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EISSN : 2338-199X
Published by: Universitas Sam Ratulangi (10.35790)
Total articles ≅ 430
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Christian F. Poluan, Pritartha S. Anindita, Christy N. Mintjelungan
Published: 6 June 2022
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 176-181; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i2.39676

Abstract:
: Dry socket is delayed healing of a socket resulted from extraction due to the release of blood clot leaving visible bone surface. There are several risk factors of dry socket such as dentistry skills, perioperative infection, gender, extraction site, use of oral contraceptives, smoking, use of local anesthetics with vasoconstrictors, and position of impacted third molars. The risk of dry socket in smokers is greater than in non-smokers. This study aimed to obtain the occurrence of dry socket in smokers after odontectomy. This was a literature review study using databases of Google Scholar, PubMed, and Clinical Key. The results obtained 10 articles that were relevant to the topic of discussion. The incidence of dry socket was higher in smokers than in non-smokers. The high incidence of dry socket in smokers was influenced by the ingredients contained in cigarettes, among others, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen cyanide. Nicotine affected the rate of epithelialization and blood flow, carbon monoxide caused a decrease in oxygen levels, and hydrogen cyanide could damage the metabolism of cellular respiration. These were related to the phase of wound healing at the stage of inflammation and epithelialization of fibroplasia. In conclusion, the incidence of dry socket after odontectomy is more common in smokers than in non-smokers. Keywords: dry socket; smoking; odontectomy  Abstrak: Dry socket merupakan keadaan penyembuhan soket bekas pencabutan yang tertunda karena lepasnya bekuan darah sehingga permukaan tulang terlihat. Terdapat beberapa faktor risiko terjadinya dry socket seperti keterampilan dokter gigi, infeksi perioperatif, jenis kelamin, lokasi pen-cabutan, penggunaan oral kontrasepsi, merokok, penggunaan anestesi lokal dengan vasokonstriktor, dan posisi gigi molar ketiga yang mengalami impaksi. Risiko terjadinya dry socket pada perokok lebih besar dibandingkan bukan perokok. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kejadian dry socket pada perokok pasca tindakan odontektomi. Jenis penelitian berupa literature review menggunakan database Google Scholar, PubMed, dan Clinical Key. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan 10 artikel yang relevan dengan topik bahasan. Kejadian dry socket lebih sering terjadi pada perokok dibandingkan non perokok. Tingginya kejadian dry socket pada perokok dipengaruhi oleh kandung-an rokok antara lain, nikotin, karbon monoksida, dan hidrogen sianida. Nikotin berpengaruh terha-dap penurunan laju epitelisasi dan aliran darah, karbon monoksida menyebabkan penurunan kadar oksigen, dan hidorgen sianida dapat merusak metabolisme respirasi seluler. Bahan-bahan ini berkaitan dengan fase penyembuhan luka pada tahap inflamasi dan epitelisasi fibroplasia. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah kejadian dry socket pasca tindakan odontektomi lebih tinggi pada perokok dibandingkan non perokok Kata kunci: dry socket;merokok; odontektomi
Florenly Florenly, Novelya Novelya, Mizeli Janiar, Miranda Miranda, Le Quang Phan Dang Hai, Phang Minh Quang
Published: 6 June 2022
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 154-161; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i2.39014

