International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2664-9411 / 2664-942X
Published by: Comprehensive Publications (10.33545)
Total articles ≅ 89
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Heleena Peter, M Anoop
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 46-48; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.92

Abstract:
Urticaria is commonly used to describe an eruption of wheals, as distinct from angioedema, although this does lead to confusion with classification of the physical Urticarias. The term ‘Urlicaria’ is increasingly being used to describe a disease that may present with wheals, angioedema or both. The details enquired from the patients include duration of disease, duration of individual wheals, frequency of attacks, distribution of wheals, associated systemic symptoms, provoking physical factors, food and drug intolerance, seasonal variation, associated angioedema. The frequency of attacks were classified into 3 groups-1-3episodes/week, 4-6 episodes/week and daily attacks. Out of total 60 patients, 8 patients gave history of daily attacks of which 7(87.5%) were ASST positive, and was found to be statistically significant. Increase in the frequency of attacks correlated well with the ASST positivity. Among 60 patients, 27 patients were having high Pruritus score, of which 20(74.1%) were ASST positive, which was statistically significant.
Sundiep Kumar, Jaishree Noor
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 66-69; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.96

Abstract:
Introduction: This study has aimed hypothesizing the presence of an unbalance between the TLR1 and TLR2 expressions associated to high bacillary loading and IL-10 expression in leprosy reactions, which, consequently, are favorable to survival of bacillus and the occurrence of these events. Materials and Methods: All the case diagnosed as leprosy were evaluated by Fite Faraco special stain and reported for bacilloscopy index according to reference guideline as below. Result: Out of 62 cases suspicious for clinically diagnosed leprosy, maximum number of cases were observed in the age group of 31 to 40 years (40%). Among various anatomical site for cutaneous presentation of leprosy in maximum number of cases, the lesions were observed in upper extremity.Conclusion: Bacteriological examination and bacilloscopy index add onto the morphological diagnosis and helps to categorise multibacillary and pauci bacillary leprosy. We recommend it to avoid false over and under diagnosis of leprosy cases.
Ly F, Lelo S, Wone I, Faye A, Koundio A, Ndiaye Diop Mt, Deh A, Faye B, Toure Ao, Mahé A, et al.
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 49-54; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.93

Abstract:
The main clinical manifestation of scabies caused by the mite, Sarcoptes scabei, is a pruritic skin eruption. Since 2017, WHO has recognised it as a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD). In order to bring forward strategies relevant to the framework of NTDs in Senegal, we conducted a study. Our aims were to determine the prevalence of scabies and its risk factors among students attending Koranic schools in Dakar Method: We were provided with a list of Koranic schools by the heads of health districts and the academic inspectorate. The Koranic schools participating in the study were randomly selected. A cross sectional study was performed, in the departments of Pikine and Dakar, located in the capital, Dakar. Diagnosis was based of clinical criteria with or without confirmation by parasitological examination. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata software version 12. The significance level was 5%. Result: During the study period from January 9 to October 16, 2018, a total of fifteen koranic schools were included. Out of the 959 residents, 70 were diagnosed with scabies giving a prevalence of 7.29%. The prevalence according to school varies from 1.63-30.84% The main risk factors were the following: male gender, age group less than 10 years (p
Pravin Vinil Raja I, Kaviarasan Pk, Poorana B, Kannambal K
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 89-92; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.101

