International Research Journal of Tamil
Latest articles in this journal
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 70-77; doi:10.34256/irjt21210
Tamil characters are of historical significance. The shapes of the character and its writing continued to be changed by several reformers in each century until the period of the nineteenth century. The Tamil characters in the palm leaf manuscripts are based on the author's writing style and strokes in use at the time. Reading palm leaf manuscripts is a challenge for the modern generation who are unaware of the character strokes and writing patterns written in earlier times, and the younger generation neglects to read and understand the contents written in palm leaf manuscripts. To read Tamil palm leaf manuscripts it is necessary to remember the shapes of the character that has changed over time and to compare and recognize the characters. This research paper explains how to recognize the Tamil characters written in palm leaf manuscripts by computer. By this research, the Tamil characters can be compared with different strokes and shapes and the exact character can be recognized accurately and quickly.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 9-18; doi:10.34256/irjt21s12
Pillaitamizh is a unique, short literary work in Tamil which stands out amidst the multiple short literary formats in Tamil language. Gods, Goddesses, Kings, Queens, nobles or learned teachers are personified as small children and the poetical work is structured as ten stages of growth starting from the first month after birth to about ten to twelve years of age. This format of poetry not only depicts the various beauties and nuances of Tamil language but also reflects upon the way of family life, different aspects of scientific thoughts, religious and philosophical norms, formats of worship, the psychology of the mother and the child to name a few. Some of these features are highlighted in this article and the conclusion that this is a complete and unique poetic structure par excellence is arrived at.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 19-24; doi:10.34256/irjt21s13
This article explores the mechanism by which the literary endeavours of the numerically small communities in Eastern Sri Lanka operate as the cultural heritage of those communities. Cultural heritage refers to the behaviours, activities, materials, and traditions maintained to identify the identity and continuity of a community or race. In an environment where cultural oppression is being shaped as a political practice, it is felt necessary for a society to retain its lifestyle and identity rights. It is both essential and at the same time challenging for a small community to learn its cultural traditions in a multicultural environment. The majority culture is being generalized and the cultures of minority communities are being transformed and disappeared. In this situation, a community has to keep its heritage domains in practice to sustain its existence. Language and its art - literature, are paramount in these domains. This is because the identity and organization of a community are primarily based on the language of that community. The numerically small communities of Eastern Sri Lanka, such as the Vedar, Kuravar, Burgher and Kaffir communities, have distinctive language practices and literary works. However, in the context of the majority of Sinhala and Tamil communities of Sri Lanka, the learning of a small community remains in crisis. In this case, the article outlines how the literature of these communities is used as part of maintaining these identities. This article also highlights the use of cultural legacy for the existence of such communities.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 1-8; doi:10.34256/irjt21s11
‘Feminism’ has emerged in the Western Countries as a political concept concerned with the welfare of women. Over time the literature evolved into a theory of understanding the depictions of women that women create. Some approaches are needed to understand a theory. Thus, to access literature in a feminist perspective, Vijayalakshmi.T in her article identified nine types of Feminist attitudes. This article aims to explore how the first of these approaches “Feminine Construction” is found in Jeyamohan`s Short story “Yatchi”.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 65-69; doi:10.34256/irjt2129
The purpose of this study is to understand one of the earliest known non-brass double-reed instrument called Nagasuram (Nadaswaram). Our ancestors while defining Tamil music grammar in parallel focused on sound engineering, which helped them to invent new musical instruments. Sangam era alone saw more than 30 percussion and wind instruments. Among them, few instruments like Veenai, Urumi and Nagasuram are worth mentioning since their design techniques were known only to a handful of families. Their performance really stands out due to their versatile and adaptable nature to all genres of music. Music instrument, like any other scientific invention goes through the same process of trial and error before getting standardized for general use. Instruments with strong adherence to scientific and acoustic principles gain prominence among the rest, as they undergo minimal structural changes. Nagasuram (Nadaswaram) is one such instrument, which was passed on to us for generations. This instrument readily complies with acoustic principles such as sound impedance, Helmholtz resonance, wave theory etc. to get the characteristic of a loudest non-brass wind instrument.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 56-64; doi:10.34256/irjt2128
