Nigerian Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2616-051X / 2616-0501
Total articles ≅ 184
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Nigerian Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Volume 5, pp 307-319; https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0234

Abstract:
The paper examined the assessment of the relevance of mapping and sampling of land-use types; residential, commercial and industrial on groundwater quality in the Apapa Local Government area of Lagos. Mapping of an area provides information, delineation, features and interpretation about an area while sampling revealed detailed analyses about a-cross-sections of the problem identified procedures and proper solutions. There exists a correlation between mapping and sampling of groundwater quality of the land use types in Apapa. The objective of the study was to examine the relevance of mapping and sampling on its effects on groundwater quality of the 3 most land-use types in Apapa. Data for this study were obtained from primary and secondary sources. Primary data were obtained from mapping of the aerial and ground features of the study area and collection of water samples from 30 hand-dug wells. These samples were analysed in the laboratory to ascertain the states of physical and chemical parameters of the 30 sampled points. The techniques of field studies and analyses of mapping and laboratory experimentation of water samples were used for the study. The results show that mapping of the aerial extent and ground features is relevant to sampling collection because mapping is essentials and provides a fulcrum for physical and human features to be examines where samples of an area or events is to be made. The study recommended that at regular intervals, mapping of an area extent and ground features of sampling points of water sources should be done and made available to examine water quality as recommended by WHO, since flow lines of ground water movement convey pollutants which inferably determine the contamination of water sources. This paper calls for further research of mapping and sampling in other major land use types in other Local Government areas of Lagos State, Nigeria.
, R.E. Ubaekwe, A.N. Okeke, L.C. Malizu
Nigerian Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Volume 5, pp 347-353; https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0280

Abstract:
The study was conducted to identify superior D. edulis trees using phenotypic characters (fruit and seed size) as the criteria to select candidate trees for subsequent multiplication through vegetative propagation. Five D. edulis compound trees were randomly selected within Onne community in Eleme LGA Rivers state in a preliminary effort to assist households in the selection and multiplication of desirable tree phenotypes. Seeds were extracted by softening fruit with warm water at 57oC. Fruit and seed length (mm), breadth (mm), and thickness (mm) were taken using veneer caliper. Size of fruit and seed was calculated as: length × breadth × thickness. The experiment was a completely randomized design in its layout and data analysis was carried out using analysis of variance and regression after a normality test was conducted using Shapiro-Wilk. The results showed that highest mean fruit size (79.38 ± 3.99 mm) was recorded in tree 3 and the lowest was tree 5 (29.60 ± 1.48 mm): while, highest seed size (34.78 ± 2.47 mm) was recorded in tree 3 and the lowest in tree 4 (15.58 ± 0.99 mm). Highest within tree fruit size variability was recorded in tree 1 (24%) and the lowest in tree 4 (12%): while the highest within tree seed size variability was recorded in tree 2 (28%) and the lowest in tree 5 (15%). There was however a significant difference in fruit and seed size between the trees. Pairwise comparison showed that tree 1 was not significantly different from tree 2 in fruit and seed size. There was a significant positive correlation between fruit and seed size among the trees. This implies that selection for large fruit size automatically selects for large seeds size. Large fruited trees can therefore be multiplied from these trees using vegetative propagation.
, F. O. Edeko
Nigerian Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Volume 5, pp 320-328; https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0277

Abstract:
The regulation of the radio spectrum today by government agencies addresses the issue of interference between radio stations by allocating, allotting and registering bands of radio-frequencies. The framework of management is done at the international, regional and national level. With this paper, we present a study of the radio spectrum allocation policies in some leading countries and Nigeria. However, narrowing the study down to the detailed design of spectrum allocation charts. The study used the information in the national table of frequency allocation (NTFA) to design the spectrum allocation chart of Nigeria with Photoshop application. The spectrum allocation chart was designed with high resolution for high zoom capabilities so that researchers can gain a quick overview of the radio services allocated in the radio spectrum in Nigeria.
, M.O. Idrees, D.M. Omar, A. Yusuf, O.A. Ipadeola, A.K. Alade, A.O. Abdulyekeen
Nigerian Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Volume 5, pp 340-346; https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0281