Abstract:
Background: Psoriasis exclusively involving the palms and soles is known as palmoplantar psoriasis. Though it involves a small body surface area, poses significant morbidity in daily activities of patients. Systemic treatments are indicated for extensive and refractory cases. Systemic toxicity limits the usage of systemic drugs. Methotrexate a time proven drug for psoriasis has been used in oral, injectables and topical formulation. Iontophoresis is a transdermal drug delivery system which can enhance the penetration of methotrexate drug locally, minimizing the systemic side effects. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of transdermal delivery of methotrexate through iontophoresis in comparison to oral methotrexate in palmoplantar psoriasis. Methods: Forty patients attending the psoriasis clinic with psoriasis involving palms and/or soles are randomly allocated into two groups (20 in each). Methotrexate iontophoresis group was treated with iontophoresis weekly once for 16 weeks whereas oral methotrexate group was given 0.2-0.4mg/kg/week every weekly for 16 weeks. The severity of palmoplantar psoriasis was assessed by mPPPASI at baseline, 4,8,12 and 16 weeks. Results: Males are higher in both study groups. The most common age group of onset was at 40-60 years. Palms and soles was involved in 55%, soles only in 27.5% and palms alone in 17.5%. Mean mPPPASI reduction was gradual in both groups with comparable efficacy. mPPPASI reduction at 16 weeks was higher in Oral methotrexate with good compliance. Conclusion: Methotrexate delivered by Iontophoresis was equally effective as Oral methotrexate in treatment of palmoplantar psoriasis.
Subadharshini B, Kaviarasan Pk, Kannambal K, Poorana B
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 93-96; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.102

Abstract:
Aim: To evaluate the role of BIOCHIP mosaic based immunofluorescence test in the screening and diagnosis of autoimmune bullous disorsders. Results: Results of DIF and BIOCHIP were compared with clinical diagnosis. The sensitivity of DIF was 99% in all epidermal and subepidermal bullous diseases. The sensitivity of BIOCHIP in the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid, pemphigus foliaceus was almost 100% and comparable with that of DIF. Conclusion: Thus the sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of BIOCHIP is comparable with DIF making it a more effective practical screening tool for patients with suspected AIBD. Thus, BIOCHIP can be used as first line tool in the diagnosis of autoimmune bullous disorders.
Jaishree Noor, Sundiep Kumar
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 61-65; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.95

Abstract:
Introduction: Dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi that belong to three genera: Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton, of more than 40 different species, only a few are common causes of human infection. The natural reservoir of dermatophytes can be humans (anthropophilic), animals (zoophilic), or soil (geophilic). Common species causing human infection include E. floccosum, T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans (anthropophilic) and M. canis (zoophilic). Infection by dermatophytes usually involves cutaneous nonliving tissue due to the inability of dermatophytes to penetrate the deeper tissues or organs of immunosupressed hosts. This distribution pattern of dermatophytes infection in different part of the world has been attributed to factors of climate, life-style, and prevalence of immunodeficiency diseases in the community and also the reluctance of patients to seek treatment because of embarrassment or minor nature of disease unless the condition becomes sufficiently serious to affect the quality of life. Material and Methods: Patient’s data including age, sex, clinical diagnosis, site of infection and referring clinic were processed, identified and analyzed. All specimens were examined by 10% KOH mount and Lectophenol Cotton Blue for screening of fungal element and inoculated on Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar (SDA) with 0.5% mg/ml Chloramphenicol (with or without 0.5 mg/ml Cycloheximide). Fungus isolates were identified according standard procedures. Result: In our present study we included 100 patients suffering from dermatological disorder of any ages from 2015 to 2016 in tertiary care hospital of Udaipur. Out of 100 patients 45 were males and 55 were females. Among them, 40 patients found to be suffering from dermatophytosis, in which 22 (55%) were male and female were 18 (45%). Organism were isolated from hair, skin and nail samples of patients were Trychophyton spp 16 (40%) were most prevalent followed by Microsporum spp 15 (37.5%), candida spp 6 (15%), Epidermophyton spp 2 (5%) and Aspergillus spp 1 (2.5%). Conclusion: The actual prevalence of fungal diseases and their most common causative agents among children and adults in Udaipur are unknown. The causative agents include the dermatophytes, Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. So, we need a proper policy in tertiary care hospitals to provide effective treatment as well as prevent the misuse of Antifungal drugs. However further studies with large sample size is highly recommended to further support the findings from this study.
Suni Christina Widjaya, Lysa Mariam
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 25-28; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.87

