International Research Journal of Tamil
Latest articles in this journal
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 2, pp 16-23; doi:10.34256/irjt2043
There is an emphasis in recent years on the study of literary and cultural parallel between Tamil and Kannada. This kind of research would enable one to arrive at Proto- Dravidian common cultural core. Anyhow my attempt is humble. I Try to make a comparison of the Akam (Love) poems. Which are found in Tolkappiyam and Sangam literature with some Kannada folk songs. Tolgappiyam says that the Akam poems of five division of land (Kurinji, Mullai, Marudam, Naidal and Paalai) should not mention the proper name of the characters. If we take a simple look at the different folk songs collection of Kannada, we note that there are no proper names of characters of such love songs. According to Tolkappiyam, the first grammar of Tamil, the concept of love is divided into ‘compatible love’ (anbin inthinai) and ‘incompatible love’ (porundha Kamam). We also come across such concept in the Kannada folk songs, which is explained in the theme of the song. There is a song of a man who is sitting on the bank of a river asking the girl permission to lean on her shoulder. The mention of a shoulder of a girl is a special feature mentioned in many Sangam poems.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 2, pp 7-15; doi:10.34256/irjt2042
Research is the outcome of the shrunken brain, started its search from the soul. Researchers are the ambassadors of learning. The lifelong process called learning determines the height and depth of the research. Development is not possible without research and researchers. This concept has been well established in Siruppanjamoolam, one among the eighteen lesser text anthology of Tamil literature. A collection of 100 poems under this title was written by Kariyaasan- the author. This critical study, attempts to focus on the status of researchers during post Sangam period with reference to Siruppanjamoolam. However the discussion unveiled the relative concepts such as public views on education, duty of research scholar, relationship between the research scholar and the supervisor. Rather surprise to witness the concern of this Tamil anthology on research coursework. The description of guidelines to researchers is significant and equivalent to Research Methodology –a core course for contemporary research students.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 2, pp 1-6; doi:10.34256/irjt2041
Music is unique among Arts. From the genesis of humanity, it has a strong history. Beyond the boundaries of Arts, music has certain characteristic capabilities which enable the mankind to develop and modify its intrinsic quality. In the beginning it grew along with emotions of mankind. With the growth of science and mental maturity, it has been restricted into the frame of ‘Art’. Music cherished itself accordingly to the accepting capacity and laws of the society, for ages and operated the doctrine is a fact in the history. This article concentrates through an inter-disciplinary approach on the influence of music in the personality development of human beings as the universal research fields are multi-facet.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 2, pp 211-217; doi:10.34256/irjt20321
The History of Tamilnadu is two thousand years old. The Sangam literature helps to understand the history of ancient Tamil Nadu. As we know, Historical records, stories, and evidences abound in Puram poems of Sangam literature. Although it is about the Akam poems, there are several historical references to know about ancient Tamizhagam. The poets manipulate parables, to make imperceptible to perceptible and making in a way to give pleasure for the adorned. It is the opinion of the authors that, the parables, have been used more in the Akam material than in the Puram material. The parables used in a perceivable way in the Akam literature to convey and express the sentiments and feelings of the chiefs, and for commenting and entertaining of the historical messages. The poets have sung about the three kings (Moovendhars), chieftains (Kurunila mannargal), philanthropists, valor, war, town, country and donations through the expressions and emotions of Thalaivan (Hero), Thalaivi (Heroine) and by the parables. Through the poems, come to know that, the soldiers who died heroically in battle are honored by planting hero stones. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the historical references, sung in the five anthologies of Ettuthogai.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 2, pp 202-210; doi:10.34256/irjt20320
Thirukkural, global literature does not only talk about human behaviours which are to be glorified. It also proposes bright cut ideas about the relationship between humans and nature. The attention of the modern world is on environmental issues. The fast developments due to science and technology resulted in destroying nature. Due to industrial-based products and for the sake of the sophisticated life of the modern man, we left the nature for destruction. And now humanity faces the consequences. It is a general truth that the literature reflects the social issues of that time of its outcome. One can notice that the recent creative literature of Tamil talks about environmental aspects of the globe and the local areas. Thirukkural also deals with the issues of nature and it proposes the ideal relationship between man and nature, which is the concern of this paper. Thiruvalluvar says that the whole world depends on water. All the activities in the world cannot be possible if the rain fails. All the activities of living creatures, including humans, depend on water. Start with food production and leading to every activity are depends on rain. So Tiruvalluvar concludes that the relationship between humans and nature depends on water i.e. is rain. The paper concludes that the concept of Thiukkural towards nature is the dependency of humanity.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 2, pp 194-201; doi:10.34256/irjt20319