The culture of a community plays a major role in narrating the history and life of that particular community. This culture includes various aspects such as religion, ritual, faith, food, customs or practices as well as art and culture. Among these aspects, art is not only for entertainment; but it is also for exposing the social character and tradition of that particular community. The undeniable thing here is the factor that art forms in every country, and in every region are not only to create entertainment but also to preserve the antiquity of their existence up to now. In that respect, Vasanthan Kooththu, one of the Sri Lankan Tamil art forms, is a notable art form in that category. Even though this art form is found in Batticaloa and Jaffna areas, they have differences between each other. This study focuses on the songs of Vasanthan Kooththu performed in the Katuthavalai area of Batticaloa. This type of Kooththu is an art form of tapping and dancing with two sticks in the hands; however, these sticks are also used to express the function of the meaning of the song with dance. Even though this type of Kooththu is a dance form, the greatness of the songs used in this Kooththu is significant. There are 62 types of Vasanthan poems have been in use in the Art Form performances. These have been compiled around the year 1940. These 62 genres of songs are divided into six genres and compiled, namely 'Kattiyam', 'Thoththiram', 'Sariththiram', 'Tholil', 'Vedikkai', 'Vilaiyaattu' and are still in the practice during Kooththu performance. As mentioned earlier, these Kooththu song systems emphasize the art expression of the culture of a community. The songs related to the professions or job involved in these Kooththu songs express the whole series of activities of the agricultural industry. The reason that these Kooththu songs to aim to explore only a specific industry is to be explored. It is vital to discover this factor; and this article explores about how these Kooththu songs are still in operation today as a popular form of folk music performance to describe a particular social professional life, beyond globalization trends, imposition and blends of colonization thinking. This article also explores the significance of these Kooththu songs hold, the importance they have gained in the life of people as well as the value that these Kooththu songs have even today.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 49-55; doi:10.34256/irjt2127
Folk People have been following plenty of rituals when they were beginning a new step for their life which is expected to be auspicious for them. In the early days, the rituals of birth may have flourished which based on the basic principles of Folk People and their life style. The people are following different rituals to lead their life from birth to death which were variable among people and society. There is no exact certainty for the birth of humanity on the earth. Nonetneless there is a hope that the rituals of birth would have developed when the humanity has flourished on this earth. The Birth’s rituals has exposing the culture. Civilization and lifestyle of Folk people and intermingled with them. Moreover the rituals or birth will help to know that the traditional way of a race. One’s generation and their principles of life. The mother has relationship with the baby when she is pregnant, nevertneless the rituals of birth has revealed the one’s racial sensibilling in the society. Thus Folk people have beeh doing earch thing in a good manner which help them for their future and they believe that the rituals are based on the life which has shaped their culture and civilization. Though the folk people have beeh giving important to birth rituals.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 39-48; doi:10.34256/irjt2126
The relationship between literature and politics is a reciprocal one. The core theme of literature makes a positive impact on individual and society. Literature was considered as a powerful tool to explore the moral, ethical and social values which brought notable changes in the socio – political sphere. In this context, Thirukkural is most important universally accepted literature as it reveals the ethical values of politics and administrative system found in the erstwhile Tamil society like elements of state, fortification, excellence of army, factors for good governance, qualities of a king, minister, avoidance of faults, etc. Thirukkural is a timeless Tamil Classic written approximately 2,000 years ago by the great thinker and philosopher - Saint Thiruvalluvar. Ethical and political principles of a very high standard are expressed in the Thirukkural in a lucid and precise manner which also applicable to the present day democratic governance. Out of the three, the second part ‘Porul’, (Wealth) is a treatise on political philosophy and administrative practices as well as on economy. It is directly addressed to the leader or the Ruler. As such this paper attempts to highlight the administrative thoughts of Thiruvalluvar in the context of good governance and welfare politics that existed in ancient Tamil society.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 33-38; doi:10.34256/irjt2125
Various relationships complement human life. The majority of such relationships may be some kind of blood relationship or a forced relationship. But only a relationship of ‘friendship’ is chosen according to man’s will. It is strengthened based on properties. Our literature highlights such friendships in a number of ways. Also, this article is unique in that it tells you how to maintain good friendships, how to accept acceptable friendships, and how to maintain good friendships.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 27-32; doi:10.34256/irjt2124
The literary which is based on Time, place and meaning by using forty venbas is called Naarpathu. This study reveals the origin, growth and history of this literature. The Study of research explains the structure pattern of the poem and also analyzing the concept of the poem. Moreover this study is based on comparative Method, Analytical Methods and Performance Method.