Abstract:
This study evaluates the response capacity to fire disaster emergency response system in Ilorin metropolis using Open-source data and response time analysis. Road and street information were obtained from Geofabrik. In addition, coordinates of fire service stations and fire disaster risk spots, specifically fuel and gas stations were acquired using Garmin 76X handheld GPS. Using the relationship of the length of road segments and speed, the travel time was computed in ArcGIS 10.4 environment. With the Network analyst tool, the response capability of the fire stations was evaluated at different response times (1, 2, and 3 minutes) based on service area coverage. The results showed that the fire stations could only cover 0.24%, 0.68%, and 1.22% of the service area within 1-, 2- and 3-minute response time, respectively, whereas 97.86% of the metropolis requires longer time (>3 minutes). Finding from this study has revealed the inadequacy of the existing fire disaster emergency response system to effectively cover the city. This will be useful for local and state governments in policy directives on strengthening fire disaster emergency response structure.
, C. Kennedy
Nigerian Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Volume 5, pp 377-386; https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0257

Abstract:
The study investigated the earthquake potential in Niger Delta region of Nigeria. A series of resonant column and bender element test was performed on compacted clay soil samples across the investigated Niger Delta States, which showed the influence of confinement on frequency, shear modulus, shear velocity and damping ratio. The confinement in clay was high. The frequency response increases with pressure increase. Also, the resonance column test at various confinements revealed changes in shear modulus, accelerometer output and damping ratio. Thus, there was high variation in the test parameters as confinement pressure was increased. Similarly, the bender element tests also showed that pressure has effect on shear wave-velocity, shear modulus and damping ratio confinement. Although, unlike Resonance Column tests, the shear modulus and shear wave-velocity generally increased as confinement pressure was increased, while for damping ratio it decreases as confinement pressure was increased. The variations in resonance column/binder element test parameters showed that the Niger Delta region, as an oil and gas area, is susceptible to earthquake. Therefore, continuous monitoring of oil exploration activities must be put in place.
, C. Nmecha, R.U. Onyeizu
Nigerian Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Volume 5, pp 395-403; https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0288

Abstract:
This study assessed the concentrations of heavy metals in soil and surface water from a Lead-Zinc mined pit at Enyigba, Ikwo Local Government Area in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Soil samples were collected and analysed from different soil depths (0 – 15 cm) and (15 – 30 cm) at a tailing down (marked as TD) and refuse dumpsite (marked as RD) and a vegetation site 50 km away which was used as the control site. Surface water samples were collected from the Enyigba River from three (3) points (marked as point A, B, and C) and were analysed using routine laboratory procedures. The following parameters were analysed for soil: particle size distribution, pH, available phosphorus, total nitrogen, organic carbon, organic matter content, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, exchangeable acidity, and effective cation exchange capacity. The results for mean values of soil samples obtained at both depths were 58.86% (sand), 11.73% (silt) and 34.04% (clay). Mean values obtained for heavy metals from the soil for Iron (Fe) ranged from 3.31 to 2.24 mg/kg: Zinc (Zn) 0.70 to 0.62 mg/kg and Lead (Pb) 0.01 to 0.01 mg/kg). Results obtained for surface water around the mined pit showed mean values for Iron (Fe) 0.57 mg/L, Magnesium (Mg) 151.6 mg/L, Calcium (Ca) 76.62 mg/L, Chlorine (Cl2) 416.6 mg/L and Lead (Pb) 0.01 mg/L. The high concentrations of chlorine make the water unsuitable to be discharged on any agricultural land as plants could accumulate these metals and when consumed could pose serious threat to humans. The discharge from the mining site increased the already slightly high turbidity of the water to a much higher and undesirable level. The mining activity at Enyigba Ikwo LGA, Ebonyi State has negatively impacted the environment through the introduction of heavy metals in soil and surface water, thereby causing an increase in the pollution of the environment. It is recommended that further studies and monitoring should be carried out in the study location for possible remediation.
F. Ike, I.C. Mbah, C.R. Otah, J. Babington, L. Chikwendu
Nigerian Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Volume 5, pp 433-443; https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0291

