South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology

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EISSN : 2582-1989
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 201
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Kingsley Kelechi Onyekachi, Joy Nkeiruka Dike-Ndudim, Emeka Simon Anikwo,
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 8-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i230246

Abstract:
This work was carried out in order to detect the presence of bacterial agent in the bottled water samples, and to evaluate the physicochemical qualities of these bottled water. Twenty samples selected from four different brands of bottled water sold in Owerri, were examined to determine their bacteriological and physicochemical qualities. Bacteriological analyses using Membrane filtration technique was carried out to determine the heterotrophic bacteria, total coliform and fecal coliform counts. Physicochemical qualities were also determined using standard methods. The heterotrophic bacterial count ranged from 0.00 to 12.00 CFU/ml, total coliform count ranged from 0.00 to 7.50 coliform/100ml. There was absence of fecal coliform in the samples. The pH, Color, Turbidity and Conductivity of the samples ranged from 5.18 to 7.28, 0.00 to 18.00 PCU, 0.55 to 1.62 NTU and 16.00 to 262.00 µs/cm respectively. The Chloride, Iron and Nitrite content of the samples ranged from 16.99 to 27.98 mg/L, 0.01 to 0.07 mg/L Fe, and 0.00 to 0.34 mg/L respectively. The bacterial species isolated belong to the genera Staphylococcus, Proteus, Klebsiella, Bacillus and Escherichia. Quality wise, most of the water samples met the XYZ standard for bacteriological and physicochemical quality for drinking water with the exception of few. It can be deduced from this study, that none of the bottled water is suitable for drinking with regards to the bacteriological and physicochemical parameters tested. Though some samples passed the bacteriological examination, most of them were acidic and therefore not safe for consumption.
, Bonifácio Peixoto Magalhães, Gesiane Ribeiro Guimarães, Wanderson Silva Dos Santos, Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i230245

Abstract:
The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum has been studied in different countries as mycoinsecticide against grasshoppers. One of the utilization strategies considered is the association between entomopathogenic fungi and sublethal dosages of chemical insecticides compatible with the biological control agent. The effect of different chemical insecticides at concentrations varying from 5 to 5000 ppm on the conidial germination and growth of the fungus M. anisopliae var. acridum (CG 423) was assessed for compatibility evalution. The best results with inhibitory concentration (IC50) on germination (liquid medium) and radial colonial growth (solid medium) of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum at 28°C was obtained with Teflubenzuron.
, EdwinG Centeno, Manuel Cuevas-Abrego, Armando A. Durant-Archibold, Eduardo Ortega-Barría, Filemón Bucardo
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 46-62; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i130244

Abstract:
Rotavirus infections are the most common causes of infectious diarrhea in young children and animal worldwide. In some countries in Latin American specifically in Central American and Caribbean countries, rotavirus infections are not subject to specific surveillance. This review is about the unusually strains detected and potential zoonotic of rotavirus in Latin American. Although, interspecies transmission has not been documented to occur directly, an increase of the number of reports of atypical rotavirus genotypes; apparently derived from transmission between animal of farm, domestic and wild with humans, has been reported in some Latin American countries and the world. We consider that the rapid increase in the detection of new unusual strains with genetic heterogeneity, raises interesting questions about the evolution of rotavirus in The Latin American region. The emergence of novel strains derived from interspecies transmission has implications for the design and implementation of successful human rotavirus vaccine strategies.
, Omokaro Obire
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 32-45; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i130243

