Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences

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ISSN : 2519-2809
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Yulia Sedliar
Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences, Volume 48; https://doi.org/10.33310/2519-2809-2019-48-2-114-118

Abstract:
The US economic embargo against Cuba has been in place for fifty years. During that period, its rationale and goals have not changed. As it is stressed in the article, principal purpose of the US sanctions strategy is either to modify the international behavior of Cuba, which Washington regarded as a threat to US strategic interests in the Latin America region, or to eliminate the Cuban political regime entirely. Measured against these goals, the sanctions clearly have failed. Author examines key factors having restricted sanctions’ ability to achieve American proclaimed goals regarding to Cuba. In this context, it is underscored that controversial maintenance of the US embargo against Cuba among US allies directly affected the results of sanctions strategy against Cuba. It is stressed that since the early 1960s, when the United States imposed a trade embargo on Cuba, the centerpiece of U.S. policy toward Cuba has consisted of economic sanctions aimed at isolating the government. The United States embargo against Cuba is a commercial, economic, and financial embargo imposed by the United States on Cuba. An embargo was first imposed by the United States on sale of arms to Cuba on the 14th of March 1958, during the Fulgencio Batista regime. On October 19, 1960 the U.S. placed an embargo on exports to Cuba except for food and medicine after Cuba nationalized American-owned Cuban oil refineries without compensation. On February 7, 1962 the embargo was extended to include almost all imports. Currently, the Cuban embargo is enforced mainly through six statutes: the Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917, the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, the Cuban Assets Control Regulations of 1963, the Cuban Democracy Act of 1992, the Helms–Burton Act 1996, and the Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000. The stated purpose of the Cuban Democracy Act of 1992 is to maintain sanctions on Cuba so long as the Cuban government refuses to move toward democratization and greater respect for human rights. The article emphasizes that The Helms–Burton Act further restricted United States citizens from doing business in or with Cuba, and mandated restrictions on giving public or private assistance to any successor government in Havana unless and until certain claims against the Cuban government were met.
Anastasia Gevko
Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences, Volume 48; https://doi.org/10.33310/2519-2809-2019-48-2-124-126

Abstract:
This article analyzes the domestic memoirs related events 1917–21. Characterized Istpartu activity aimed at collecting evidence memoir. An important key base for researchers of the revolutionary events of 1917-1921 in Ukraine, it occupies a memorial legacy of witnesses of those turbulent years. After the defeat of the liberation struggle and the establishment of Soviet power in Ukraine, Istpartu was created in 1921. At one time, Istpartu took a leading place among the scientific institutions of Ukraine. Istpartu had its own journal, Chronicle of the Revolution, 57 issues were issued, in which memoirs were published mainly by supporters of the Soviet camp. "Chronicle of the revolution" in 1922-1935 published 168 memories of revolutionary events in Ukraine, among the authors there were 123 direct participants in those events. The activities of Istpartu at the regional level contributed to the study and publication of materials on the history of the revolution and the Civil War in Ukraine. Also, in the field, in the 1920s. local editions of regional Eastparts began to appear. Mostly these were collections of documents and memoirs, which often contain unique material that did not appear in official documents. For example, the book “Pages of the struggle. The collection of materials on the history of the revolutionary movement in Nikolaev", prepared by the Nikolaev Istpartu in 1923. In Soviet Ukraine, after the establishment of the dictatorship of the Bolsheviks, writing memoirs (with a non-Soviet perception of the past) about the revolutionary events of 1917 and the Civil War, and even more so publishing them, was practically impossible, and not only because of restrictions on archives, but also because hard censorship behind the printed word. The memoirs that were issued in those years for the “Marxist approach” are characterized by Soviet schematics and ideologically verified published material.
Marianna Lasinska
Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences, Volume 48; https://doi.org/10.33310/2519-2809-2019-48-2-59-65

Abstract:
Big part of European Jewry emigrated to other continents in late XIXth – early XXth century. Jews from Russian Empire started their first emigration wave in 1881. The main reason of this wave was Pogroms, according to traditional historiography. Other reasons were: low social level of life in Russian Empire; restrictions on Jewish rights («Pale of Settlement»); religious and ideological ideas of Zionism; networks of relatives and friends with information about wonderful life in other countries; Jewish hometown-based associations in foreign countries with their help to new immigrants etc. One more reason of Jewish migration – the work of recruiting agents network. The Number of recruiting agents was too big in Russian Empire in late XIXth – early XXth century. The business with recruiting of new emigrants was a very profitable. Mass of Jewish people coming out from Russian Empire to other countries and continents with recruiting agents services. There were many scammers in association of recruiting agents. Two waves of Jewish emigration caused irreparable damage economic system and demography of Russian Empire. Situation with Jewish immigration into Russian Empire was quite different. It`s character was not such mass. The main reasons of immigration were: business, finance and Zionism. This study is based on archival materials of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire of the Vilnius Governor-General, which are stored in the holdings of the Central Archives for the History of Jewish People Jerusalem (State of Israel). These archival materials are about permanent and temporary migration of European Jewry that took place across the northwestern border of the Russian Empire to the territories of Western European countries, England and the North American continent during 1881-1903. Circumstances of crossing the specified border by foreigner Jews in the opposite direction (immigration) for staying within the Russian Empire are covered. It is noted that one of the reasons for the mass emigration movements of the Jewish population outside the Russian Empire was the active actions of emigration agents and their societies.
Andrii Pospielov
Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences, Volume 48; https://doi.org/10.33310/2519-2809-2019-48-2-108-113

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the first period of the interstate military conflict in the Horn of Africa. The events of 1960-1977 are revealed. In two conflict zones. On the one hand, the buildup and manifestation of an interstate military-political confrontation between Ethiopia and the Republic of Somalia, and on the other hand, aspects of the emergence of an intrastate military conflict in Ethiopia itself related to the Eritrean issue are analyzed. Moreover, it is noted that the province of the Ethiopian Empire, and since 1974 the Republic of Eritrea, de facto was not so much an internal structure of the indicated state as a semi-legal state, fought for its independence. This process was provoked in 1945-1959. Great Britain, Italy and the UN. These world players created a situation of the unification of British and Italian Somalia into a single state - the Republic of Somalia, depriving it after the creation of those territories that were inhabited by related tribes. Thus, Western countries pushed Somalia to search for ways to unite with the territories of Ogaden and Kenya exclusively by military means. And Somalia, which was experiencing the shortcomings of all Somalia, was forced to seek a partner who would provide official Mogadishu with the means of warfare, against the background of constant help not to her, but exclusively to neighboring Ethiopia. That is why the Republic of Somalia has become an exclusively Soviet ally since the late 1960s. An example of the creation of a single Republic of Somalia and an attempt to have Western countries as an ally, and after 1974 the countries of socialism, the maritime power of Ethiopia, actually created a complex of double interstate conflict in this region of East Africa. It was in him that the status of Somalia as a country without related territories and Eritrea as the usual province of Ethiopia was fixed, which did not suit their peoples and leaders.
V. Parkhomenko, V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University
Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences, Volume 47; https://doi.org/10.33310/2519-2809-2019-47-1-95-97

V. Bogunenko, Horlivka Institute for Foreign Languages HSEE (Donbass State Pedagogical University)
Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences, Volume 47; https://doi.org/10.33310/2519-2809-2019-47-1-30-39

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