Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology

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ISSN / EISSN : 2156-8456 / 2156-8502
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 929
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Oumar Ba, Abraham Dieme, Amadou Lamine Ndoye, Mame Ourèye Sy
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, Volume 12, pp 458-480; https://doi.org/10.4236/abb.2021.1212029

Abstract:
Annona muricata L. and Annona squamosa L. are tropical species whose fleshy fruit is edible. They offer real possibilities for socio-economic use, particularly in the fields of medicine, nutrition, ecosystem conservation and the poverty alleviation. This study was set up to evaluate different methods of micropropagation from juvenile material for the regeneration of these species. Thus, MS medium supplemented with [BAP 2 mg·L-1] i.e. M2 produced 2.87 newly formed shoots from the cotyledonary nodes of A. muricata. For the terminal apices of A. squamosa, it was MMS medium supplemented with [BAP 2 mg·L-1] i.e. MM2 that was most conducive to new shoot formation (3.12). The addition of 0.1 and 0.2 mg·L-1 of NAA in the M2 medium, made it possible to have the best elongations and average number of nodes for the new shoots from cotyledonary nodes of A. muricata (9.11 cm for 5.62 nodes). With A. squamosa, MM7 medium [MMS + BAP 1 mg·L-1 + KIN 1 mg·L-1] resulted in an average length of 9.05 cm with 5.62 nodes on average for the apical shoots. A 3-day rhizogenic induction period in the dark with [IBA 50 mg·L-1] and 2 g·L-1 of activated charcoal gave a rooting rate of 66.67% for shoots originating from the cotyledonary nodes of A. squamosa; while with vitroplants from cotyledonary nodes of A. muricata, a better rooting rate (83.33%) was obtained following a 5-day rhizogenic induction. After 30 days of acclimatization, the survival rate reached 83.33% for plants from the tips of A. muricata, whereas for A. squamosa, it was plants grown from cotyledonary nodes that had the same survival rate.
Honoree Fleming
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, Volume 12, pp 229-255; https://doi.org/10.4236/abb.2021.127015

Abstract:
Opaque polyploid cells capable of forming megamitochondria are a constant feature in colonies of Ishikawa endometrial epithelia, accounting for approximately 5% - 10% of the cells. Opaque cells appear to communicate with other opaque cells via membrane extensions and with other cells in a colony by extra-cellular vesicles. Opaque cells form first as rectangular structures, somewhat larger than surrounding monolayer cells. The cells eventually round up, remaining in the colony for 20 or more hours before detaching. The most unusual characteristic of Ishikawa opaque cells is their capacity to form mitonucleons, megamitochondria that surround aggregated chromatin. This paper reviews evidence that adaptations resulting in megamitochondria include a loss of the capacity for oxidative phosphorylation leaving the adapted megamitochondria reliant on metabolism such as reductive carboxylation.
Sujjat Al Azad, Vivian Chong Ai Ping
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, Volume 12, pp 286-296; https://doi.org/10.4236/abb.2021.129018

Abstract:
This study was undertaken to determine total protein (%) and profiles of amino acid and made comparison between the aqueous and organic solvent extracted mushroom. Extraction was made from two edible, Pleurotus sajor-caju (commercial) and Schizophyllum commune (wild) types of mushrooms. Four types of solvents were used for the extraction include 100% aqueous, 50% ethanol, 50% methanol and 50% acetone. True protein of mushroom extract was analyzed with colorimetric Lowry method and amino acids were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). The range of 1.06% to 3.43% and 1.30% to 2.17% total protein value were obtained in the extracts of P. sajor-caju and S. commune respectively, while the highest total protein of 3.43% was determined in aqueous extracted P. sajor-caju mushroom. The amount of total amino acids of S. commune and P. sajor-caju were in the range of 308.65 mg/g to 443.84 mg/g and 172.52 mg/g to 400.76 mg/g, respectively. The highest content of 443.84 mg/g total amino acids and 77.08 mg/g of essential amino acids were obtained in the aqueous extracted Schizophyllum commune. On the other hand the total content of essential amino acids (EAA). Essential amino acid of both mushrooms was dominated by leucine along with threonine and alanine, but the highest contents were determined from the extract of Schizophyllum commune. Aqueous extraction was effective in both types of mushroom for the protein components as well essential amino acids compared to other organic solvents that were used in extraction process in this study.
Al-Baraa Akram, Glen McCann
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, Volume 12, pp 297-308; https://doi.org/10.4236/abb.2021.129019

