Povolzhskaya Arkheologiya (The Volga River Region Archaeology)

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ISSN / EISSN : 2306-4099 / 2500-2856
Total articles ≅ 635
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Arnabay A. Nurzhanov, Galina A. Ternovaya
Povolzhskaya Arkheologiya (The Volga River Region Archaeology), Volume 4, pp 99-112; doi:10.24852/pa2020.

The article examines some aspects related to the changes that have occurred in the urban culture of the South-West Zhetysu at the initial stage of the establishment of Islam. The results of archaeological research carried out at the architectural and archaeological complex Akyrtas, monuments discovered at the medieval fortified of Taraz, Kostobe, Lugovoye, Ornek are presented by the authors. The early period of Islamization includes the construction of pillar mosques (Akyrtas, Ornek), alteration of the temple into a mosque (Taraz), elements of Muslim decor in religious premises of representatives of other religions (Kostobe, Lugovoye Г) and relic manifestations in the design of the columns of the Ornek mosque. 8th–12th centuries – this was a time associated with a series of historical events: the mass resettlement of the Sogdians in connection with the seizure of Central Asia by the Arabs, the conquest of Taraz and the Talas Valley by Emir Ismail from the Samanid dynasty and the adoption of Islam by the Karakhanids.
Aleksander A. Adamov, Tobol’Sk Complex Scientific Station Of The Ural Branch Of The Ras, Igor V. Balyunov, Tobol’Sk Historical And Architectural Museum Reserve
Povolzhskaya Arkheologiya (The Volga River Region Archaeology), Volume 4, pp 199-211; doi:10.24852/pa2020.

Known archaeological sources indicate migration the groups of the Urals population into Western Siberia during the XII–XIV centuries. However, this process continues to be poorly studied, which can be partially corrected by referring to the archaeological materials of the Yarkovskoe 1 hillfort. Pre-revolutionary researchers knew this monument of Tobolsk Irtysh River region, but its excavations began relatively recently. The 2015 excavation revealed a significant number of individual finds from copper, bronze, silver and iron. Quite often fragments of ceramic dishes, bone and stone products were found. The closest analogies to the implement complex of the Yarkovskoe hillfort were found in the cis-Urals sites of the Rodanovo archaeological culture. The authors' assumption is confirmed by the findings of ornamented ceramics, crucible, bronze pendants, a silver ring, padlocks and a needle bar and other items. However, not all features of the material culture of the local population have direct analogies among the Rodanovo antiquities, which indicate that a synthesis of a number of cultures took place in the Tobolsk Irtysh region. Among the finds, one can distinguish both things of clearly Siberian origin and those brought from the territory of the Volga and Central Asia. The authors distinguish that the main component of the population of the Yarkovskoe 1 hillfort were the Rodanovo culture population who came from beyond the Urals. The Rodanovo people who arrived from the trans-Urals, as they moved to the lower reaches of the Tobol could include foreign cultures, including the Yudino culture, as well as the local Kintusovskoye culture components.
Natalya V. Zhilina , Institute of Archaeology of Russian Academy of Sciences
Povolzhskaya Arkheologiya (The Volga River Region Archaeology), Volume 4, pp 125-144; doi:10.24852/pa2020.

On the base of typical hypothetical reconstructions according to the stages of the development of the attire upon archaeological material the comparative history of attires of two states is restored. At the end of the 11th – in the beginning of the 12th century and later, the features of heavy metal attire were preserved, in Volga Bulgaria – of Finno-Ugric and nomadic, in Old Rus’ – mainly of Slavic one. At the end of the 11th – the first half of the 12th century noisy attires of different designs were formed. In the first half – the middle of the 12th century filigree, niello, openwork weaving were combined in Bulgarian jewelry. Adornments were complemented with bead pendants of new shapes. In Rus’, enamel attire of the sacred-ascetic style created innovations, the niello one was distinguished with a variety of ornamentation (wide bracelets), the filigree retained Slavic traditions. At the end of the 12th – the first third of the 13th century the best jewelry was created. In Bulgaria the temporal rings were complemented by a miniature filigree sculpture, necklaces and chains with pendants presented. Original filigree bracelets with oval endings were famous. In Rus’, enamel and black attires were made in exaggerated and lush styles; luxurious frames of jewelry with filigree technique were used. Filigree attire changed constructively, moving away from folk traditions. In Bulgarian attire the traditions of local and eastern jewelry combined; in Russian attire – of local and Byzantine jewelry.
Gennadiy N. Belorybkin , Penza State University, Tatiana V. Osipova, Ariel S. Sobol
Povolzhskaya Arkheologiya (The Volga River Region Archaeology), Volume 4, pp 159-169; doi:10.24852/pa2020.

