ISSN / EISSN : 2151-1918 / 2151-1926
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 206
Latest articles in this journal
Chinese Medicine, Volume 11, pp 113-125; doi:10.4236/cm.2020.113007
Objectives: To explore the effects of Qi-invigorating herbs on mitochondrial function using cultured cells and animal organs. Methods: Using water extracts of Astragali radix, we investigated the effect of “Qi-invigoration” on M-1 renal cells and mouse organs in-vitro including total adenylate production (TAP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). We also examined the effect on antioxidant capacity by conducting an analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH). Results: 1) Astragali radix increased mitochondrial TAP generation and decreased ROS levels in both mouse kidney tissues and M-1 renal cells. 2) Astragali radix also significantly increased MMP and GSH levels in M-1 cells, but in the kidney tissue, there was no significant change in MMP levels and a decrease in GSH levels. 3) Astragali radix stimulated TAP levels in the heart, spleen, lung, kidney and skeletal muscle tissue, which was accompanied by the reduction of ROS. 4) For the meridian organs that Astragali radix belongs to, the energy production and antioxidant capacity were boosted simultaneously. Conclusions: These results provide new insights for the biochemical basis of Qi-invigoration and the meridian tropism theory for this Qi-invigorating herb.
Chinese Medicine, Volume 11, pp 19-29; doi:10.4236/cm.2020.111003
Objective: The target prediction and molecular mechanism of compound Honggencao in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infection were investigated based on network pharmacology. Methods: In the database of Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform, chemical composition and potential targets of compound Honggencao were mined, and the target gene of upper respiratory tract infection of compound Honggencao was extracted from GeneCards databases. The protein-protein interaction of target genes was constructed. Then, the essential genes of enrichment of KEGG pathway analysis and functional analysis were analysed. Results: Compound Honggencao had 69 kinds of active ingredients. The upper respiratory tract infection of the target gene was 186 that built compound Honggencao on the relationship between upper respiratory tract infections of protein interaction networks, which had a total of 186 nodes, 3515 sides. Fifty-six essential genes were including IL-17, EGFR and CDND1, and so on. Gene ontology analysis had 2567 items, and pathway analysis was 166 items. The main signaling pathways involved with IL-17 signaling pathways, tumour necrosis factor signal pathway and human cytomegalovirus infection, and so on. Conclusion: The pharmacological action of compound Honggencao on upper respiratory tract infection was characterized by the synergistic effect of multiple components and multiple targets, which provided an absolute theoretical basis for the research on the pharmacological direction of molecular signaling pathway and a specific theoretical basis for clinical use.
Chinese Medicine, Volume 11, pp 127-141; doi:10.4236/cm.2020.114008
The linkage between Qi and mitochondria was investigated by exploring the effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Qi-invigorating herbs on mitochondrial function at the biochemical and molecular levels. Three Chinese herbs (Astragali radix, Herba cistanche, Panax ginseng) were used to treat cultured mouse kidney cells and the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was measured. The Qi-invigorating herb, Astragali radix, was selected for further study using additional biological and molecular parameters, including ATP, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mtDNA copies, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), cell growth, cell viability and transcriptomes. We also chose two concentrations of Astragali radix to study the hormetic effect. The results indicated that: 1) Qi-invigorating herbs have significant effects on the function of mitochondria, with ATP production and the antioxidant capacity being significantly enhanced, and ROS levels being reduced, allowing for a more optimal oxidation environment. The effect of the herbs followed a hormetic curve with a stimulating effect at lower doses but an inhibiting effect at high doses; 2) The growth of the cells was not affected despite numerous biochemical changes associated with mitochondrial function, indicating the powerful ability of mitochondria to maintain cellular homeostasis; 3) The up-regulation of NOCT gene, related to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) synthesis, offers a molecular basis for the ATP-promoting effect of the Qi-invigorating herbs. This work provides additional insight into the efficacy of TCM herbs from a western perspective.