Abstract:
Streptococcus mutans is a type of bacterium that initiates plaque formation on the tooth surface causing tooth decay, meanwhile, Staphylococcus aureus causes pyogenic infections such as abscesses to necrosis. Green betel leaf (Piper betle L.) contains secondary meta-bolites that have the potential as antibacterial. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of green betel leaf extract (Piper betle L.) in micro and nano sizes against Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus. This was an experimental and laboratory study with a post-test-only design. The results showed that nano-green betel leaf extracts had antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus. Green betel leaf extract had a much larger inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus rather than against Streptococcus mutans in all groups (p<0.05), with inhibitory diameters of 13,883±1.1496 mm (micro 10%), 16,767± 1.8779 mm (micro 30%), and 18.667±3.148 mm (nano), respectively. A stable increase in antibacterial activity was derived from micro-green betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L.) concentrations of 10%, 30%, and nanoparticle size. In conclusion, nano-green betel leaf extract (Piper betle L.) showed better antibacterial effectiveness than micro-sizes in inhibiting Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Keywords: Piper betle L.; nanoparticles; antibacterial; Streptococcus mutans; Staphylococcus aureus
Kresna A. G. Samudra, Abdul G. Soulissa, Amelia S. Widyarman
Published: 6 June 2022
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 162-167; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i2.39052

Abstract:
: Shrimp shell (carapace) contains chitosan which is reported to have antibacterial property against periodontal bacteria. This study aimed to determine the antibiofilm efficacy of chitosan obtained from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)against Aggregatibacter action-mycetemcomitans and Treponema denticola in vitro. The antibiofilm activity was tested using crystal violet biofilm assay with variations of chitosan concentrations, as follows: 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, and 1%. Chlorhexidine 0.2% was used as the positive control and acetate 1% as the negative control with 3-hour-treatment period. The biofilm optical density was analyzed using microplate reader with 490 nm wavelength. Data were analyzed statistically using One Way-ANOVA with the significance level of p<0.05. The result showed that all concentrations of chitosan were able to inhibit the biofilm formation of A. actinomycetemcomitans and T. denticola. The most effective concentration was 0.6% for both bacteria. In conclusion, Penaeus monodon chitosan has been proved to inhibit the biofilm formation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetem-comitans and Treponema denticola in vitro. Further study is needed to confirm this result with other oral bacteria.Keywords:chitosan of Penaeus monodon;Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans;Treponema denticola; biofilm Abstrak: Limbah kulit udang (carapace) mengandung kitosan yang memiliki sifat antibakteri yang dapat digunakan untuk melawan bakteri periodontal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menge-tahui efek antibiofilm dari kitosan udang windu (Penaeus monodon) terhadap Aggregatibacter. actinomycetemcomitans dan Treponema denticola in vitro. Uji antibiofilm menggunakan metode biofilm assay dengan variasi konsentrasi kitosan: 0,2%, 0,4%, 0,6%, 0,8%, dan 1%. Kontrol positif menggunakan klorheksidin 0,2% dan kontrol negatif menggunakan asetat 1% pada perlakuan waktu 3 jam. Pengukuran optical density biofilm menggunakan microplate reader pada panjang gelombang 490 nm. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis sidik ragam satu arah dengan nilai kemaknaan p<0,05. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan bahwa semua konsentrasi kitosan dapat mengurangi perlekatan pertumbuhan biofilm A. Actinomycetemcomitansdan T. denticola. Kon-sentrasi paling optimalialah pada konsentrasi 0,6% untuk keduanya. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah kitosan Penaeus monodon mampu menghambat perlekatan pertumbuhan biofilm pada Aggregatibacter. actinomycetemcomitans dan Treponema denticolasecara in vitro. Dibutuhkan penelitian lebih lanjut untuk mengonfirmasi hasil ini menggunakan strain bakteri patogen rongga mulut lainnya. Kata kunci: kitosan Penaeus monodon; Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans;Treponema denticola; biofilm
Neira N. Sakinah, Yuliana M. D. Arina, Depi Praharani, Peni Pujiastuti, Desi S. Sari, Melok A. Wahyukundari
Published: 6 June 2022
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 182-187; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i2.40683

