International Research Journal of Tamil
Latest articles in this journal
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 2, pp 57-73; doi:10.34256/irjt2014
Abstract:In the 13th and 14th century Tamil Nadu was attacked and ransomed by Muslim invadours of Delhi. The Delhi Sultanate successfully established a rule at Maurai city and this province was named as Mabar country. Hindu religion and and culture were suffered a lot in the hands of them. To save the religion and culture an invasion was took by Kumara Kampana prince of Vijayanagar Empaire. He made a war against Tamil Nadu and defeated the Sambuvaraya kings at first and then marched towards Madurai. Finally the Mabar Muslim rulers were defeated and the Muslim rule came to an end. Then Tamil Nadu cames under Vijayanagar rule. Kumara Kampana gave a good administration to Tamil Nadu with the help of his efficient associates. This invasion has considered as land mark in the history of Tamil Nadu.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 2, pp 51-56; doi:10.34256/irjt2013
Abstract:The novel of Vannanilavan portrays the lifestyles and habits of the people living in the Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu. In the novel Kampa Nathi, the author expresses the superstitions, relationship problems and birth imbalances of the rural people by the characters of the novel. He also describes the practices which are found in Tamil Nadu such as religion based job placement, collection of Dowry and Bribe, the reality of some corps and the thoughts of elders about young generation through several novel characters. Thus, this article seeks to uncover the reality found in the Tamil society by taking the lines and thoughts from Kamba Nathi novel.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 2, pp 43-50; doi:10.34256/irjt2012
Abstract:It is worth noting that occasional verse (Thani Padalgal) plays an important role in medieval literature. The Sangam scholars compiled songs. But they did not disappear in the middle Ages, and the composers were largely absent. So, we have lost lot of them. Again, in the middle Ages, scholars composed many books separately and they are all unique. This is because they are meant to clarify their personal instincts and dislikes in their lives. The each occasional verse has a wide variety of themes and genres and they were composed by many scholars. Among them Ramachandra Kavirayar and Avvaiyar are notable personalities. In this article, we will discuss the life of Ramachandra Kavirayar and Avvaiyar through their occasional verse.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 2, pp 1-42; doi:10.34256/irjt2011
Abstract:Eight Anthologies (Also known as Ettuthogai) of the Sangam literature had a clear knowledge of water management. Sangam Period people were living in a natural way. The population was low and industries were low and pollution was low. In this region, the Sangam people live in reservoirs of water in rainforests, waterfalls, spring, Torrents, rivers, natural ponds, ponds and wells. Even those days the researchers have recorded the status of water pollution in Eight Anthologies. Natural resources are being destroyed due to the greed of the people who exploit the wealth of the land, water, fire, air and ether provided to man by the five natural elements. So the only way to recover from this situation is to preserve the water resource by presenting the importance of water to the younger generation about the consequences.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 1, pp 29-35; doi:10.34256/irjt1944
Abstract:We could understand that the research works on Tamil stories, in a way bring out a fine cross section of the Tamil society’s functioning spaces. The short stories of Rajendra Cholan, a person who travelled in a unique path and whom you cannot void in the history of Tamil short stories soaked in the philosophy of Marx and Ambedkar created his short stories in his own style. This paper studies the nature and the style the stories are depicted to suit the Tamil tradition and also how the ideology of Marxism plays the undercurrent of these stories.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 1, pp 12-22; doi:10.34256/irjt1942
Abstract:Forest and surrounding areas are called ‘Mullai’. This is an elevated land suitable for cattle rearing occupation of the ‘Mullai’ people. Ancient Tamil society represents the life styles of many ethnic groups. The five land regions represent one ethnic group each. The ‘Mullai’ ethnic group people are called ‘ Idaiyars’. The vestiges of the ‘Mullai’ idaiyar people through ages until today have reflections in the society. This article tries to study the life style of the ‘mullai’ ethnic group through Sangam poetry.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 1, pp 23-28; doi:10.34256/irjt1943
Abstract:'Paavaikkuutthu in Performing arts’ Kuutthu one among the various folk arts. ‘Thol paavaikkuutthu’ is one, which is at the verge of extinction in the modern era of development. People who did not have any other outlet for entertainment, along with nurturing the ancient Tamil tradition gave life to many new art forms. ‘Thol paavaikkuutthu’, which was popular in Tamilnadu and other States as well is highlighted in this article.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 1, pp 1-11; doi:10.34256/irjt1941
Abstract:“Thirai kadal oodium thiraviyam thedu” are the words by the Avvaiyar and our ancestors were the people who lived in the way. Tamils have always admired the plow and the business. All three hairdressers gave their business a boost. Sustainable business is seen as the backbone of the economy. The lows of a country can be determined by the economy of the country. From time to time, the rulers protected the business. Merchants who do business are like the eyes of a country. Although society provides the merchants with convenience, specialty, superiority, prominence and importance, they also have many difficulties. Traders were greatly affected by natural disasters, alien invasions, unrelenting wars, and negative regime changes. Merchants were plagued by domestic thieves and wayward robbers. Unrelenting nuisance of pirates
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 1, pp 24-30; doi:10.34256/irjt1934
Abstract:The rituals in human life during birth, death etc., are called ‘life cycle rituals’. Rituals are one among many life activities. Performing ceremonies on death anniversaries and rest the soul in heaven are common. Celebration on puberty is referred to as life cycle prosperity ritual. The physical maturity of a girl for motherhood is called puberty and the rituals are called puberty rituals or prosperity ritual. Though the rituals are common to the corresponding cultural communities, they differ from men and women. Particularly, this difference could be seen in Sangam literature. For a man one who dominates, mostly the rituals are based on his social activities such as war, agriculture, reign and for a woman, who concentrates on the family, the rituals are based on their genital body, that is, marriage, child birth, widowhood, etc., representing reproduction, or ban on reproduction,’- Raj Gowthaman points out. Rituals of men imbibe social value whereas that of women are associated with possessions. Most of the life cycle rituals are linked with the reproduction of women.
International Research Journal of Tamil, Volume 1, pp 15-23; doi:10.34256/irjt1933
Abstract:It is mentioned that the epics should contain the four objectives worthy of human pursuit, namely, ‘aRam’ (ethics), ‘poruL’ (economy), ‘inpam’ (joy) and ‘viiDu’ (heaven). These four objectives are mentioned as ‘purusharthams’ in Sanskrit. Dharma, artha, kaama and moksha are the equivalents for aRam, poruL, inpam and viiDu. However, the concept of moksha is not found anywhere in the Sangam literature. It came into existence by the influence of Sanskrit and the literary writings of the northern writers. Raj Gowthaman is of the opinion that the ‘trivarkkam’ of the north tradition is called aRam, poruL and inpam in Tamil and the left out ‘moksha’ in ‘chaturvitha purushartham’, i.e., the four objectives of human pursuit did not exist as ‘viiDu’ during Sangam period. It could be said even clearly the concept of northern tradition based ‘moksha’ was not there with religious connotation in the Sangam society. Rebirth, heaven, elite, heavenly immortal, world of the dead, world of deities-all are included in the poet’s poetic tradition’. Including the objectives of human pursuits in epics, a rule was set in the grammar. ‘Seera puranam’ talks about the first three objective of human pursuit. Except in Buddhism and Jainism, the concept of heaven could be found in all the religions. It is discussed in Vedic religions. Islam refers heaven as ‘the world of the dead’. Seera puranam mentions, however, all the four objectives.