Abstract:
The land surfaces of hot-humid tropical urban areas are exposed to significant levels of solar radiation. Increased heat gain adds to different land surface temperature profiles in cities, resulting in different thermal discomfort thresholds. Using multi-temporal (1986, 2001, and 2017) landsat data, this study examined the impact of land use change on urban temperature profiles in Umuahia, Nigeria. The findings revealed that over time, built-up regions grow in surface area and temperature at the expense of other land use. The transfer matrix, showed that approximately 59.88 percent of vegetation and 8.23 percent of bareland were respectively changed into built up during the course of 31 years. The highest annual mean temperature in built-up regions was 21.50°C in 1986, 22.20°C in 2001, and 26.01°C in 2017. Transect profiles across the landuses reveals that surface Temperature rises slowly around water/vegetation and quickly over built-up and bare land area. The study observed drastic changes in land cover with a corresponding increase in surface temperature for the period between 1986 and 2017 with consistent decrease in water bodies and bare land in the study area. Overall, the spatio-temporal distribution of surface temperature in densely built up areas was higher than the adjacent rural surroundings, which is evidence of Urban Heat Island. The impact of landuse change on urban surface temperature profiles could provide detailed data to planners and decision makers in evaluating thermal comfort levels and other risk considerations in the study area.
, B. Adeyemi, O.O. Omojola, C.S. Samuel
Nigerian Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Volume 5, pp 444-455; https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0289

Abstract:
The solar radiation data taken from 14 meteorological stations in Nigeria has been analyzed. The periodic component of the data which covered a period of 13 (mostly 1977-1989) years was removed via Fourier analysis while the residual series was subjected to autoregressive analysis. It was evident from the t-test and autocorrelation plots of the modified (i.e. without the periodic component) series that there exist significant persistence at nine stations including Sokoto, Nguru, Kano, Maiduguri, Bauchi, Yola, Minna, Ibadan, and Benin. The autocorrelation at Jos, Bida, Ikeja, Enugu and Port Harcourt were however found to be insignificant. As the sample partial autocorrelation function cuts off after lag 1, a non-seasonal autoregressive model of order 1, AR (1), was identified for stations with autocorrelation. The Q-statistic of error series suggested that the models were adequate as identified. Moreover, the exploratory plots of the model residual series showed agreement with the quantitative statistics and thus enforces the inference that the models were adequate for monthly mean daily global solar radiation forecasts at some of the study stations. It is interesting to note that all the stations within the sub-sahelian region showed significant persistence whereas all the stations in the coastal region except Benin were found with insignificant autocorrelation. Expectedly, the performance evaluation of the model gave impressive result for the stations within the sub-sahelian region but a relatively weak result for the coastal region. The result for the midland region was mixed whereas it was difficult to conclude on the Guinea savannah region with result from only one station.
C.O. Fakorede, G.T. Anguruwa, O.B. Ajayi, C.A. Odega
Nigerian Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Volume 5, pp 387-394; https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0284

Abstract:
Waste generation is inevitable in every human society, although methods of disposal may differ from region to region especially developing and developed nations, yet waste disposal is generally necessary. This study therefore investigated waste disposal practices amongst residents of Oluyole local government area of Ibadan, Oyo State. It was observed that (44.4% ) and (32.4%) of the residents dumped their household refuse with government and private waste collectors respectively, but majority utilized improper waste disposal methods such as dumping in rivers (10.3%), roadsides(14.8%), open dumpsites (20.4%), gutter (9.3%), and open-air burning(33.3%). Larger proportion (97.5%) of the respondents strongly agreed that indiscriminate waste dumping has inimical environmental implications such as flooding, disruption of aesthetic beauty, disease, river pollution amongst others. In order to bring the situation under control, the respondents prefer the full involvement of the government waste collection agency instead of private waste collectors. It is therefore recommended that government waste collector should be empowered to penetrate more traditional core areas for more effective waste collection.
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