Abstract:
Wastewater samples from abattoirs in Bayelsa and Rivers State were evaluated for their microbiological and physicochemical properties. The microbiological parameters were analyzed using standard microbiological techniques while the Physicochemical parameters were analyzed based on the APHA standard method. The mean range of the total heterotrophic bacterial, bacterial, total coliform, total Vibrio, total hydrocarbon utilizing, total heterotrophic fungal and hydrocarbon utilizing fungal counts of the wastewater were: (1.9×107to 5.2×107, 2.1×105 to 4.0 × 105, 1.0×103 to 3.1 × 103, 1.0×105 to 2.2×105, 1.8×105 to c4.1×105 and 1.1×103 to 3.2 ×103)CFU/ml respectively. Kruskal-Wallis H test showed that there was no significant difference (P≥0.05) in the counts for the bacterial and fungal counts. Bacillus sp (17.32%), Escherichia coli (16.33%), Streptococcus sp (15.34%), Staphylococcus sp (14.35%), Pseudomonas sp (11.38%), Shigella sp (10.39%) Alcaligenes sp (9.9%), Vibrio sp (6.93%) and Salmonella sp (4.93%), were the bacteria isolated. The percentage of occurrence of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria isolates were: Bacillus sp (34.28%), Pseudomonas sp (26.71%), Alcaligenes sp (20%). Escherichia coli (14.28%), Staphylococcus sp (5.71%). Among the fungi isolated Aspergillus niger, Fusarium sp, Geotrichum sp were found in 18.75% each while Penicillium sp recorded 23% occurrence, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida sp were found in 6.25% occurrence each but Mucor sp exhibited 8.33% of occurrence. The percentages of occurrence of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi were Aspergillus sp (22.22%), Fusarium sp (16.66%), Penicillium sp (33.33%), Geotrichum sp (16.66%), Mucor sp (5.55%) and Candida (5.55%). The mean of physicochemical parameters was: pH: 6.7-9.1, EC: 156-4981, Turbidity: 11.1-149NTU, TSS: 62-239, TDS: 104-3320, NO3: 20.97-30.97, SO4: 14.5-54.6, PO4: 1.78-20.21, salinity: 41.25-2800, DO: 4.29-41.18, COD:3600-5476.0 and BOD-:1600.0-7761.4. The high microbial load and physicochemical parameters in these wastewaters is alarming and could pose serious human health and environmental challenges if the disposal of untreated wastewater continues unabated.
Dolly Solanki,
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 18-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i130242

Abstract:
Background: The bacteriology of thoracic empyema has been changing since the introduction of antibiotics. Gram stain and culture has for decades been the “gold standard” for the detection of microorganisms in pleural fluid samples. The present retrospective study was designed to review our experience with the microbial causes of empyema and their antibiotic sensitive patterns. The knowledge of likely prevalent strains along with their antimicrobial sensitive pattern helps in the framing of antibiotic policy and better management of patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was including 500 cases suspected of bacteriological infection of pleural fluid in patients admitted in ward of PDU Government Hospital, Rajkot. The performa include serial number, register number, age, sex, ward, clinical features of patients and investigation. All the samples were inoculated into Blood agar and MacConkey agar and Nutrient agar. All the plates were incubated aerobically at 370 C and results were read after 24 hours. If no growth present it is further incubated for next 24 hours. One smear was prepared on clean glass slide, then air dried and was heat fixed. Gram staining was done by standard technique. Results: This study include 500 cases of pleural effusion from January 2015 to July 2016, out of which 87 cases show positive Bacterial culture growth and 232 cases were adenosine deaminase positive. In total 87 positive bacterial cultures, 20(22%) show bacterial pathogens in gram stain. Total positive culture found in 17.4%. Among them; most common Bacteria isolated was Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 40 (45%) patients, this was followed by Klebsiella pneumonaie in 21 (24%), Staphylococcus aureus in 10 (11.49%), Acinetobacter spp. in 4 (4.59%), Proteus spp.in 3 (3.44%) and Providencia in 1 (1.14%). Conclusion: Pleural space infection continues to be prevalent in our country particularly in the lower socioeconomic strata due to the delay in seeking medical care, inappropriate antibiotics and dosages and duration of antibiotic treatment. All gram positive bacteria isolate were 100% sensitivity to Rifampicin, Vancomycin, Linezolid.
, I. M. Ikeh, H. O. Stanley
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 10-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i130241

Abstract:
The keypads of Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) are subjected to several microbial contaminations due to their large dermal contact by numerous users and different personal hygiene practice. The study investigated the bacterial diversity and level of contamination obtainable on the ATM keypads during transactions and antibiotics susceptibility pattern of the isolates. The population of culturable bacterial isolates was determined by plating. Isolates were characterized culturally, morphologically and biochemically. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates was determined using the disc diffusion method. The total culturable heterotrophic bacterial counts ranssged from 5.23 to 9.25 log cfu/g. The bacterial identified and frequency of occurrence is Staphylococcus aureus (17.5%), Escherichia coli (22.5%), Bacillus spp (17.5%), Salmonella spp (10.0%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.0%), Proteus spp (7.5%) and Klebsiella spp (15.0%) respectively. Staphylococcus aureus were more susceptible to Chloramphenicol (37mm) and were more resistant to Rifampicin (00mm) and Levofloxacin (00mm) respectively. The Gram negative isolates in the study were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and gentamycin and more resistant to ceporex, nalidixic acid, septrin and ampicillin respectively. The highest gram negative isolates that showed more susceptible to all the used gram negative antibiotics were Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp while the lowest were Klebsiella spp and Proteus spp respectively. The study has revealed that bacterial contamination on ATM keypads is of health significance and could result to public health challenges if not properly managed. Therefore, adequate hand- washing hygienic practices and cleaning agents are advocated towards reducing the related ill- health among ATM users.
J. M. Madu, A. I. Ogbonna, C. I. C. Ogbonna
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i130240