The article examines the structures of the Zolotarevka fortified settlement (a medieval fortress in the upper reaches of the Sura River, Penza region), both from the points of view of building technologies and of spatial analysis. The zones of residential buildings and zones of economic and industrial structures were identified. The buildings themselves were located chaotically along the territory of the fortified settlement but were tied to internal roads. The average size of residential buildings was 4×3 m, and the economic – 2×2 m. Usually the pockets for cooking were located next to the side and fenced with wattle. Among the features two long structures (barracks) with a rammed platform between them may be singled out. The study of these materials also made it possible to identify the traditions of Ancient Russia and Volga Bulgaria. Particular attention is paid by the authors to the defensive structures that were formed over the years from 10th to 13th centuries and retain a number of unique elements. First of all, these were trapping pits located in a checkerboard pattern on the floor side of the settlement as well as coating the ditch with clay and internal paths along the rampart. To summarize, these facts make the Zolotarevka fortified settlement a reference monument of the medieval history of Eastern Europe.
Svetlana G. Burshneva , Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Olga B. Kuznetsova, Natalia V. Smirnova, Ludmila M. Voropay , Vologda State University, Kirillo-Belozersky Museum
Povolzhskaya Arkheologiya (The Volga River Region Archaeology), Volume 4, pp 223-235; doi:10.24852/pa2020.

Of all the complex problems of museum storage of archaeological objects, iron objects represent one of the most difficult. In the process of corrosion, an iron object passes through several stages, from oxidation of the metal surface to full mineralization. The greatest problem consists of the items in the stages of oxidation, when the metal is almost completely corroded and converted into minerals. Mineral peels exfoliate under the influence of active corrosion, leading to a loss of historical significance of the object. In the world’s practice of archaeological iron conservation, there are several different ways of stabilization, but none of them can guarantee the integrity of the iron artifact during its museum storage. To date, the most effective conservation method of stabilizing archaeological iron is alkaline sulfite treatment. However, this method has a number of drawbacks, the main of which is the duration of the stabilizing treatment. The authors consider the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the method of processing archaeological iron objects in an alkaline sulfite solution by means of ultrasonic solution activation. In the course of the experimental study, it has been established that the use of ultrasonic in alkaline sulfite treatment hugely increases the efficiency of the method.
Ivan V. Grudochko , Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education “South Ural State University (national research university)”
Povolzhskaya Arkheologiya (The Volga River Region Archaeology), Volume 4, pp 20-35; doi:10.24852/pa2020.

The paper addresses the typology and a debatable issue of the chronology of kurgans with ‘moustache’ in the Ural-Kazakhstan steppes. Several concepts were proposed over the period from 1966–2017 reflecting the different viewpoint of researchers on these issues (M.K. Kadyrbaev, A.Z. Beysenov, S.G. Botalov). The reason for disagreement is that kurgans with ‘moustache’ could have been constructed near earlier sites, which influenced their incorrect dating within the framework of the early nomadic Tasmola culture. The complex of items, which has dating capabilities from the viewpoint of typology, has received an ambiguous interpretation. Thus, the supporters of the Tasmola ‘version’ are convinced that the items of the 1st Millennium AD were added to the kurgans with ‘moustache’, and the supporters of the late (Early Medieval) affiliation presume that the kurgans with ‘moustache’ were constructed near and at the site of early nomadic monuments. Besides, both parties note the small number of well-dated finds. The presently accumulated materials, stratigraphic observations and the latest radiocarbon dating results have allowed the author to propose a typology describing the central structure of the complex kurgan with ‘moustache’ depending on the number and location of the central structure’s mounds and the presence/absence of earlier barrows. This approach gives grounds to attribute the kurgans with ‘moustache’ to the period of the 4th –7th centuries AD and to rule out earlier dating.
Leonard F. Nedashkovsky , Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Marat B. Shigapov , Povolzhskaya Arkhaeologiya Llc
Povolzhskaya Arkheologiya (The Volga River Region Archaeology), Volume 4, pp 185-198; doi:10.24852/pa2020.

