Journal of Medicinal Plants Research
ISSN / EISSN : 19960875 / 19960875
Current Publisher: Academic Journals (10.5897)
Total articles ≅ 1,586
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 14, pp 239-246; doi:10.5897/jmpr2019.6838
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 14, pp 283-291; doi:10.5897/jmpr2019.6841
Cannabis sp. has important pharmacological activities, so it has been the focus of attention of the scientific community. Through the search for new drugs, it was found that cannabinoids present in the plant can modulate transient potential receptors (TPR). Cannabidiol (CBD), also known as “medical marijuana”, represents the second most abundant phytocannabinoid of the Cannabis plant and it is widely used in the management of pain, nausea and migraine in cancer patients. In fact, CBD exhibits various therapeutic effects and constitutes up to 40% of Cannabis extracts and it is devoid of the typical psychological effects of Cannabis used in social use as a psychoactive drug, and has low affinity for endocannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Thus, this article aims to conduct an integrative review of CBD and its potential benefits for human health. The results of this research confirmed CBD therapeutic actions in diseases such as schizophrenia, anxiety, epilepsy and motor disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain, childhood convulsive disorders, Lennox-Gastaut and Dravet syndromes. Thus, cannabidiol has an important relevance for medical applications and also has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, neuroprotective, antipsychotic, antiemetic, analgesic and antibiotic activities. Key words: Medical marijuana, cannabinoids, Cannabidiol (CBD), medicinal use.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 14, pp 265-282; doi:10.5897/jmpr2020.6914
Cassia grandis L. (Fabaceae), a native tree from Amazon Forest, has been used in folk medicine against worms and intestinal parasites, and to treat stomach and respiratory problems, blood diseases, among others uses. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant, cytotoxic, antimicrobial, and schistosomicidal activities of the methanolic extract from C. grandis stem bark (CgME) and to elucidate the chemical profile of its active fractions. The antioxidant activity of C. grandis stem bark methanolic extract (CgME) and its fractions were determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay and by the total phenolics and flavonoid contents. The antimicrobial activity was performed by microdilution. The cytotoxicity against MCF-7 (breast), NCI-H292 (lung), and HL-60 (leukemia) cancer cell lines was evaluated by the MTT method. The schistosomicidal activity was investigated in vitro against adult Schistosoma mansoni couple worms. The phytochemical profile of the active fractions was determined by GC-MS and UPLC-MS. The hexane fraction from the CgME was cytotoxic to NCI-H292 and HL-60 cancer cell lines and both major compounds clionasterol and lupeol acetate, determined by GC-MS, are well known for their cytotoxicity against cancer cells. The ethyl acetate fraction (CgEF) exhibited both antibacterial, against multidrug-resistant S. aureus, and schistosomicidal activities, which could be attributed to the presence of flavonoids, such as catechin derivatives, quercetin, and luteolin in the CgEF. These results agree with the popular uses of C. grandis and should stimulate future research on this species. Key words: Antimicrobial activity, antioxidant, Staphylococcus aureus, clinical isolates, Schistosoma mansoni, cytotoxicity.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 14, pp 292-299; doi:10.5897/jmpr2019.6843
The essential oils and defatted ethanolic extracts isolated from Cupressus sempervirens L. leaves collected from two geographically distinct regions in Lebanon; Beit El-Dein (mountain) and Jbeil (sea-side) were analysed for their chemical composition by GC/MS and qualitative phytochemical screening, respectively. These were then tested for their in-vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Fourteen and eighteen compounds were identified in Beit El-Dein and Jbeil samples, respectively with α-pinene (45.69-20.97%) and δ-3-carene (24.55-16.7%) representing the major constituents. C. sempervirens L. ethanolic extracts were able to reduce the stable radical 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reaching 50% reduction with IC50 values equal to 113.17 and 155.75 μg/ml, respectively. These results positively correlated with the high phenol (77.4-66.4 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight) and flavonoid (3.8-2.8 mg rutin equivalent/g dry weight) contents in both samples, respectively. Regarding the in-vitro antibacterial activity, essential oils exhibited a stronger potential mainly towards the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus compared with the ethanolic extracts as this was revealed by higher diameters of inhibition zone ranging between 7 and 12.3 mm and minimal inhibitory concentrations equal to 15.62 μl/ml. The results obtained from this study show that the Lebanese Cypress may be used as a good source of natural food preservatives and as drugs for various ailments. Key words: Lebanese Cupressus sempervirens L., essential oil and ethanolic extract, antioxidant, antibacterial activities.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 14, pp 258-264; doi:10.5897/jmpr2020.6931
Vernonia amygdalina has been widely utilized in Ghana and other West African states for numerous parasitic infections, diabetes and some inflammatory conditions. In this study we evaluated the antipyretic and antimalarial properties as well as in vitro antioxidant activities of an ethanolic stem bark extract of V. amygdalina (VAE). The antipyretic effect of VAE was assessed using Baker’s yeast-induced pyrexia and the antimalarial activities of plant extract against Plasmodium berghei-infected mice in the Peters 4-day suppressive test. The antioxidant activities of the stem bark extract were determined by DPPH radical scavenging and total phenol content assay. Phytochemical screening was carried out using standard methods. V. amygdalina (100-600 mg kg-1) dose related decreased the Baker’s yeast-induced fever in young rats. Also, it exhibited a significant (F (5, 24) = 91.35, P < 0.0001) anti-plasmodial activity in the mouse model. It caused a percentage suppression of 81.80 ± 3.76 at 600 mg kg-1and a relative antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical scavenging assay with an IC50 of 146.4 ± 2.31 µgml-1 and a total phenol content of 345.7 ± 4.56 mg g-1 of gallic acid equivalence. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed that the extract contained tannins, reducing sugars, flavonoids, terpenoids and alkaloids. V. amygdalina hydroethanolic stem bark extract evoked promising antipyretic, anti-plasmodial and antioxidant effects. Key words: Vernonia amygdalina, pyrexia, malaria, antioxidants, Baker’s Yeast, Plasmodium berghei.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 14, pp 247-257; doi:10.5897/jmpr2019.6890
Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae) is a tree species used in folk medicine against inflammatory disorders, and it is still unclear whether consumption of the B. virgilioides stem bark extract has any effect on immune cells. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of B. virgilioides stem bark extract (AEBv) on the functions of the thymus and B lymphocytes. The AEBv was obtained by decoction and administrated orally once a day in male mice for 7 days. After treatment, thymi were obtained for morphology analysis, relative weight, cellularity and deposition of laminin. Thymocytes obtained from control and treated animals were submitted to adhesion and migration assays followed by immunophenotyping. Also, mesenteric lymph nodes were removed, and the lymphoid cells were obtained to measure B cell proliferation and cytokine production. Mice treated with AEBv and their controls were also immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC), and 8 days post immunization the sera were collected to perform antibody titration using hemagglutination assays. AEBv administration decreased thymus weight and cellularity and increased the laminin deposition without any significant effect on the expression of the laminin receptor VLA-6 in the thymus microenvironment. Additionally, thymocytes of AEBv-treated mice showed reduced adhesion and migration on laminin substrates, and the B lymphocytes showed reduced proliferation, enhanced IL-10 secretion, decreased TNF-α production, and attenuated anti-SRBC antibody production. These findings showed that AEBv intake might cause modulatory effects on the functions of thymocytes and B-lymphocytes, contributing to the treatment of immune diseases. Key words: Thymocytes, cell migration, cell adhesion, immunosuppression, B cell.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research; doi:10.5897/jmpr
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 14, pp 225-231; doi:10.5897/jmpr2019.6845
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 14, pp 202-207; doi:10.5897/jmpr2019.6894
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 14, pp 195-201; doi:10.5897/jmpr2019.6769