International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2664-9411 / 2664-942X
Published by: Comprehensive Publications (10.33545)
Total articles ≅ 101
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Yash Dhamecha, Rishi Patel, Kunal
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 5, pp 06-10; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2022.v5.i1a.104

Abstract:
Background: In Dermatology, corticosteroids (CSs) are widely prescribed in either topical or systemic formulations in various potencies to tailor therapy according to severity of the underlying condition, area of involvement, and patient’s age. CSs, however, are associated with a number of serious adverse effects, particularly with long-term usage. Aims: To study the relationship of adverse drug reactions (ADR) of long-term glucocorticoids (GC) with age, sex, smoking, alcoholism, underlying dermatologic conditions and co-existing medical disorders. To study CSs in relation to musculoskeletal system, metabolic & blood sugar levels and eye complications. To compare the ADR in cases on Oral mini pulse therapy (OMP) and Daily glucocorticoid (DGC) therapy groups. Methods: This was a hospital based prospective study done on 130 patients on OMP or Daily glucocorticoid therapy for more than 1 month duration, over a period of 2 years. Results: Cushingoid features and weight gain were observed in both groups. Bone changes, diabetes mellitus and hypertension were seen in patients on DGC therapy. Bone changes were seen in 17 (18.88%), Steroid induced Diabetes Mellitus (SDM) in 27(30%), Hypertension in 12(13.3%), Lipid abnormalities (in the form of raised cholesterol and triglyceride levels) in 7 (7.77%), Cataract in 12(13.33%) and glaucoma was seen in 1(1.11%) out of 90 patients on Daily glucocorticoid therapy.1 patient each out of 40 in the OMP group developed cataract and hypertension. Conclusion: In conditions like vitiligo, alopecia areata and lichen planus particularly in children, it is preferable to give OMP. In pemphigus group of disorders while using daily GC therapy, continuous monitoring and ADR prevention measures should be considered for patient's benefit.
Yash Dhamecha, Sakshi Aggrawal
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 5, pp 01-05; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2022.v5.i1a.103

Abstract:
Background: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are one of the most disastrous events of human health causing huge psychosocial and economic morbidity in young and sexually active adults. Population explosion, migration from rural to urban areas, commercial sex and lack of awareness has all led to enormous spread of STIs in the community. Their epidemiological profile varies from country to country and from one region to another within a country. This study highlights the pattern of STIs in patients as seen at our hospital for a period of 2 years. Aim: To study the clinico-epidemiological profile of the patients with Sexually Transmitted Infections. Methods and Material: This study was conducted at Dept. of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy at PDU Govt. Medical College and Hospital, Rajkot, Gujarat. This included 300 consecutive symptomatic STI patients presenting to the clinic between November-2013 to October-2015. Diseases were diagnosed on the basis of detailed history, clinical examination and relevant investigations. Results: Most common age group affected was 21-30 years (39%). Incidence of STI was high among Males (75.33%). Married persons were more commonly affected (55.33%) as compared to unmarried. Herpes Genitalis (42.33%) was the most common STI followed by Genital warts (27.33%), Genital Molluscum Contagiosum (16.67%). The overall sero-prevalence of HIV among the STI patients was-19% and Herpes Genitalis was most commonly associated with sero-positivity.Conclusion: Study concluded that bacterial STIs are having declining trend and viral STIs are having upward trend. The persistent and recurrent nature of viral infections is responsible for their increasing trend in the current STI scenario.
Heleena Peter, M Anoop
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 46-48; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.92

Abstract:
Urticaria is commonly used to describe an eruption of wheals, as distinct from angioedema, although this does lead to confusion with classification of the physical Urticarias. The term ‘Urlicaria’ is increasingly being used to describe a disease that may present with wheals, angioedema or both. The details enquired from the patients include duration of disease, duration of individual wheals, frequency of attacks, distribution of wheals, associated systemic symptoms, provoking physical factors, food and drug intolerance, seasonal variation, associated angioedema. The frequency of attacks were classified into 3 groups-1-3episodes/week, 4-6 episodes/week and daily attacks. Out of total 60 patients, 8 patients gave history of daily attacks of which 7(87.5%) were ASST positive, and was found to be statistically significant. Increase in the frequency of attacks correlated well with the ASST positivity. Among 60 patients, 27 patients were having high Pruritus score, of which 20(74.1%) were ASST positive, which was statistically significant.
Subadharshini B, Kaviarasan Pk, Kannambal K, Poorana B
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 93-96; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.102

