ISSN / EISSN : 21511918 / 21511926
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 204
Latest articles in this journal
Chinese Medicine, Volume 11, pp 9-18; doi:10.4236/cm.2020.111002
The paper is proposed to explore the potential effects of Shufeng Jiedu Capsule against COVID-19. The ingredients and targets of Shufeng Jiedu Capsule were collected by the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP), and the gene names of potential targets were extracted by UniProtKB. Then we did protein-protein interaction networks functional enrichment analysis by the STRING platform, reconstructed drug-target pathways and networks to predict the likely protein targets of the capsule against COVID-19 with software Cytoscape 3.6.1, and carried out GO enrichment analysis and KEGG analysis with R 5.3.2 software. At last we validated our predictions on molecular docking. The results suggested that Shufeng Jiedu Capsule contained 155 ingredients and 237 targets, including 26 main active ingredients and 45 key targets. There were 2334 biological processes (BP), 103 cell composition (CC) and 198 molecular functions (MF) in GO Enrichment Analysis, and 177 pathways in the KEGG analysis. The molecular docking analysis showed that binding energy for 26 main active ingredients ranged from -32.21 to -25.94 kJ·mol-1, and the main targets bind to SARS-CoV-2 3CL hydrolase by acting on CASP9, PRKCA, RELA and others. Our study suggested that Shufeng Jiedu Capsule has potential therapeutic effects on COVID-19.
Chinese Medicine, Volume 11, pp 19-29; doi:10.4236/cm.2020.111003
Objective: The target prediction and molecular mechanism of compound Honggencao in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infection were investigated based on network pharmacology. Methods: In the database of Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform, chemical composition and potential targets of compound Honggencao were mined, and the target gene of upper respiratory tract infection of compound Honggencao was extracted from GeneCards databases. The protein-protein interaction of target genes was constructed. Then, the essential genes of enrichment of KEGG pathway analysis and functional analysis were analysed. Results: Compound Honggencao had 69 kinds of active ingredients. The upper respiratory tract infection of the target gene was 186 that built compound Honggencao on the relationship between upper respiratory tract infections of protein interaction networks, which had a total of 186 nodes, 3515 sides. Fifty-six essential genes were including IL-17, EGFR and CDND1, and so on. Gene ontology analysis had 2567 items, and pathway analysis was 166 items. The main signaling pathways involved with IL-17 signaling pathways, tumour necrosis factor signal pathway and human cytomegalovirus infection, and so on. Conclusion: The pharmacological action of compound Honggencao on upper respiratory tract infection was characterized by the synergistic effect of multiple components and multiple targets, which provided an absolute theoretical basis for the research on the pharmacological direction of molecular signaling pathway and a specific theoretical basis for clinical use.
Chinese Medicine, Volume 11, pp 1-8; doi:10.4236/cm.2020.111001
Objective: To investigate the possible mechanism of Yiqing Capsules in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infection based on network pharmacology. Methods: The main active components of Yiqing Capsules were selected on TCMSP database; the targets of upper respiratory tract infection were selected on GeneCards database. The drug-compound-target network and PPi network were constructed through STRING database and soft Cytoscape 3.7.2. Soft R was used to perform GO enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of main targets. Results: According to the screening conditions, 48 active compounds and 171 related targets were obtained. GO enrichment analysis obtained 2333 items, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis obtained 2248 items, including Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection, Human cytomegalovirus infection, Epstein-Barr virus infection, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, etc. Conclusion: Yiqing capsules play a therapeutic role in upper respiratory tract infection through multi-target and multi-pathway.
Chinese Medicine, Volume 11, pp 96-104; doi:10.4236/cm.2020.112005
Objective: To select the ingredients and targets of Yiqing capsule in treating COVID-19 based on network pharmacology, then to explore the potential mechanism of Yiqing capsule in treating COVID-19. Methods: We screened the ingredients and targets of Yiqing capsule on Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP), and target genes for COVID-19 in GeneCards database, constructed drug-ingredient-target network through software Cytoscape 3.7.2, and constructed protein protein interaction network (PPI) network through STRING database. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis of key gene targets of Yiqing capsule are used to treat COVID-19 through software R5.3.2. Results: We got 42 ingredients, 42 potential therapeutic targets, 1643 GO items and 970 pathways in our study. The main pathway including IL-17 signaling pathway, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), Influenza A, and TNF signaling pathway. Conclusion: Yiqing capsule plays a role in treating COVID-19 through multiple ingredients, multiple targets and multiple pathways.