Chinese Medicine, Volume 11, pp 96-104; doi:10.4236/cm.2020.112005
Objective: To select the ingredients and targets of Yiqing capsule in treating COVID-19 based on network pharmacology, then to explore the potential mechanism of Yiqing capsule in treating COVID-19. Methods: We screened the ingredients and targets of Yiqing capsule on Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP), and target genes for COVID-19 in GeneCards database, constructed drug-ingredient-target network through software Cytoscape 3.7.2, and constructed protein protein interaction network (PPI) network through STRING database. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis of key gene targets of Yiqing capsule are used to treat COVID-19 through software R5.3.2. Results: We got 42 ingredients, 42 potential therapeutic targets, 1643 GO items and 970 pathways in our study. The main pathway including IL-17 signaling pathway, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), Influenza A, and TNF signaling pathway. Conclusion: Yiqing capsule plays a role in treating COVID-19 through multiple ingredients, multiple targets and multiple pathways.
Chinese Medicine, Volume 11, pp 31-95; doi:10.4236/cm.2020.112004
The TCM philosophy of a meridian and associated channels pertains to the specific function of one or more organs. We define the Lung Primary Meridian (LUM) together with the Lung Sinew (LUSC), Divergent (LUDC), Luo-connecting (LULCC) Channels as a system of routes plus some parts of the body (such as muscles) to fulfil respiration, as a main function under different situations. There is very limited information about the Lung associated channels in classical literature of TCM. With a clear focus on the function of respiration, we have carried out a detailed analysis of the biomedical consequence of stimulating the LUM, analysed the roles played by LUSC, LUDC, and LULCC. The updated LUM and LUDC include acupoints of other meridians, serving the same purpose of performing satisfactory respiration starting from checking the quality of the inflow through the nose. The LUSC includes the respiratory muscles (plus the associated connective tissues) extending to various parts of the body. The muscles of the limb (as part of the LUSC) embrace the nerves that provide routes for somatosensory reflexes and play the role of locomotion, providing voluntary respiration via the pectoralis muscles. The muscles of LUSC are bounded by stiff connective tissue layers, forming compartments, and are part of the pulley system for various body locomotions. Within a compartment, the interstitial fluid, blood, lymph flows must be potent to protect the associated nerves related to LUM; the healthy state of the LUSC also provides freedom of various types of locomotion. The LULCC exists because the vagus nerve has a part of it passing through the spinal cords all the way down to the sacrum domain, with exiting nerve innervating two-third of the large intestine. The crucial steps of our deductions are supported by experimental evidence based on modern neurophysiology and kinesiology. We discover that all the four channels stated above work as a unit system to allow respiration to be possible under various postures/conditions. The complexity of structures and processes is eased off by providing 29 figures and 13 tables for the relevant muscles and nerves. In addition to respiration, the Lung system in TCM context includes interaction of this system with the sweat gland and neuroendocrine system; such aspects will be left to another study.
Chinese Medicine, Volume 11, pp 105-112; doi:10.4236/cm.2020.112006
With the increasing aging population around the world as a result of birth rates and advances in medical technologies, there is an urgent need to unravel the primary cause of aging, in the hope of developing a rational approach to retard the aging process. This is crucial to reduce the societal impact of aging. Although modern medicine and traditional Chinese medicine view the process of aging from different perspectives, this article aims to develop a common understanding between these two distinct medical systems in relation to the aging process. As such, a unified approach can hopefully be developed to effectively slow down the aging process. Modern medicine has proposed the “mitochondrial theory” of aging, which implicates a causal relationship between the rate of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation and lifespan as noted in a wide spectrum of primate species, while traditional Chinese medicine views aging as the result of a gradual depletion of congenital primordial Qi, which can be spared by the sufficient generation of postnatal pectoral Qi. By amalgamating the knowledge of modern medicine with that of traditional Chinese medicine in relation to aging, it is suggested that while Chinese tonifying herbs can be used to restore the balance of body functions enabling the generation of sufficient pectoral Qi, active ingredients isolated from Chinese tonifying herbs or other plant sources capable of inducing mitohormesis and mitophagy, as well as senolysis, can be used to retard the aging process.