Abstract:
Aim: Bioremediation of soil play a critical role in removing pollutants from crude oil polluted soil. To investigate the mycoflora of crude oil polluted area of Ukwa West Local Government in the present Abia State. Methodology: Portions of the soil samples collected from three (3) locations were plated out separately on Yeast Starch Agar, Starch Agar, and Cellulose Agar using soil plate methods. The culture plates were examined after 5-7 and 14 days for the presence of fungi. Pure cultures of the isolates were obtained by subculturing and the physico-chemical properties of the soil samples were determined using standard methods. Results: Twenty species (20) of fungi were isolated from the crude oil polluted soil sample and represented by their respective genera. Eight (8) species of Aspergillus representing 40%, two (2) species of Thermomyces representing 10% each, and one (1) species of Penicillium, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Curvularia, Trichoderma, Scopulariopsis, Sporotrichum and Basipetospora representing 5% each. Aspergillus species were predominant which include among others A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. parasiticus, A. oryzae, A. terreus. The physico-chemical properties of the soil sample were found to be varied and have affected the distribution and population of fungi. The pH values ranged from 4.81- 5.58 as compared to the control ranging from 5.72- 6.50 for soil samples A, B and C. The moisture content values ranged between 26.46-29.59% as compared to the control ranging from 29.41-32.51%. The soil was found to be high in organic matter content with values of 70.3-82.7% as compared to the control which was 94% for each of the locations. Conclusion: Crude oil polluted soils of Ukwa West of Abia State, Nigeria is rich in fungal biodiversity with the soil’s samples having different physico-chemical properties.
, P. C. Meregini-Ikechukwu, L. B. Kpormon
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 40-49; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i430237

Abstract:
Disposal of wastewater and other effluents into water bodies from activities around water bodies have for long been of major concern and challenge to the environment leading to several infectious diseases. The amount of industrial untreated solid wastes from companies, wastewater from car washing activities, open drainages and agricultural runoffs located close to Elechi creek constitutes the wastewater effluents received by the creek thus resulting in the imbalance of the ecosystem. The study was therefore aimed at determining the microbiology of water quality at different stations of the Elechi creek. Surface water, wastewater and sediment samples were collected during a seven month period and analysed using standard microbiological procedures. Results obtained revealed that the average microbial counts ranged as follows: Total Heterotrophic bacteria 1.12±0.13x108 to 1.28±0.09x108 cfu/ml, Total coliform count; 6.4±0.21 to 7.8±0.13 cfu/ml, Total Staphylococcus Count; 6.9±0.06 to 7.9±0.08 cfu/ml, Total Shigella count; 7.9±0.11 to 8.5±0.14 cfu/ml, Total Salmonella Count; 5.4±0.13 to 7.9±0.08 cfu/ml, Total Vibrio Count; 5.9±0.13 to 7.4±0.09 cfu/ml, and Total Pseudomonad Count; 2.5±0.08 to 4.8 ±0.10 cfu/ml, in surface water, Total Heterotrophic bacteria 1.02±0.08 x108 cfu/ml to 2.68±0.08 x108 cfu/ml, Total coliform count; 4.4±0.10a to 4.9±0.11a cfu/ml, Total Staphylococcus Count;4.7±0.10 to 5.9±0.12 cfu/ml, Total Shigella count; 4.0±0.08 to 4.8±0.11 cfu/ml, Total Salmonella Count; 3.2±0.16 to 4.6±0.08 cfu/ml, Total Vibrio Count; 2.0±0.15 to 4.8±0.11 cfu/ml, and Total Pseudomonad Count2.7±0.13 to 3.9±0.09cfu/ml, in wastewater and Total Heterotrophic bacteria 2.16±0.07 x109 cfu/g to 2.24±0.09 x109 cfu/g, Total coliform count; 1.01±0.13 to 1.36±0.06b cfu/g, Total Staphylococcus Count; 6.8±0.11 to 9.1±0.08 cfu/g, Total Shigella count; 4.0±0.09 to 6.5±0.06 cfu/ml, Total Salmonella Count; 4.1±0.11 to 9.7±0.12 cfu/g, Total Vibrio Count; 6.8±0.10 to 9.5±0.09 cfu/g, and Total Pseudomonad Count; 4.0±0.16 to 5.9±0.07 cfu/g, in sediment samples. Bacterial isolates belonging to the genera Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Klebsiella, Providencia, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio and Enterobacter were isolated and identified. The occurrences of these bacterial isolates as potential pathogens could cause poor water quality through fouling and render the water for various uses and may pose a public health threat to our water resources. Adherence to good hygienic practices and proper treatment of wastewater before discharge into the environment should be encouraged to minimize the spread of infectious diseases and fouling of water bodies. This may also affect the aquatic life in such ecosystems.
Prosperity C. Ewoh,
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 29-39; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i430236