Chinese Medicine, Volume 11, pp 31-95; doi:10.4236/cm.2020.112004
The TCM philosophy of a meridian and associated channels pertains to the specific function of one or more organs. We define the Lung Primary Meridian (LUM) together with the Lung Sinew (LUSC), Divergent (LUDC), Luo-connecting (LULCC) Channels as a system of routes plus some parts of the body (such as muscles) to fulfil respiration, as a main function under different situations. There is very limited information about the Lung associated channels in classical literature of TCM. With a clear focus on the function of respiration, we have carried out a detailed analysis of the biomedical consequence of stimulating the LUM, analysed the roles played by LUSC, LUDC, and LULCC. The updated LUM and LUDC include acupoints of other meridians, serving the same purpose of performing satisfactory respiration starting from checking the quality of the inflow through the nose. The LUSC includes the respiratory muscles (plus the associated connective tissues) extending to various parts of the body. The muscles of the limb (as part of the LUSC) embrace the nerves that provide routes for somatosensory reflexes and play the role of locomotion, providing voluntary respiration via the pectoralis muscles. The muscles of LUSC are bounded by stiff connective tissue layers, forming compartments, and are part of the pulley system for various body locomotions. Within a compartment, the interstitial fluid, blood, lymph flows must be potent to protect the associated nerves related to LUM; the healthy state of the LUSC also provides freedom of various types of locomotion. The LULCC exists because the vagus nerve has a part of it passing through the spinal cords all the way down to the sacrum domain, with exiting nerve innervating two-third of the large intestine. The crucial steps of our deductions are supported by experimental evidence based on modern neurophysiology and kinesiology. We discover that all the four channels stated above work as a unit system to allow respiration to be possible under various postures/conditions. The complexity of structures and processes is eased off by providing 29 figures and 13 tables for the relevant muscles and nerves. In addition to respiration, the Lung system in TCM context includes interaction of this system with the sweat gland and neuroendocrine system; such aspects will be left to another study.
Chinese Medicine, Volume 11, pp 105-112; doi:10.4236/cm.2020.112006
With the increasing aging population around the world as a result of birth rates and advances in medical technologies, there is an urgent need to unravel the primary cause of aging, in the hope of developing a rational approach to retard the aging process. This is crucial to reduce the societal impact of aging. Although modern medicine and traditional Chinese medicine view the process of aging from different perspectives, this article aims to develop a common understanding between these two distinct medical systems in relation to the aging process. As such, a unified approach can hopefully be developed to effectively slow down the aging process. Modern medicine has proposed the “mitochondrial theory” of aging, which implicates a causal relationship between the rate of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation and lifespan as noted in a wide spectrum of primate species, while traditional Chinese medicine views aging as the result of a gradual depletion of congenital primordial Qi, which can be spared by the sufficient generation of postnatal pectoral Qi. By amalgamating the knowledge of modern medicine with that of traditional Chinese medicine in relation to aging, it is suggested that while Chinese tonifying herbs can be used to restore the balance of body functions enabling the generation of sufficient pectoral Qi, active ingredients isolated from Chinese tonifying herbs or other plant sources capable of inducing mitohormesis and mitophagy, as well as senolysis, can be used to retard the aging process.
Chinese Medicine, Volume 10, pp 11-18; doi:10.4236/cm.2019.101002
Objective: Mitochondrial impairment in the skeletal muscle contributes to useless of limbs in spleen qi deficiency; however the genesis of such impairment is not clear. Herein, PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)-Parkin pathway and mitophagy were studied to explore the machinery of mitochondrial impairment. Methods: 16 male SD rats were randomly divided in the control group and spleen qi deficiency group (model group); transmission electron microscope was used to observe mitochondrial morphology; mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was assessed by testing mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and levels of ATP and ROS; western blot was used to analyze expressions of PINK1, Parkin, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II) and p62. Results: Compared with those in the control group, mitochondria became small, less and scattered, MMP and the ATP level were reduced, the ROS level was elevated, PINK1 expression was decreased, p62 expression was increased, but Parkin and LC3-II expressions were not altered, in the model group. Conclusions: Suppression of mitophagy might be related to the mitochondrial damage in the skeletal muscle when spleen qi deficiency develops.
