Nigerian Journal of Entomology

Journal Information
ISSN : 0331-0094
Published by: Lujosh Ventures Limited (10.36108)
Total articles ≅ 52
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B. Kamba
Nigerian Journal of Entomology, Volume 36, pp 96-102; https://doi.org/10.36108/nje/0202/63.01.11

Abstract:
The study evaluatrd the effect of Baobab, Adansonia digitata pod extract on larvae of Culex quinquefaciatus. The plant material was sun-dried for two weeks and pulverized using mortar and pestle and stored at room temperature for further processes. Powdered plant material was extracted using aqueous cold extraction method. The condensed extract was screened for phytochemicals. Indoor resting adult blood-fed female Culex mosquitoes were collected and introduced into Entomological Cages in the Laboratory and oviposited on water in the bowls. The third instar larvae were confirmed as Cx. quinquefasciatus using Hopkins keys for Culicinae. Triplicates of twenty-five late third instar larvae were tested in pod extract concentrations of 0.5mg/L, 1.0mg/L, 1.5mg/L, 2.0mg/L and 2.50mg/L. Mortality was recorded after 24hr of exposure. The LC50 was determined using probit analysis, while one-way ANOVA was used to establish significant differences in larval mean mortality. Phytochemical constituents such as carbohydrate, cardiac glycosides, steroids, triterpenes, tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids were present. The mean mortality of test concentrations differed significantly (p≤0.05) from control. However, the concentrations: 0.5mg/L and 8.0mg/L had 49% and 71% mortalities, respectively with LC50 of 0.6mg/L. It can be concluded that, the aqueous pod extract of Adansonia digitata demonstrated good activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Adansonia digitata pod extracts has potential for controlling larvae of Culex mosquitoes and can be incorporated into integrated mosquito management programme.
Y.A Umar
Nigerian Journal of Entomology, Volume 36, pp 139-145; https://doi.org/10.36108/nje/0202/63.01.61

Abstract:
Seasonal differences in the abundance of tsetse flies in Pantaki was investigated between July and August, 2016 and January and February, 2017 in Kagarko. Standard bioconical trapping method was used to collect the insects. A total of 208 tsetse flies were caught of which 139 (66.8%) were Glossina palpalis palpalis while 69 (33.2%) were Glossina tachinoides revealing an overall apparent density of 3.7T/T/D. The results indicate a significant difference (p<0.05) in abundance of tsetse flies in the wet compared to the dry seasons. Also, both species were relatively more abundant during wet (G. palpalis palpalis 75.5%, G. tachinoides 84.1%) than dry (G. palpalis palpalis 24%, G. tachinoides 15.9%) seasons. The differences in abundance observed could be due to the favourable climatic condition. This call for deployment of tsetse fly control measures (during the wet season) in the area.
N. B. Sanda
Nigerian Journal of Entomology, Volume 36, pp 88-95; https://doi.org/10.36108/nje/0202/63.01.01

Abstract:
In the 21st century climate change has been recognized globally as the most impending, and critical issue that affects all animals including insects. In particular, temperature plays an important role in the development, reproduction, host searching, survival, pathogenicity, sex ratio and insect death. The Nipa palm hispid, Octodonta nipae (Maulik) is an important invasive pest of palm trees in Sothern China. Knowledge of how this beetle can be controlled with entomopathogenic nematodes under different environmental temperature is scarce. Therefore, the aims of this study were to test the efficacy of two entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) at different development temperatures. The pathogenicity was tested at concentration of 100 IJs larva-1 and treatment are kept at four temperatures of 20, 25, 30 and 36°C, 80 ± 5% RH. The results showed that, both nematodes species caused larval mortalities at all the tested temperatures except at 36°C. The highest larval mortalities of 85.3% and 40.6% were obtained at 30°C for both S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora respectively. Furthermore, both nematodes penetrated O. nipae larvae at all temperature conditions except at 36°C. Similarly, the highest penetrations of nematodes infective juveniles were recorded at 30°C for S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora. The study demonstrated that, warmer temperature enhanced the pathogenicity of nematodes, which in turns trade well with the unprecedented increase in environmental temperature under climate change, for integrated management of this beetle.
S. A Dattijo
Nigerian Journal of Entomology, Volume 36, pp 103-112; https://doi.org/10.36108/nje/0202/63.01.21