Abstract:
The problem of multidrug-resistant pathogens as bacteria, fungi and yeast in addition to the restriction of using antibiotics as growth promoting substances in feed has attracted attention for looking for alternative sources instead of conventional antibiotics like natural products which have antimicrobial activity. Much interest and researches have been focused on using natural antimicrobial peptides and chemicals extracted from animal secretions and some insect’s venoms as they exhibit antimicrobial activity against pathogens with lower resistance and higher synergistic effects if they were given in combination with blends of them. In this paper, some antibacterial peptides extracted from honeybees venom and expression with yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae will be discussed as well as antimicrobial chemicals extracted from giraffes in addition to their inhibitory effects on liver microsomal enzymes CYP450 will be discussed also with its activity against microorganisms which are Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and E. coli using optical density analysis technique then their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) will be determined as well as ICs 50 to measure the potency to inhibit a biological function using programmes like Gene5, graph pad prism and clone manager as well as testing antimicrobial activity of some chemicals which are provided in animal secretions.
Innocent Okonkwo Ogbonna, Joseph Ikwebe, Otsai Otsima Okpozu, Chijioke Nwoye Eze, James Chukwuma Ogbonna
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, Volume 12, pp 257-274; https://doi.org/10.4236/abb.2021.128016

Abstract:
As a way of making algal feedstock feasible for biofuel production, simultaneous utilization of microalga Dictyosphaerium sp. LC172264 for cassava wastewater remediation and accumulation of lipids for biodiesel production was investigated. The algal biomass, lipid contents and composition were measured from the autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultured algal cells. Physicochemical parameters of the cassava wastewater and bioremediation potentials were measured. Biodiesel properties were deduced and compared with the standards. The results showed that mixotrophic culture was the best for both biomass accumulation (1.022 g/L) and lipid contents (24.53%). Irrespective of the culture condition, the predominant fatty acids were similar and included 11-Octadecenoic acid (vaccenic acid (C19H36O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2) and 14-methyl pentadecanoic acid (isopalmitic acid (C17H34O2). The percentage reduction of total dissolved solids was 79.32% and 89.78% for heterotrophy and mixotrophy respectively. Biochemical oxygen demand was 72.95% and 89.35%, chemical oxygen demand was 72.19% and 84.03% whereas cyanide contents reduced from the initial value of 450 mg/L to 93.105 (79.31%) and 85.365 mg/L (81.03%) respectively. Dictyosphaerium sp. showed good growth and lipid production under mixotrophic condition and produced good quality biodiesel under the three cultivation modes. Even though both mixotrophic and heterotrophic conditions had good promise of cassava wastewater remediation by Dictyosphaerium sp., mixotrophy showed superiority.
B. F. Chadov, N. B. Fedorova
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, Volume 12, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.4236/abb.2021.121001