A keen reading on the religious activities in Tamil speaking region down the centuries evidently exposes the two different predominant traditions existed with influence, namely ‘Vaithiga’ and ‘Avaithiga’ (Non-Vaithiga) religious traditions. These two indeed by their institutionalised reorganization largely influenced and initiated considerable changes in the socio-political and cultural life of Tamils. Apart form these institutionalised two, a few forms of the local deity worships were also in practice. However, this paper limits its focus on the institutionalised religions in general and Buddhism and Jainism in particular. It seems that the the Vaithiga religion, right from the beginning, has habitually extended its support and has also been supported by the Kings and Chieftains of power/authority whereas Buddhism and Jainism on the other hand have earned their support largely from the subaltern mass. This paper therefore argues that the success story of Buddhism and Jainism among the subaltern mass has not simply related to any external practices of the religions, but invariably structured within the very ‘humanistic’ ideology of the said religions themselves.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 2, pp 173-193; doi:10.34256/irjt20318
The state that Valluvam insists depends on the rights of the people. To abolish slavery, demand good government otherwise to exclude. Valluvam adores good government and good king at the same time abhor the bad king, and throw such a tyrannical king away. Valluvam, which claims to be a superpower, says it will protect it from enemies. The Government and Government rule that Valluvam insists are not in the category of Monarchy, Force and republic Government. Whatever the type, the scepter government is the government that Valluvam insists. The essay for this study is in the context of Valluvam politics.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 2, pp 163-172; doi:10.34256/irjt20317
Among the Eighteen Lesser Texts that arose during the time of the Sangam and its implications, many of the Akathinai traditions that we have found and widespread in the Tholkapiyam. This article examines some of the Akathinai traditions that have been followed by the Lesser Texts of Tholkapiyam, which have passed through time and religious interferences.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 2, pp 149-162; doi:10.34256/irjt20316
As per Human Development Index of 2019 report, India is in the 129th rank. Nearly 28% of the Indian population lives below the poverty line. As per another report from The Lancet journal on healthcare index, India is in 154th position among the 195 countries. According to India’s Annual Status of Education Report 2017, 14% of children in the age group of 14-18 are not enrolled in any school system. Education, health and living standards are the primary factors to measure the quality of life in any social settings. Giving this grim view of social conditions in India, the role of public institutions as well as individual members’ are crucial in lending adequate support to the society to enhance the standings of living conditions. According to a study published in 2011, only 2% of news space were being given to the issues pertinent to development by the leading Indian national newspapers. Many news stories in these 2%, might have appeared due to 'Coups and earthquakes syndrome’ type of events that contained news values of death, disease and disaster. From the perspective of Sustainable Development Goals, the participatory approach of individuals is more meaningful in order to achieve the stated 17 goals as well as 169 targets. Apart from the government’s initiative for the SDGs and substantial fundings from the donor agencies, awareness about the SDGs is essential and ideal for the bottom-up approach towards achieving the development goals and its targets by 2030. In this respect, with the help of twitteR package of and text mining tools of R programming, citizen’s voice was measured for those keywords and its equivalent hashtags which were appeared in June 2018. English is being the elite language in India, one regional language Tamil would be included to compare the non-English private sphere with regard to SDGs in Indian context.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 2, pp 142-148; doi:10.34256/irjt20315
This article looks at the various street game of the lord through the thirumandra Thiruvarut scenario. The essence of this article is to know the greatness of Siva, Siddhu, Siddhu games through Thirumanthiram. Through this article, the Principles of the life Style, Yoga, Ethical, and Piety which Thirumoolar illustrates through three thousand songs are researched. Thirumoolar’s Thirumandhiram (Patham Thirumurai) is a part of Panniru Thirumurai. This book includes many divine play of Lord Shiva and divine appearance of god to his devotees. A review of this book reveals the spiritual faith of Thirumoolar in Lord Shiva. The aim of this paper is to tell about spiritualism of Thirumoolar and his extreme belief in the mantra “OM NAMA SHIVAYA” to blend his soul with the supreme power. In Thirumanthiram, Thirumoolar has mentioned about Shivam, Bhathi, Yoga, Meditation, Shakthi in human physiology, Maya, Prayers, Belief in god, method of worshipping god. He categorized all these characteristics into science, psychology, spiritualism and exchange of soul from one body to another. he explained the presence of Lord Shiva in living and non-living things, blending of spiritualism with psychology, attitude of human beings towards spiritualism. Thirumanthiram insisted that the great five letters mantra “OM NAMA SHIVAYA” covers the entire universe with love and affection of Lord Shiva.