Abstract:
The study was to assess insecticidal effectiveness of Jatropha curcas L. seed powder on Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Pic) infesting stored bambaranut, Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt. The experiment was laid out in a factorial design of 4×2 levels (seed powder at the rates of 0.0, 0.5. 1.0 and 1.5 g, with and without addition of the synthetic insecticide at 0.01 g/20 g bambaranut seed) and laid out in a completely randomized design, in three replicates. Results obtained showed lowest oviposition, progeny emergence and seed damage (5.33, 1.58 and 1.83, respectively) in bambaranut seeds admixed with 1.0 g of the seed. Although, statistically similar to all other treatments, it was significantly (P≤0.001) better than the control treatment in which 33.83 eggs were laid and 24.08 adults emerged from 22.92 emergence holes. In addition, at six (6) days after treatment, highest adult mortality rate (99.17%) similar to that (99.17%) obtained in the synthetic insecticide was also recorded in seeds treated with 1.0 g seed powder. However, all other treatments were also significantly better than the control, in which 72.50% of the introduced bruchids died. Comparatively, lowest rate of seed damage (6.68%) and lasting effect was also obtained with the addition 1.0 g seed powder. In conclusion, appreciable level of protection on bambaranut seeds was achieved using seed powder of J. curcas. Therefore, it is recommended that for effective management of C. subinnotatus infesting bambaranut, farmers could use 5 Kg seed powder on 100 Kg bambaranut seeds.
Georgina Samuel Mwansat
Nigerian Journal of Entomology, Volume 36, pp 11-21; https://doi.org/10.36108/nje/0202/63.01.20

Abstract:
This paper examines diversity of insect vectors and parasites/vector-borne diseases also the successes and challenges in vector control in the 21st century and the way forward suggested. The generally accepted insect biodiversity is estimated to be 5.5 million worldwide with only about 1.5 million described. Generally, four insect orders: Coloeptera, Lepidopera, Hymenoptera and Odonata have been well studied and broadly described. Majority of insect species are known to be beneficial to man and the environment however, insect vectors which are fewer have been identified as causes of morbidity. Mosquitoes which are hematophagous insect vectors are known to be the leading vector for human infectious agents. Insecticides majorly dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) were therefore used for the control of insect vectors. This succeeded only for a short while in the 19th century due to insect vector resistance and the widely condemned ecological disadvantages. This led to the development of safer and more effective insecticides such as the pyrethriods although also plagued with the tendencies of insect vector resistance. However, it has been strongly indicated that there are links between drivers of global biodiversity modification and vector-borne diseases. This is identified as the strongest reason for control programs that are all encompassing, engaging different fields and institutions, communities and individuals. The Integrated Vector Management (IVM) is therefore, advocated as the way forward for control of insect vector in the 21st century. It is encouraged to be practised putting the basic principles of biodiversity conservation which are ensuring biological diversity, ecological integrity and resilience in proper perspective.
S. A Okeke
Nigerian Journal of Entomology, Volume 36, pp 54-63; https://doi.org/10.36108/nje/0202/63.01.60

Abstract:
The papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus is a small sized polyphagous invasive hemipteran bug that attacks several genera of host plants, causing considerable yield loss. Commonly used insecticidal control is being discouraged due to environmental and human health hazards. Information on the control of this pest with botanicals is scanty, therefore the control using selected botanicals was investigated. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of three botanicals: Hyptis suaveolens, Eugenia aromatica and Azadirachta indica were evaluated in screen cages (1.80×0.60×1.50m) for contact toxicity following standard procedures. Cypermethrin® (100 ml a.i ha-1) was used as a standard check. The secondary metabolites in the three plants were analyzed for saponins, alkaloids, terpenoids, phenols, flavonoids and cardinolides following standard procedures. Effective concentration was determined using probit analysis. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the botanicals caused adult mortality of P. marginatus. However, the difference in percentage mortality in aqueous extracts of A. indica (54.28±1.7), H. suaveolens (47.5±4.1) and E. aromatica (48.6±1.1) were not significant (P>0.05). Percentage mortality of ethanolic extracts of A. indica (87.40±4.8) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than both E. aromatica (74.40.16±2.4) and H. suaveolens (72.10.58±2.8). Concentration of the secondary metabolites varied in the botanicals with H. suaveolens having higher flavonoids (107.08mg/100g), cardinolides (46.06 mg/100g) and terpenoids (3.17mg/100g) while A. indica had higher saponins (10.33mg/100g) and phenols (1938.48mg/100g) while E. aromatica had comparatively higher alkaloids (0.59%). The LC50 ranged from 3.61mg/kg in A. indica, to 4.64mg/kg in E. aromatica and 4.52mg/kg in H. suaveolens. The ethanolic extracts of botanicals evaluated were more effective than the aqueous extracts and can serve as a substitute to the synthetic insecticides for the control of P. marginatus.
I. Isa
Nigerian Journal of Entomology, Volume 36, pp 22-31; https://doi.org/10.36108/nje/0202/63.01.30