Abstract:
The aim of this research work was to determine the aerating duration that would be effective in enhancing hydrocarbon biodegradation rate during bioremediation of crude-oil polluted river. Sediment and river-water were placed in four glass troughs labeled CT (control), A, B, and C. The setups were polluted with crude-oil, and allowed undisturbed for 2 weeks. Subsequently, accessible crude-oil on the surface was removed; bacteria and nutrients were then added. Air was bubbled for 3 hours into setups A, B, and C, at daily, 3 days, and 7 days interval respectively. Aeration was not applied to setup CT. On day 1, 7, 14, and 21, hydrocarbon concentration was determined; populations of total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) and hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria (HUB) were also determined. The time it will take for hydrocarbons in the setups to biodegraded “completely” was calculated using first-order reaction equation. The results obtained showed that 71.43, 86.39, 83.17, and 15.42 % hydrocarbon degradation were obtained in setup A, B, C, and CT respectively. The time it will take for hydrocarbons in the setups to biodegrade “completely” were 129, 89, 101, and 1079 days for A, B, C, and CT respectively. There was slight reduction in population of HUB in setup CT, fairly stable population in setup A, and increase in population of HUB in setups B and C. It is concluded that aerating crude-oil polluted aquatic environment for 3 hours at 3 days interval will be more effective in enhancing hydrocarbon biodegradation rate during bioremediation.
N. E. Nwakoby, J. I. Ezeogo, M. U. Orji, C. F. Ejimofor
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 18-28; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i430235

Abstract:
Wastes from cassava processing mills are usually discharged uncontrollably into the environment where they cause serious environmental challenges. This research work was undertaken to investigate the effects of cassava mill effluent on the microbiological quality of soils and to determine the effects of the polluted soils on the growth of plants. Fresh cassava mill effluent and unpolluted soil samples were collected and analyzed microbiologically. The soil sample was polluted with the cassava mill effluent and the polluted soil was also subjected to microbiological analyses for 31days. Germination and growth of pumpkin plants were also investigated using soil samples polluted with different concentrations of the cassava mill effluent. The microbial population of the effluent showed presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp, Streptococcus spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus spp, and Candida spp. The bacterial count was 1.4x104cfu/ml while the fungal count was 1.1x103cfu/ml. The results of the analyses of the unpolluted soil and the effluent polluted soil samples showed that the effluent had noticeable effects on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of the soil. The total microbial count increased from 2.2x105 cfu/g to 4.6x105cfu/g for bacteria and 1.6x104cfu/g to 3.3x105cfu/g for fungi. The polluted soil showed higher diversity of micro-organisms. The isolated organisms were: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp, Streptococcus spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus spp, Proteus spp, Enterobacter spp, Aspergillus spp, Candida spp, Penicillium spp, and Rhizopus spp. The polluted soil also, at higher concentrations of the effluent inhibited the germination of plants. This research revealed that effluents from cassava processing mills have significant effects on the microbiological properties of the surrounding soils and also affected the growth of plants on these soils negatively. It therefore suggested that this effluent should be treated properly before disposal to the environment.
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