation to the case of uniformly accelerated boosts.
I. Hossain, Hewa Y. Abdullah, I. M. Ahmed, Fadhil I. Sharrad
European Journal of Applied Physics, Volume 3, pp 16-20; doi:10.24018/ejphysics.2021.3.3.54

Abstract:
We report the properties of gamma soft O(6) of 128Ba isotones with neutron N = 72 using Interacting Vector Boson Model (IVBM), interacting Boson Model (IBM-1), Bohr-Mottelson Model (BM), and Doma-El-Gendy (D-G) relation. The first energy level ( ) and ratio have been investigated which show that 128Ba has gamma-soft character. The curves Eγ/Vs.J of E-GOS of even 128Ba nucleus were compared with the standard curves of vibrational, gamma soft and rotational limits. The staggering factors were studied of available measured data of 128Ba nucleus. The yrast levels of this isotope are calculated by the model of VBMI, IBM-1, BM and D-G and they were compared by measured data. The negative parity band of 128Ba was calculated by IVBM and BM model and compared with experimental values.
A. Sfarti
European Journal of Applied Physics, Volume 3, pp 1-2; doi:10.24018/ejphysics.2021.3.2.56

Abstract:
In a 1967 paper [1], G. Feinberg conjectured about the possibility of “faster-than-light” particles. In the current note we prove his conjecture to be false by showing that he missed several key counter-arguments to their existence. We explain why the existence of tachyons contradicts both relativistic kinematics and relativistic dynamics. Our paper is divided in two sections: the kinematic counter-arguments and the dynamics counter-arguments.
P. O. Ushie, C. M. Ekpo, T. O. Magu, P. O. Okoi
European Journal of Applied Physics, Volume 3, pp 34-43; doi:10.24018/ejphysics.2021.3.2.63

Abstract:
Within the framework of Nikiforov-Uvarov method, we obtained an approximate solution of the Schrodinger equation for the Energy Dependent Generalized inverse quadratic Yukawa potential model. The bound state energy eigenvalues for were computed for various vibrational and rotational quantum numbers. Special cases were considered when the potential parameters were altered, resulting into Energy Dependent Kratzer and Kratzer potential, Energy Dependent Kratzer fues and Kratzer fues potential, Energy Dependent Inverse quadratic Yukawa and Inverse quadratic Yukawa Potential, Energy Dependent Yukawa (screened Coulomb) and Yukawa (screened Coulomb) potential, and Energy Dependent Coulomb and Coulomb potential, respectively. Their energy eigenvalues expressions and numerical computations agreed with the already existing literatures.
Jiří Stávek
European Journal of Applied Physics, Volume 3, pp 44-47; doi:10.24018/ejphysics.2021.3.2.65

Abstract:
We have newly interpreted the Newtonian gravitational constant G as the gravitational inertia of vacuum G0. The source mass inserted into vacuum decreases this value G0 to GZ on the dependence of the atomic number Z of atoms in the source mass. This is the mechanism for the attraction of test masses through vacuum – the test mass follows the decrease of the gravitational inertia of vacuum towards the source mass. We have extracted the relationship GZ = G0 (1 – k Z) where k is the experimental constant from ten actual precise experimental determinations of GZ. This model was tested on two precise experimental values of GZ determined for GEARTH, and GBRASS. This model enables to predict values GZ for atoms, molecules and compositions of the studied source masses and to realize experimental verification with the existing experimental technology. The experimental GZ values are thus arranged into a system and the spread in these data is explained as the influence of atoms of the source masses on their surrounding via the decrease of the gravitational inertia of vacuum. We might achieve the accuracy of experimental values GZ with six significant figures for all configurations of source and test masses.
Nikolai I. Kobasko
European Journal of Applied Physics, Volume 3, pp 23-28; doi:10.24018/ejphysics.2021.3.2.60

Abstract:
In the paper the hardening process of splined semi-axles is discussed and physics of preventing the quench crack formation during intensive quenching (IQ) is explained. It is shown that during IQ process at the splined cylindrical surface very high compressive current band residual stresses are formed which prevent the possibility of quench crack formation on splines. It is enough to optimize the stress distribution through the section of semi-axle and perform IQ process in order to prevent quench cracks formation in splines. It is achieved via optimizing depth of surface hardened layer. In this case the depth of surface hardened layer for cylinders and for cylinders with splines are the same. There is no need to create a special thin shell on splines or perform carburization to create such shell. Due to larger martensite specific volume, it results in surface compressive residual stress formation. Absence of martensite phase at the core eliminates core swelling that could be a reason in tensile surface stresses. The idea is supported by FEM calculations and testing of real semi-axles in industrial condition. The new idea simplifies cardinally technological process and makes it less costly.
Ernest Benjamin Ikechukwu Ugwu, Christopher Ekene Okeke
European Journal of Applied Physics, Volume 3, pp 11-15; doi:10.24018/ejphysics.2021.3.2.35

Abstract:
The hourly variation of the H-component of the geometric field from two equatorial electrojet stations, Huancayo and Addis Ababa, and one non-equatorial electrojet station, Alibag, were studied to find out the trend of solar quiet variation of H for the year 2008. The dH amplitudes of the electrojet stations showed enhancement in H, while there was no enhancement in the non-electrojet station which was located far away from the dip equator. The day-to-day monthly diurnal variation was, however, observed in all the three stations. Also, at nighttime, the dH amplitudes of all the stations were non-zero which we attributed to non-ionospheric current sources like the magnetosphere since at night there was no solar radiations. For seasonal variations, an Equinoctial maximum, J-Solstitial maximum, and S-Solstitial maximum were observed in the equatorial stations while the non-equatorial station recorded an equinoctial minimum, J-solstitial minimum and D-Solstitial minimum.
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