Chinese Medicine, Volume 11, pp 9-18; doi:10.4236/cm.2020.111002
The paper is proposed to explore the potential effects of Shufeng Jiedu Capsule against COVID-19. The ingredients and targets of Shufeng Jiedu Capsule were collected by the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP), and the gene names of potential targets were extracted by UniProtKB. Then we did protein-protein interaction networks functional enrichment analysis by the STRING platform, reconstructed drug-target pathways and networks to predict the likely protein targets of the capsule against COVID-19 with software Cytoscape 3.6.1, and carried out GO enrichment analysis and KEGG analysis with R 5.3.2 software. At last we validated our predictions on molecular docking. The results suggested that Shufeng Jiedu Capsule contained 155 ingredients and 237 targets, including 26 main active ingredients and 45 key targets. There were 2334 biological processes (BP), 103 cell composition (CC) and 198 molecular functions (MF) in GO Enrichment Analysis, and 177 pathways in the KEGG analysis. The molecular docking analysis showed that binding energy for 26 main active ingredients ranged from -32.21 to -25.94 kJ·mol-1, and the main targets bind to SARS-CoV-2 3CL hydrolase by acting on CASP9, PRKCA, RELA and others. Our study suggested that Shufeng Jiedu Capsule has potential therapeutic effects on COVID-19.
Chinese Medicine, Volume 11, pp 1-8; doi:10.4236/cm.2020.111001
Objective: To investigate the possible mechanism of Yiqing Capsules in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infection based on network pharmacology. Methods: The main active components of Yiqing Capsules were selected on TCMSP database; the targets of upper respiratory tract infection were selected on GeneCards database. The drug-compound-target network and PPi network were constructed through STRING database and soft Cytoscape 3.7.2. Soft R was used to perform GO enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of main targets. Results: According to the screening conditions, 48 active compounds and 171 related targets were obtained. GO enrichment analysis obtained 2333 items, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis obtained 2248 items, including Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection, Human cytomegalovirus infection, Epstein-Barr virus infection, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, etc. Conclusion: Yiqing capsules play a therapeutic role in upper respiratory tract infection through multi-target and multi-pathway.
Chinese Medicine, Volume 10, pp 31-38; doi:10.4236/cm.2019.102004
Background: The foundation of this acupuncture model is to solve the lack of experimental teaching model and student’s inadequate ability to identify acupoints in the teaching of acupuncture and moxibustion in traditional Chinese medicine. Methods: In this model we use modern materials to simulate human arms and combination with electronic engineering to create a “Modern Version of Acupuncture Man” and select 2015 undergraduates of Traditional Chinese Medicine School in Jinan University as the research object, to divide those students into two teaching mode which is using acupuncture models or not, to compare their mastery of the acupoint names and position. Results: After the three times different mode teaching and have a test, the average score of using models group was much higher than traditional teaching mode groups (p ke the theory of acupuncture more “Standardization” and “Visualization”.
Chinese Medicine, Volume 10, pp 107-119; doi:10.4236/cm.2019.103006
To investigate the effect of mitochondrial DNA deletion and OSW-1 on PI3K-AKT signaling pathway PCR Array in SK-Hep1 hepatocellular carcinoma cells, we prepared SK-Hep1 cells with mtDNA deletion, that is, p0SK Hep. Then the OSW-1 of 100 ng/L was used to intervene SK-Hep1 and p0SK-Hep1. RT-qPCR was used to detect the difference of gene expression on PI3K-AKT signaling pathway PCR Array in four groups of cells. The gene expression of TLR4, FOS and TSC2 markers in SK-Hep1 cells treated with OSW-1 were significantly increased. The gene expressions of PDPK1, GJA1, TLR4 and TSC2 markers were significantly increased in p0SK-Hep1 cells, and the gene expressions of IRAK1 and GJA1 markers were significantly increased in p0SK-Hep1 cells treated with OSW-1. OSW-1 mainly affects the genes related to TLR4 pathway on PI3K-AKT signaling pathway PCR Array in SK-Hep1 HCC cells. P0SK-Hep1 mainly affects the upstream PDK1 gene and downstream TSC2 gene of Akt on PI3K-AKT signaling pathway PCR Array, and also affects the gene expression of gap junction at the same time.