Abstract:
Introduction:Lucio's phenomenon (LP) is a rare leprosy reaction characterized by severe necrosis of the skin. LP is a variant of type II leprosy reaction by the involvement of immune complexes. LP is usually found in Mexico and Central America. This reaction is especially found in diffuse non-nodular lepromatous leprosy who have not received or completed leprosy treatment. Case: A 36 years woman with newly diagnosed Lucio’s phenomenon after initially being misdiagnosed with fungal infection for several months. Discussion: In clinically, LP may mimic other diseases such as mycosis and allergic reaction.Until now there is no consensus regarding LP treatment and combination MDT-MB and systemic corticosteroids are the options in this case. Conclusion: A proper history, physical examination, and histopathology are important diagnostic approaches to avoid misdiagnosis or underdiagnosis in LP cases especially in leprosy endemic regions. The combination of MDT-MB and systemic corticosteroids in FL gives a good response.
Arpna Sharma, Rajwinder Singh, Saurabh Sharma, Rakesh Gupta, Vinay Shankar
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 39-42; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.90

Abstract:
Background: Nailfold capillaroscopy is a major diagnostic tool for connective tissue disorders like systemic sclerosis. Microvascular complications in diabetes is the major cause of morbidity and mortality which if detected early can improve the quality of life of these patients. Materials and Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study enrolled 30 diabetic patients for one year. An ophthalmologist examined all participants to rule out retinopathy. All patients subsequently underwent detailed nail fold capillaroscopy (NFC) examination of all ten fingernails with digital Dermatoscope. Data was recorded and presented with proportions. Results: The mean age was 45.88±11.49 years (p-value: 0.009) with 17 (56.1%) males and 13 (43.9%) females. Mean HbA1c was 7.1 (1.6) % (p-value: 0.074). One (1.3%) participant had abnormal nail plate, nail fold, and lunula on examination. In addition, 2 (6.7%) participants had abnormal (ragged) cuticles. The mean capillary density was 6.72±0.38 capillaries per mm (range 5.83-7.24). Tortuosity was the most common observed qualitative change (n=28; 93.3%) followed by meandering capillaries (n=23; 76.7%), capillary dilatation (n=15; 50.0%) and avascular areas (n=14; 46.7%). Conclusion: In diabetic patients without retinopathy, nail fold changes appear before microangiopathic complications like retinopathy. Nailfold capillaroscopy is a potential early screening tool for patients at risk of microangiopathic complications.
Bm Monisha, S Vinoth Kumar, Keerthana S
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 18-21; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.85

Abstract:
Introduction: Melasma is main cause of facial hyperchromia and has a significant psychosocial impact. Wood’s lamp has been a useful device to estimate the depth of melanin determined by light-induced fluorescence. A dermoscope enables a clear visualization of pigments distribution, and the color variation of melanin will depend on its location within the skin. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at the outpatient section of the Department of Dermatology of a tertiary care teaching hospital. A total of 120 patients were enrolled for a duration of 1 year. Patients diagnosed to have melasma on clinical grounds were enrolled after considering various inclusion and exclusion criteria. Result: On clinical examination, 47 patients had centrofacial distribution and 73 had malar distribution of melisma. On Wood’s lamp 51 patients showed complete enhancement hence classified as epidermal, 63 patients had no enhancement hence classified as dermal and 6 patients showed few areas of enhancement and hence classified as mixed melasma. On dermoscopy, 48 patients showed regular pigment network with a brownish homogeneous pigmentation hence classified as epidermal, 61 patients showed Irregular network with bluish grey pigmentation hence classified as dermal and 11 patients showed features of both epidermal and dermal and hence classified as mixed melasma. Conclusion: In the analysis of correlation between Dermoscopy and Wood’s lamp in classification of Melasma, the results showed substantial discordance between the methods. Based on the principles of Dermoscopic examination, this method applicable, more appropriate and helpful for routine diagnosis, assessment and monitoring of patients with melasma.
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