Chinese Medicine, Volume 10, pp 19-29; doi:10.4236/cm.2019.101003
Interleukin I receptor associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) is a downstream signal molecule of activated MyD88 recruitment, which can activate Fas associated death domain protein (FADD) to induce apoptosis. IRAK1 can also activate tumor necrosis factor-related factor 6 (TRAF6) and induce the expression of a series of downstream specific genes. IRAK1 is an essential factor in the induction of mitochondrial division and necroptosis. In the current study, RNAi technique was used to silence IRAK1, and the apoptosis and necroptosis rate of SK-Hep1 cells were detected by flow cytometry. The apoptosis and the necroptosis pathway of hepatoma SK-Hep1 cells were blocked separately, and the expressions of FADD, RIP1 and TRAF6 genes were silenced separately. The results showed when the expression of IRAK1 was down-regulated, the apoptosis and necroptosis rate of SK-Hep1 cells were significantly increased. With silenced FADD, RIP1 and TRAF6, respectively, the expression of IRAK1 protein had no significant change. However, the expression of IRAK1 mRNA decreased significantly (p < 0.01) after the silencing of RIP1 and TRAF6 genes, while the IRAK1 mRNA did not change significantly after the silencing of FADD genes; when z-VAD-FMK was interfered, the expression of IRAK1 mRNA decreased significantly after the silencing of TRAF6 genes, while the IRAK1 mRNA did not change significantly after the silencing of FADD and RIP1genes. The study shows that RAK1 gene inhibits apoptosis and necroptosis in SK-Hep1 cells. TRAF6 gene affected the role of IRAK1 in apoptosis and necroptosis, RIP1 gene affected the role of IRAK1 in apoptosis, while FADD gene did not affect the role of IRAK1 in apoptosis and necroptosis.
Chinese Medicine, Volume 10, pp 1-10; doi:10.4236/cm.2019.101001
Chinese Medicine, Volume 10, pp 121-135; doi:10.4236/cm.2019.104007
“Meridian tropism” refers to the organ-specific biological action(s) produced by a Chinese herb following its oral administration, which is analogous to the concept of “bioavailability” in Western medicine. In this study, we compared the in vitro and ex vivo pharmacological actions of three herbs [namely, Dangshen (DS, Codonopsis Radix), Ranshen (RS, Ginseng Radix) and Xiyangshen (XYS, Panacis Qinquifolii Ra-dix)] to validate their meridian tropism. We compared the in vitro and ex vivo pharmacological actions [i.e. the ability to increase splenocyte proliferation and adenosine triphosphate-generation capacity (ATP-GC)] of the ethanolic extracts of DS, RS and XYS to validate their meridian tropism. Results showed that DS, RS and XYS (at 30 - 300 μg/mL) can both stimulate the proliferation of primary mouse splenocytes in vitro and increase adenosine triphosphate-generation capacity (ATP-GC) in cultured Caco 2 colon epithelial cells in vitro. Interestingly, oral administration of DS and RS (but not XYS, at 3 and 6 g/kg/day × 3 consecutive days) was found to stimulate the proliferation of splenocytes ex vivo at 24 h post-treatment in mice. Similarly, DS and RS (but not XYS) increased the ATP-GC of mitochondrial fractions isolated from a small segment of mouse intestine at 48 h post-treatment. This observation is consistent with the meridian tropism of the pharmacological action of “Shen”, i.e., the accessibility of DS and RS (but not XYS) to the “Spleen” meridian. The comparison between the results obtained from in vitro and in vivo/ex vivo bioassays may offer a potential method for assessing meridian tropism in Chinese herbs.