Abstract:
Spiders are among the most diverse arthropod groups of organisms. This study investigated the distribution and abundance of spiders in five locations in Zaria Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study was conducted for five months, from April to August, 2018. Samples were collected twice each month using vegetation beating, trapping using bottle and handpicking methods. The abundance of each species of spider identified was expressed in percentages while diversity was revealed using Shannon-Wiener diversity index. A total of 217 spiders were collected from all the study locations which belong to 14 families, 24 genera and 28 species. The study locations differ in terms of vegetation, topography and habitat structures. Family Lycosidae was found to be the dominant family which include four genera and five species, followed, by Agelenidae, Amaurobidae and Gnaphosidae which have a species proportion of 10.7% each and 3 species abundance. Area II (Tudun Serika) the most diverse, with 60 spiders collected in this area, belonging to 11 families, 18 genera and 19 species. Area IV (_________) was the least in terms of spider species diversity and abundance with only 12 spiders, belonging to four genera and four families. Cesonia bilineata had high dominance index of 1.315. There is need for proper documentation of spider species available in Nigeria.
H. Sule
Nigerian Journal of Entomology, Volume 36, pp 46-53; https://doi.org/10.36108/nje/0202/63.01.50

Abstract:
Laboratory experiment was conducted at the Department of Crop Protection Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Bayero University, Kano, in order to assess the effect of oils obtained from the seeds of Jatropha curcas and Moringa oleifera on African Maize Stalk Borer (Busseola fusca Fuller). The effects of the plant seed oils on larvae mortality, pupae and adult emergence were tested on freshly cut leaves/stem of maize 3-4 cm long) and treated with the prepared plant oils at various concentrations (10, 20, and 30%) and control (0%). The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design and replicated four times. The results showed that both plant seeds oils were lethal to the developmental stages of B. fusca, causing mortality (21%) to the larvae, and subsequently preventing and/or suppressing pupae (2.08) and adult emergence (1.95). Treatment at 30% concentration was found to be more lethal to all the developmental stages of the test insect. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that any of the plant seed oils at 30 % concentration could be used to manage B. fusca.
Z.D Alkali
Nigerian Journal of Entomology, Volume 36, pp 64-70; https://doi.org/10.36108/nje/0202/63.01.70

Abstract:
The pesticide residues in kola nut, Cola acuminata obtained from Mariri Market, Kumbotso Local Government Area, Kano state of Nigeria was investigated. The study consisted of a survey and laboratory analysis of kola nut samples. One hundred structured questionnaires were administered through an open market format in the major kola nut market in the state. In addition, 1kg sample of kola nut was collected randomly from ten major kola nut sellers in the market for analysis. A 100g sample of the kola nut was pounded into paste in a blender of which 50g was soaked in 150mL acetone for 24h. The extracted sample was filtered through anhydrous sodium sulfate while the extract was evaporated to near dryness using a rotary evaporator at 28oC in the Laboratory. Residue was redissolved in 2 mL acetone and kept in the refrigerator for GCMS Analysis. Ten pesticidal compounds were detected from a comparison of data with reference to mass spectrometry data (NIST05.LIB) and significant occurrence in kola nut sample which had a corresponding molecules affiliated to some pesticides standards were detected in the sample
C.F. Nwanade
Nigerian Journal of Entomology, Volume 36, pp 113-117; https://doi.org/10.36108/nje/0202/63.01.31

Abstract:
The insecticidal and residual effectiveness of Diatomaceous Earth (DE) (Nigeria-derived) and Spinosad® against Sitophilus zeamais on stored rice were evaluated under laboratory temperature (30 ± 2°C) and relative humidity (70 ± 5%). Adult mortality and progeny emergence were studied at three dose rates of DE and Spinosad® (0.1g/kg, 0.5g/kg, and 1g/kg). Spinosad® at 0.1-1.0 g/kg dose rates demonstrated significant results in mortality compared to DE and control groups at 14 d post-treatment and after the 2nd month of storage treatment. Spinosad® treated grains at the same dose rates also resulted in a significant reduction (P<0.05) in the emergence of progeny. Unlike DE, Spinosad® showed some insecticidal efficacy against S. zeamais on storage.
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