South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology
EISSN : 2582-1989
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 246
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 21 September 2022
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 38-54; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i330302
The environment comprises of biotic and abiotic components interacting as a system. The environment also contains organic and inorganic minerals in optimal concentration required by living organisms for growth, development, and metabolic activities. Due to anthropogenic activities and some natural occurrences, the availability of these elements has drastically increased in the ecosystem beyond the required threshold and permissible limits causing pollution. Heavy metal (HM) is one of the naturally occurring elements that threaten plant, animal, and human health. These HMs have been defined as elements with more than 5gcm-3 relative density that are not readily biodegradable but can be transformed from one state to another and are usually associated with toxicity or ecotoxicity. However, some heavy metals are biologically essential elements required in the body/plant or as constituents of important enzymes although in trace amounts while others are non-essential and are ranked as priority metals due to their high level of toxicity with no biological importance even at low concentrations. The non-degradability property of heavy metals contributes to its persistence and subsequent accumulation in the biota and the food chain which is of public health significance to humans and animals. The soil environment is highly prone to HM contamination due to physiological, biochemical, metabolic, and biogeochemical processes that occur within the environment mostly mediated by microbes. These microbes are inarguably the drivers of ecosystem functioning, although they are significantly the most affected by HM pollution. This review, therefore, describes the ecotoxicological effect of heavy metals with special reference to the soil environment. Other sections discussed are the toxicity and general properties of some selected heavy metal, their role as environmental pollutants and essential elements. In addition, the effect of HM on soil microbes has also been analyzed in two folds: i) reduction in microbial population and diversity and ii) increased diversity and abundance of HM-resistant microbial strains which are significant in bioremediation studies
Published: 16 September 2022
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 31-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i330301
Monkeypox (MPXV) is a viral infectious disease, capable of transmitting from animals to humans. It is a zoonotic virus responsible for causing the disease, and belongs to the same family (orthopoxvirus) as the smallpox virus. The first case of human monkeypox infection was recorded in 1970 in a town called Basankusu, in the Democratic Republic of Congo. There have also been reports of the disease outbreak across West Africa. The first recorded monkeypox case outside Africa was in 2003 in the United States of America, which later developed to 70 cases without any mortality recorded. In Nigeria, the spread of monkeypox has been reported across the South-East and South-South regions of the country and disease has since been recorded in states such as Akwa Ibom, Abia, Bayelsa, Benue, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Imo, Lagos, Nasarawa, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). The monkeypox virus has been identified as a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the genus Orthopoxvirus, of the family, Poxviridae with accompanying symptoms such as fever, severe headache, chills, swelling of the lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), back and muscle aches (myalgia), and exhaustions (asthenia) and eventually the appearance of rashes which develops through various stages before eventually falling off as the patients recovers and wounds heals. Animal-human Zoonotic transmission occurs through direct contact with the biological materials from infected host animal such as blood, mucosal lesions, bodily fluids, or cutaneous, through broken skin, mucous membranes, or respiratory airways of the nose, eyes, or the mouth, while human-to-human infection occurs through direct contact with the infectious rash, scabs, or body fluids, of an infected person. It also spreads through secretion from the respiratory tract through prolonged face to face or intimate contact with an infected person, contact with contaminated surfaces from infected host, or to a fetus via the placenta, or close contact with infected mother (congenital monkeypox). It can be diagnosed through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) laboratory testing in combination with gene sequencing, and the infected patient treated using tecovirimat specific for smallpox virus, while studies are ongoing to develop its particular medication. This study is aimed at discussing the current issues on monkeypox virus with respect to the Nigerian society.
Published: 8 September 2022
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 18-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i330300
Background and Purpose: Malaria is potentially a severe disease caused by infection of red blood cells with protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Malaria is an important cause of death, illness in children and pregnant women, especially in Africa The present study aimed to develop an alternative treatment that at may be effective and safe against falciparum & vivax malaria and easily available locally and culturally acceptable. To confirms the claims of traditional herbal medicinal plants Picrorhiza kurroa was analyzed by using water and alcoholic extracts. Methods: The present study was conducted on 45 subjects, 24 with aqueous extract and 21 with alcohol extract to assess the clinical efficacy of the medicinal plant Picrorhiza kurroa against malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in Dera Ismail Khan. The roots of P. kurroa were extracted by a Soxhlet extractor using triple distilled water and ethanol as a solvent to obtain both aqueous and alcoholic extracts of P. kurroa. Both extracts are formulated in a capsule of 500 mg. Results: The efficacy was determined clinically and pathologically in patients from 14 to 50 years of both sexes, two capsules of 500 mg stat followed by one capsule twice daily for three days consecutively were given. After the treatment 44.44% of patients recovered, among them 85% (17/45) were male and 15% (3/45) were female. 44.44% efficacy of the drug is considered for further research on the same plant. Conclusion: The study concluded that P. kurroa qualified as an active compound to undergo further investigation for its antimalarial activity and its active constituents should be investigated for better outcomes in the field of traditional medicines.