Abstract:
Aim: To evaluate the role of BIOCHIP mosaic based immunofluorescence test in the screening and diagnosis of autoimmune bullous disorsders. Results: Results of DIF and BIOCHIP were compared with clinical diagnosis. The sensitivity of DIF was 99% in all epidermal and subepidermal bullous diseases. The sensitivity of BIOCHIP in the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid, pemphigus foliaceus was almost 100% and comparable with that of DIF. Conclusion: Thus the sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of BIOCHIP is comparable with DIF making it a more effective practical screening tool for patients with suspected AIBD. Thus, BIOCHIP can be used as first line tool in the diagnosis of autoimmune bullous disorders.
Ly F, Lelo S, Wone I, Faye A, Koundio A, Ndiaye Diop Mt, Deh A, Faye B, Toure Ao, Mahé A, et al.
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 49-54; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.93

Abstract:
The main clinical manifestation of scabies caused by the mite, Sarcoptes scabei, is a pruritic skin eruption. Since 2017, WHO has recognised it as a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD). In order to bring forward strategies relevant to the framework of NTDs in Senegal, we conducted a study. Our aims were to determine the prevalence of scabies and its risk factors among students attending Koranic schools in Dakar Method: We were provided with a list of Koranic schools by the heads of health districts and the academic inspectorate. The Koranic schools participating in the study were randomly selected. A cross sectional study was performed, in the departments of Pikine and Dakar, located in the capital, Dakar. Diagnosis was based of clinical criteria with or without confirmation by parasitological examination. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata software version 12. The significance level was 5%. Result: During the study period from January 9 to October 16, 2018, a total of fifteen koranic schools were included. Out of the 959 residents, 70 were diagnosed with scabies giving a prevalence of 7.29%. The prevalence according to school varies from 1.63-30.84% The main risk factors were the following: male gender, age group less than 10 years (p
Pravin Vinil Raja I, Kaviarasan Pk, Poorana B, Kannambal K
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 89-92; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.101

Abstract:
Background: Psoriasis exclusively involving the palms and soles is known as palmoplantar psoriasis. Though it involves a small body surface area, poses significant morbidity in daily activities of patients. Systemic treatments are indicated for extensive and refractory cases. Systemic toxicity limits the usage of systemic drugs. Methotrexate a time proven drug for psoriasis has been used in oral, injectables and topical formulation. Iontophoresis is a transdermal drug delivery system which can enhance the penetration of methotrexate drug locally, minimizing the systemic side effects. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of transdermal delivery of methotrexate through iontophoresis in comparison to oral methotrexate in palmoplantar psoriasis. Methods: Forty patients attending the psoriasis clinic with psoriasis involving palms and/or soles are randomly allocated into two groups (20 in each). Methotrexate iontophoresis group was treated with iontophoresis weekly once for 16 weeks whereas oral methotrexate group was given 0.2-0.4mg/kg/week every weekly for 16 weeks. The severity of palmoplantar psoriasis was assessed by mPPPASI at baseline, 4,8,12 and 16 weeks. Results: Males are higher in both study groups. The most common age group of onset was at 40-60 years. Palms and soles was involved in 55%, soles only in 27.5% and palms alone in 17.5%. Mean mPPPASI reduction was gradual in both groups with comparable efficacy. mPPPASI reduction at 16 weeks was higher in Oral methotrexate with good compliance. Conclusion: Methotrexate delivered by Iontophoresis was equally effective as Oral methotrexate in treatment of palmoplantar psoriasis.
Sundiep Kumar, Jaishree Noor
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 66-69; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.96