Complex of metallic objects from Bagaevka settlement, rural settlement of the Golden Horde of the second half of 13th – 14th century, situated in periphery of the Golden Horde city Ukek in Saratov area of Saratov region is analysed by the authors. The settlement was studied by expedition of Kazan University under supervision of L.F. Nedashkovsky in 1995, 2002–2003, 2006–2012 and 2014–2016. Numismatic finds from the site, which covered area 5.1 ha and has the cultural layer in some places with more than 90 cm width, belong to the Golden Horde mintage of the end of 13th – beginning of 60s of 14th century. Metallic vessels (fragments of copper forged vessels, rivet, cup, fragments of cast-iron cauldrons) were characterized in the article. Other objects are represented by mirrors, bronze couplings of knives, ware with lion figure, ingot, splashes of lead and bronze, lead weight-seal, bronze and iron locks, iron keys. Morphological features of wares are examined on the basis of typology with involvement of the comparative background of materials of synchronous monuments. Сomplex under study characterizes material culture of the Golden Horde village of the Low Volga region, which, judging by the published materials, differed from material culture of city and town, situated nearby.
Rezida Kh. Khramchenkova , Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Airat M. Gubaidullin, Patrick Degryse , Ilvina R. Biktagirova, Aleksey D. Ogorodnikov, Pavel S. Danilov, Kazan National Research Technical University named after A. N. Tupolev - KAI, Mari State University
Povolzhskaya Arkheologiya (The Volga River Region Archaeology), Volume 4, pp 212-222; doi:10.24852/pa2020.

This paper is devoted to the interdisciplinary study of an enameled glass fragment found in the excavation of the Bolgar fortified settlement (Russia). The artifact comes from excavation site CLXXII of the so-called aristocratic district of the city. A comparison to a collection of Islamic drinking glasses from the Nasser Khalili collection shows the identity of the enamel pattern decor. The artifact was investigated by a series of analytical methods: scanning optical and electron microscopy (OSEM) and optical emission spectral analysis (OES). The results of the OES studies revealed that the basis is soda-lime glass. OSEM determined that different enamel colors were obtained from lapis lazuli, nepheline, diopside, bone ash, hematite, and lead-tin additive. Comparison of element’s concentrations with data of the Brill catalog of archaeological glass made it possible to identify the Bulgarian fragment as Egyptian glass produced in the late 13th – early 14th centuries.
Aiman K. Avizova , M. Auezov South Kazakhstan University
Povolzhskaya Arkheologiya (The Volga River Region Archaeology), Volume 4, pp 113-124; doi:10.24852/pa2020.

The proposed publication aims to the introduction into scientific circulation, systematization and analysis of the burials of Besinshitobe. To date, about 50 graves have been studied. The analysis of burial materials allows the author to distinguish three main types of burial complexes. The chronological identity of the graves was made on the basis of analogies to the inventory. Their dating is still preliminary. The earliest burial complex is characterized by single burials with accompanying equipment. Five buried had the traces of artificial deformation of the ring type on their skulls. In two burials, an incomplete cremation ritual was performed. The earliest burials of this complex belong to the 4th–5th centuries A.D. The second complex combines burials in large earthen vessels placed in pits. All the burials were children’s, one of which was collective. On the basis of analogies, this group can be attributed to the 7th – 8th centuries A.D. The third, medieval burial complex is characterized by single Muslim burial grounds. A common sign for him is the lack of accompanying inventory, orientation of the deceased's head to the north-west and north-north-west. The use of incomplete scorching in the burial ritual is a known case. The ceramic complex obtained from the level I of the tier of the excavations at Besinshitoba allows the author to attribute Muslim burials to the 9th –11th and 13th –15th centuries A.D.
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