Published: 3 September 2022
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 12-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i330299
Food-borne diseases are the most serious international health issue, causing economic losses and health. The enteric bacteria are the most difficult bacterial contamination of raw and processed beef products worldwide. It is also the most prevalent type of food poisoning. Aim: The current study sought to determine the presence and distribution of enteric bacteria associated with various types of meat (red and white) and their fresh and frozen products. Methods: 36 meat samples were collected from local markets in Nineveh Governorate. The contamination of various meat samples with enteric bacteria was assessed. The bacteria were subsequently isolated and identified using culture, microscopy, and biochemical techniques. Vitek-2 device was used to verify the diagnosis. Results: All of the meats tested were contaminated with enteric bacteria to varied degrees. Fresh chicken meat had the highest rate of enteric bacterial infection, with a logarithm of 1.12*108 CFU/g. The frozen beef samples had the least contamination, with a logarithm of 7.4*104 CFU/g. The results revealed that 57 isolates from the intestine family bacteria included 13 species: C. freundii, C. koseri, E. coli, Enterobacter spp., K. oxytoca, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, P. stuartii, S. paratyphi A, S. typhi, Shigella spp., and Y. enterocolitica.E. coli was found in the most meat varieties analyzed, accounting for 19% of the total. Conclusions: Because it is evident that meat can be contaminated with a wide variety of hazardous bacteria, basic hygiene procedures help to decrease the amount of contaminated microbes.
Published: 31 August 2022
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i330298
Aims: The purpose of this study was to detect some biological and serological factors in COVID-19 recovery patients, as well as their relationships with antibody levels 8 months after infection. Materials and Methods: 92 blood samples were obtained; 67 of them had COVID-19 infections 4 months prior, and 25 blood samples served as control samples. The participants' ages ranged from 17-75 year. Determination levels of immunoglobulin IgG and IgM antibodies was carried out on (188) samples of infection over for ages ranging from 15-75 years by using enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Results: The people under research have 94.03% IgG and 55.22% IgM. Furthermore, the maximum concentration of IgG was seen after 6 months of infection. Aberrant lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were found in 20 people at 41.6% after 4 months, in 25 people at 52.08% after 6 months, and in 8 people at 8.33% after 8 months. In contrast, aberrant C- reactive protein (CRP) levels were found in 10.4% of the participants after 4 to 8 months of infection and 12.5% after 6 months, with no significant association between them. Conclusion: The maximum IgG level was reported 6 months after infection, and the LDH and CRP tests were abnormal 6 months later. On the other hand, 4 months after the infection, both urea and creatinine levels were abnormal, as was the IgG concentration.
Published: 20 August 2022
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 32-41; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i230296
The goal of this study was to isolate and identify Staphylococcus aureus from clinical and environmental sources. This study also looked at the prevalence and distribution of different virulence enzymes among its isolates. For this objective, 65 samples were collected and dispersed among 50 distinct clinical samples and 15 environmental (soil, water, and air) samples. The results revealed that 20 bacterial isolates were S. aureus. The isolation rate was 30.76% from all samples, with 13 isolates 20% from a clinical source and 7 isolates 10.76% from an environmental source. The phenotypic detection of virulence enzymes revealed that all isolates, including environmental isolates, produced virulence enzymes (between two and six enzymes), indicating the clinical importance. The isolates produced virulence enzymes at different rates. The results revealed a clear rise in the rate of production of the enzymes: lecithinase and lipase producing at a rate of 95%, protease at 90%, urease at 80%, hemolysin at 60%, and beta-lactamase at 55%.
Published: 9 August 2022
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 26-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i230295
Chlamydia trachomatis also known as the “Silent Epidemic” is a major threat to the reproductive health of women. This study was aimed at determining the seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis based one demographic factors among women attending clinics in Zaria metropolis, Kaduna State. Each participant completed a researcher-devised questionnaire and quasi design was used in the selection of hospitals. Subsequently about 5mls of peripheral blood for serological analysis was obtained after informed consent. Presence of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was determined using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) to detect IgG and screening for HIV was also done using Determine® HIV 1/2 as well as Uni-GoldTM HIV Test Kits. Out of the two hundred and seventy (270) samples collected, 32(11.9%) were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis IgG, 7(2.6%). Chlamydial infection was found to be significantly associated with level of education. There was no significant association between chlamydial infection and occupation, subjects’ husbands’ occupation.
Published: 30 July 2022
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 19-25; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i230293
The consumption of fresh vegetables has great health benefits. However, this has been linked to several food borne infections and disease outbreaks in the past because some of these vegetables have been identified as agents in the transmission of human food pathogens. This study examined the coliform bacteria profile of raw salad vegetables sold in open markets in Owerri metropolis, South Eastern Nigeria. The samples of different raw salad vegetables (cabbage, cucumber, carrot and tomatoes) bought from different vendors in open markets were examined for the presence of coliform bacteria. Surface wash water of samples were used for the enumeration of total and fecal coliforms. The results from the study showed that all the samples harboured coliform bacteria with the cabbage recording the highest coliform count (CA3= 2.8 x 107cfu/g on MacConkey agar) while the highest E. coli count occurred in tomato (TO3=2.7 x 106cfu/g on EMB agar); carrot (CB3= 2.6 x 104cfu/g on MacConkey agar)and cucumber (CU2= 3.9 x 102cfu/g on EMB agar) recorded the lowest coliform and E. coli counts respectively. The percentage prevalence of the isolates on the samples were Enterobacter species (83.3%), Escherichia coli (66.6%) and Klebsiella species (33.3%).The counts were obviously above the coliform acceptable limit (<100cfu/g) for salad vegetables. This suggests that salad vegetables used in this study are of public health concern because, they harbour microorganisms that could be hazardous to human health. Positive detection of coliforms (especially, E. coli) is an effective confirmation of fecal contamination, hence good hygiene measures should be observed throughout the processing chain and consumers should also practice appropriate hygiene during the preparation of salad vegetables for consumption. This will eventually help in reducing the microbial contents of the vegetables before consumption.