Abstract:
The mutations in ontogenes have been shown to drastically increase the nondisjunction of X chromosomes in the D. melanogaster meiosis. This means that ontogenes are involved in the process that brings the homologs together although both the genes and ontogenes are finally paired. The phenomenon named the paradox of homologous pairing is described. Chromosomal rearrangements (inversions and translocations) lead to formation of specific topological figures (loops and crosses) during pairing. The mutual arrangement of the nucleotide sequences of homologous ontogenes before and after formation of such figures is different. Their arrangement coincides after a figure is formed and the pairing looks homologous. However, before the figure is formed, their arrangement does not match and the pairing is actually nonhomologous. The available data on ontogenes allows this paradox to be resolved. It is assumed that the sequence of each ontogene possesses a factor that 1) is a product of this nucleotide sequence; 2) is co-located with this sequence; and 3) generates approaching independently of nucleotide sequence position in space. The sole candidate to the role of this factor is the DNA conformation of ontogene. The conformation in the form of a solenoid of DNA is able to generate an electromagnetic field independent of the orientation of the DNA itself. The proposed resolution of the paradox is considered in terms of the problem of genetic homology.
Huan Zhao, Yan Chen, Jing Lan, Liuxian Huang, Tianyou Huang, Miaohong Li, Xingchuang Chen, Wanwei Yang, Fu Huang, Tongfeng Huang, et al.
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, Volume 12, pp 361-370; https://doi.org/10.4236/abb.2021.1211023

Abstract:
Objective: To understand the distribution of thalassemia in all districts under the jurisdiction of Chongzuo City. Methods: Collect blood routine indicators from May 2014 to 31 December 2020 in the districts of this city to screen out suspected Mediterranean patients for genetic diagnosis; GGAP-PCR and PCR-reverse dot hybridization were used to analyze the thalassemia gene in the specimens of suspected patients; compare the prevalence of thalassemia in the counties and cities within the jurisdiction of this city, and provide corresponding medical advice to the health authorities. Results: 21,535 venous blood specimens from patients with suspected thalassemia were collected in the city. There were 14,215 positive cases of thalassemia, accounting for 66.01% of the total number of patients, among which 9455 cases (43.91%) were pure α gene positive. 3464 patients (16.09%) were positive for simple β gene. 1296 patients (6.02%) were positive for αβ double gene. The proportions of thalassemia gene testing for α-thalassaemia gene, β-thalassaemia gene, and α-β double gene in various counties and districts were different. According to the multiple rate or the chi-square test of the constituent ratio, the comparison of the distribution of the thalassaemia gene test results in each area, χ2 = 472.6917, P = 0.0000, the difference is statistically significant. Conclusion: Severe thalassemia is a tragedy for a family. It not only needs to spend a lot of money to prolong life, but it also cannot change the situation of losing life and financial emptiness in the end. It is suggested that timely screening, timely diagnosis and medical consultation should be carried out in married and unborn families and early pregnancy, so as to reduce the birth of children with severe thalassemia and avoid the occurrence of tragedies.
Ahmed A. Abdille, Josephine Kimani, Fred Wamunyokoli, Wallace Bulimo, Yahaya Gavamukulya, Esther N. Maina
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, Volume 12, pp 337-359; https://doi.org/10.4236/abb.2021.1210022

Abstract:
Background: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most prevalent soft tissue sarcoma in children, representing approximately 50% of pediatric sarcomas and can develop in any part of the body though more frequently at the extremities. Aim: Evaluating the in vitro anti-proliferative activity of Dermaseptin B2 on Rhabdomyosarcoma RD (CCL-136TM) cells and its effect on the expression of MYC, FGFR1, NOTCH1, and CXCR7 genes involve in processes including proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis. Methods: RD cells were grown in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum. Exponentially growing cells were treated with Dermaseptin B2 and Antiproliferative activity was assayed using the resazurin and migration assays at three time-points. In order to determine the gene expression profiles of MYC, NOTCH1, FGFR1 and CXCR7, total RNA was extracted from the cells and q-RT-PCR was performed with β-Actin as reference gene. Results: Dermaseptin B2 inhibited the proliferation of RD cells in a time and concentration dependent manner as with IC50 values of 7.679 μM, 7.235 μM, 5.993 μM. The 2-dimentional wound healing assay showed inhibition of migration and motility of the RD cells at time-points of 6, 24, 48 and 72-hours with the greatest inhibition observed at 72-hours. Dermaseptin B2 downregulated the target MYC (fc; 1.5013, 1.5185, 2.4144), CXCR7 (fc; 2.8818, 4.4430, 3.9924), FGFR1 (fc; 2.3515, 2.0809, 2.2543), NOTCH1 (fc; 2.4667, 4.6274, 4.3352) genes for the three-time points respectively. NOTCH1 and CXCR7 showed higher fold changes with respect to β-Actin than MYC and FGFR1. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that Dermaseptin B2 is a target molecule for signaling pathways including PI3K/AKT, RTK and NOTCH pathways that could affect the transcription of these genes and overall inhibition of cancer progression. Further studies are needed to give a better understanding of the detailed mechanisms of action as well as the effects of the Dermaseptin B2 peptide in vivo.
Mayank Acharya, Pranab Karmaker, Moniruzzaman, Abu Hasan, Sumiya Aktar, Asit Baran Adhikary, Mala Khan
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, Volume 12, pp 323-336; https://doi.org/10.4236/abb.2021.1210021