Abstract:
Introduction: This study has aimed hypothesizing the presence of an unbalance between the TLR1 and TLR2 expressions associated to high bacillary loading and IL-10 expression in leprosy reactions, which, consequently, are favorable to survival of bacillus and the occurrence of these events. Materials and Methods: All the case diagnosed as leprosy were evaluated by Fite Faraco special stain and reported for bacilloscopy index according to reference guideline as below. Result: Out of 62 cases suspicious for clinically diagnosed leprosy, maximum number of cases were observed in the age group of 31 to 40 years (40%). Among various anatomical site for cutaneous presentation of leprosy in maximum number of cases, the lesions were observed in upper extremity.Conclusion: Bacteriological examination and bacilloscopy index add onto the morphological diagnosis and helps to categorise multibacillary and pauci bacillary leprosy. We recommend it to avoid false over and under diagnosis of leprosy cases.
Jaishree Noor, Sundiep Kumar
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 61-65; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.95

Abstract:
Introduction: Dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi that belong to three genera: Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton, of more than 40 different species, only a few are common causes of human infection. The natural reservoir of dermatophytes can be humans (anthropophilic), animals (zoophilic), or soil (geophilic). Common species causing human infection include E. floccosum, T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans (anthropophilic) and M. canis (zoophilic). Infection by dermatophytes usually involves cutaneous nonliving tissue due to the inability of dermatophytes to penetrate the deeper tissues or organs of immunosupressed hosts. This distribution pattern of dermatophytes infection in different part of the world has been attributed to factors of climate, life-style, and prevalence of immunodeficiency diseases in the community and also the reluctance of patients to seek treatment because of embarrassment or minor nature of disease unless the condition becomes sufficiently serious to affect the quality of life. Material and Methods: Patient’s data including age, sex, clinical diagnosis, site of infection and referring clinic were processed, identified and analyzed. All specimens were examined by 10% KOH mount and Lectophenol Cotton Blue for screening of fungal element and inoculated on Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar (SDA) with 0.5% mg/ml Chloramphenicol (with or without 0.5 mg/ml Cycloheximide). Fungus isolates were identified according standard procedures. Result: In our present study we included 100 patients suffering from dermatological disorder of any ages from 2015 to 2016 in tertiary care hospital of Udaipur. Out of 100 patients 45 were males and 55 were females. Among them, 40 patients found to be suffering from dermatophytosis, in which 22 (55%) were male and female were 18 (45%). Organism were isolated from hair, skin and nail samples of patients were Trychophyton spp 16 (40%) were most prevalent followed by Microsporum spp 15 (37.5%), candida spp 6 (15%), Epidermophyton spp 2 (5%) and Aspergillus spp 1 (2.5%). Conclusion: The actual prevalence of fungal diseases and their most common causative agents among children and adults in Udaipur are unknown. The causative agents include the dermatophytes, Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. So, we need a proper policy in tertiary care hospitals to provide effective treatment as well as prevent the misuse of Antifungal drugs. However further studies with large sample size is highly recommended to further support the findings from this study.
Bm Monisha, S Vinoth Kumar, Keerthana S
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 18-21; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.85

Abstract:
Introduction: Melasma is main cause of facial hyperchromia and has a significant psychosocial impact. Wood’s lamp has been a useful device to estimate the depth of melanin determined by light-induced fluorescence. A dermoscope enables a clear visualization of pigments distribution, and the color variation of melanin will depend on its location within the skin. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at the outpatient section of the Department of Dermatology of a tertiary care teaching hospital. A total of 120 patients were enrolled for a duration of 1 year. Patients diagnosed to have melasma on clinical grounds were enrolled after considering various inclusion and exclusion criteria. Result: On clinical examination, 47 patients had centrofacial distribution and 73 had malar distribution of melisma. On Wood’s lamp 51 patients showed complete enhancement hence classified as epidermal, 63 patients had no enhancement hence classified as dermal and 6 patients showed few areas of enhancement and hence classified as mixed melasma. On dermoscopy, 48 patients showed regular pigment network with a brownish homogeneous pigmentation hence classified as epidermal, 61 patients showed Irregular network with bluish grey pigmentation hence classified as dermal and 11 patients showed features of both epidermal and dermal and hence classified as mixed melasma. Conclusion: In the analysis of correlation between Dermoscopy and Wood’s lamp in classification of Melasma, the results showed substantial discordance between the methods. Based on the principles of Dermoscopic examination, this method applicable, more appropriate and helpful for routine diagnosis, assessment and monitoring of patients with melasma.
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