Published: 27 July 2022
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 12-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i230292
Aim: The antimicrobial activities of the ethanolic extracts of D. Stramonium pulp, seed and leaf against some medically important pathogenic microorganisms were studied. Methodology: The antimicrobial activities of the ethanolic extracts of D. Stramonium pulp, seed and leaf were assessed on Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacteria) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria). Results: The highest percentage recovery at 50% ethanolic extract of leaf was 5.6±0.1 and lowest in Pulp with 3.9±0.1. The 50% ethanolic extracts showed significant activities against tested pathogens more than the 75% ethanolic extracts which, may be due to the effect of heat generated by water bath during extraction process. The plant extracts exerted highest zones of inhibition in pulp and seed extracts against P. aeruginosa with 21±1.0 and 17±2.0 respectively and least in K. pneumoniae with 10±0.5 from seed extract. The antimicrobial activities observed in this study were due to the presence of certain phytochemials that have bactericidal or inhibitory effects on test organisms. These phytochemicals include alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, phenol and glycosides. Conclusion:D. stramonium extracts revealed very promising results with health-promoting potentials that could be applied in the treatment of ailments caused by these pathogens.
Published: 26 July 2022
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i230291
Bacterial contamination of money acts as vehicle for the transmission of pathogenic and drug resistant organisms. This study was carried out to investigate the bacteriological quality and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of money bank cash-points and markets in Port Harcourt metropolis. Two hundred and eighty-eight (288) naira notes belonging to the following denominations, N5, N10, N20, N50, N100, N200, N500 and N1000 were collected for three months from banks and markets and subjected to standard microbiological procedures such as standard plate counts, identification, sensitivity testing using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Total heterotrophic bacterial count (THB) ranged from 0.6±0.00x106 to 12.80±9.19x106cfu/g; 0.65±0.21x106 to 13.05±9.55x106cfu/g; 0.65±0.20x106 to 8.05±2.48x106Cfu/g in N5 and N100 from Access Bank (AB), United Bank of Africa (UBA) and Guaranty Trust Bank (GTB), respectively. There was a significant difference (p≤0.05) in the THB between the different naira notes. Total coliform count (TCC) ranged from 0.00 x104 to 56.90±28.43x104Cfu/g; 0.00 x104 to 61.90±35.49x104Cfu/g; 0.00x104 to 17.75±12.79x104Cfu/g in N5, and N100 for AB, UBA and GTB respectively. THB ranged from 2.69±1.55x106 to 9.95±3.22x106cfu/g; 3.00±1.69x106 to 12.30±9.89x106cfu/g; 3.30±1.82x106 to 17.30±6.97x106cfu/g in N1000, N10 and N100 naira for Mile 1, Mile 3 and Creek road markets respectively. There was a significant difference (p≤0.05) in the THB between the different naira notes sampled in both Banks and markets. TCC ranged from 0.77±0.28x104 to 45.59±10.18x104Cfu/g; 0.78±0.88x104 to 40.59±3.11x104Cfu/g; 1.45±0.07x104 to 55.60±10.18x104Cfu/g in N1000 and N100 Mile 1, Mile 3 and Creek road market respectively. Faecal coliform count ranged from 0.00x103 to 1.53±0.15x103Cfu/g for only mile 1 market. There was a significant difference (p≤0.05) in the total and faecal coliform counts between the different naira notes sampled in Banks and markets. The bacterial isolates identified were; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus cereus and Serratia marcesens. Twenty-one (21) bacteria were isolated from Banks and Markets. Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus leteus, Escherichia coli and Serratia marcesens were significantly high in N100 (41.67%) (66.67%), (100%), (100%) respectively. Staphylococcus spp was susceptible to Gentamicin (33.3%), Bacillus spp to Ofloxacin (100%), Micrococcus spp to Ofloxacin and Gentamicin (100%), Serratia spp and Escherichia coli were susceptible to Ofloxacin, Gentamicin and Nitrofurantoin (100%) and they were all resistant to Ceftazidime, Cefixime, Cloxacillin, Augmentin, Cefuroxime and Ceftriaxone (100%)> Erythromycin and Gentamicin (75%). Hundred-percent (100%) of the bacterial isolates had multidrug resistance index greater than 0.2. Public awareness on personal hygiene should be encouraged while drug abuse should be discouraged.