Abstract:
Coronary arteries supply blood and nutrients to the heart. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) develops by narrowing of the arteries. Once the inner walls of the arteries are damaged, fatty deposits made of cells, connective tissue elements, lipids and debris decrease their lumens which block blood flow to distal tissues. This process is called arteriosclerosis. This study intends to detect the composition of human coronary atheroma collected from the arteries during bypass surgeries in Bangladesh. It shows that all lesions are present in the advanced types, namely, type 4, 5 and 6. Infrequently thrombotic materials and necrotic debris were found in type 6 plaque. The mean length of plaque was 3.36 ± 1.71 cm and mean weight was 0.13 ± 0.12 gm. Insufficient lipid was obtained from each atheroma. Few raised areas were lipid laden whereas most of the strands were fibrous. Biochemical assessment was formidable. The cholesterol composition of coronary plaque ranged between 0.20% - 9.83% with mean 3.06% ± 2.09% and total fatty acids ranged between 0.47% - 3.04% with mean 1.31% ± 0.63%. The most abundant fatty acid was oleic acid (unsaturated) closely followed by palmitic acid (saturated). The mean calcium content was 41,180.20 ± 34,918.59 ppm and ranged from 1148.00 - 140,311.00 ppm or, 0.115% - 14.031%. This study was undertaken to detect the composition of human coronary atheroma in Bangladesh which revealed that it depended upon the type of lesion.
Mabiala Shaloom Teresa, Joseph Goma-Tchimbakala, Nzaou Stech Anomene Eckzechel, Lebonguy Augustin Aimé
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, Volume 12, pp 10-30; https://doi.org/10.4236/abb.2021.121002

Abstract:
Actually, in Republic of Congo, rhizobia have poorly phenotypically and biochemically characterized. This study aimed to characterize native rhizobia. Rhizobia strains were isolated using nodule roots collected on Milletia laurentii, Acacia spp., Albizia lebbeck, and Vigna unguiculata. The strains isolated were characterized microbiologically, biochemically, physiologically, and molecularly identified using 16S rRNA method. The results reported in this study are only for six strains of all 77 isolated: RhA1, RhAc4, RhAc15, RhAc13, RhW1, and RhV3. All native strains were positive to urease activity, negative to cellulase and pectinase activity except for one isolate that showed a positive cellulase activity. Moreover, isolates have grown at 12% of NaCl. On different effects of temperatures, isolates were able to grow up to 44°C and showed good growth at pH from 7 to 9 and the ability to use ten different carbon hydrates sources. The strains were identified as Rhizobium tropici, Rhizobium sp., Mesorhizobium sp. Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The phylogenetically analysis of the 16S rRNA genes, using a clustering method, allowed us to have a history that is both ancient and stable of four clades among genes with similar patterns. Expanding our awareness of the new legume-rhizobia will be a valuable resource for incorporating an alternative nitrogen fixation approach to consolidate the growth of legumes. These germs can be used in Congolese agriculture to improve yield of crops.
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