Abstract:
: Recently, the need for orthodontic treatment has increased along with the increasing need and public awareness of the importance of dental and oral health. During treatment, problems sometimes occur with periodontal tissue. Orthodontic devices that bond to the tooth surface can cause difficulties in controlling plaque, especially in marginal areas which can cause inflammation and gingival overgrowth. Too high tensile strength and weak tissue capacity are also the factors that can cause gingival overgrowth. This case report described the management of gingival growth in a patient under fixed orthodontic treatment. We reported an 18-year-old female patient with a good systemic condition that had gingival overgrowth localized on the anterior part of mandibula. The surgical intervention was performed by using conventional surgical methods. Its goal was to remove the gingival pocket, therefore, the plaque could be easily controlled. The use of a scalpel was considered very effective for eliminating excessive gingiva. Two weeks after surgical treatment, the gum resulted in good repair. The continuity of orthodontic treatment could be achieved properly after 3-month surgical treatment. Instructions and motivation to maintain oral hygiene were important to avoid recurrence. In addition, multidisciplinary dentistry between orthodontist and periodontist was needed to achieve a better result. Keywords: gingival overgrowth; gingivectomy; orthodontic appliance
Desak Nyoman A. Susanti, Putri Rejeki, Alexander K. Wijaya
Published: 6 June 2022
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 188-196; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i2.40883

Abstract:
Dentist has a high risk of being infected of COVID-19. This study aimed to determine the practice modification efforts carried out by dentists in Badung regency in facing the COVID-19 pandemic. This study used a mixed method design with a sequential explanatory strategy. Quantitative research was conducted with a questionnaire that was arranged based on PB PDGI guidelines and has been tested for validity and reliability with 72 respondents. Qualitative research was conducted by doing in-depth interview with two informants who had filled out the questionnaire to find out the reasons for the choice of answers and the possibility of other practice modifications carried out. The results showed that modifications to patient management procedures have been carried out such as screening the patients, asking patients to wash their hands, limiting the distance in the waiting room, and measuring body temperature. Modifications to the transmission prevention management carried out by dentists such as the use of complete PPE, limiting the duration of contact with patients, asking patients to rinse their mouth with povidone iodine, and installing exhaust fans in the practice room. The modifications that are slightly carried out are delaying the elective treatment and the use of rubber dams. In conclusion, dentists in Badung regency have made 83% modifications to patient management procedures and 93% modifications to the transmission prevention management recommended by PDGI, while the use of rubber dam is the least modification effort done because dentists are not used to it. Keywords: COVID-19; dentist; practice modification Abstrak: Dokter gigi merupakan profesi yang memiliki risiko tinggi tertular Coronavirus diseases (COVID-19). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui upaya modifikasi praktik yang dilakukan dokter gigi di Kabupaten Badung dalam menghadapi pandemi COVID-19. Desain penelitian ialah mixed method dengan strategi eksplanatoris sekuensial. Penelitian kuantitatif dilakukan menggunakan kuesioner yang disusun berdasarkan pedoman PB PDGI dan telah diuji validitas dan reliabilitasnya dengan 72 responden. Penelitian kualitatif dilakukan dengan wawancara mendalam kepada dua orang informan yang telah mengisi kuesioner untuk mengetahui alasan pilihan jawaban serta kemungkinan modifikasi praktik lainnya yang dilakukan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan modifikasi prosedur tata kelola pasien yang telah dilakukan seperti melakukan skrining pasien, meminta pasien mencuci tangan, membatasi jarak di ruang tunggu, dan pengukuran suhu tubuh. Modifikasi tata laksana pencegahan transmisi yang dilakukan dokter gigi seperti penggunaan APD lengkap, membatasi durasi kontak dengan pasien, meminta pasien berkumur dengan povidone iodine, serta pemasangan exhaust fan di ruang praktik. Modifikasi yang masih sedikit dilakukan yaitu penundaan perawatan yang bersifat elektif serta penggunaan rubber dam. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah dokter gigi di Kabupaten Badung telah melakukan 83% modifikasi prosedur tata kelola pasien dan 93% modifikasi tata laksana pencegahan transmisi yang direkomendasikan oleh PDGI, sedangkan penggunaan rubber dam merupakan upaya modifikasi yang paling sedikit dilakukan (33%) dikarenakan dokter gigi belum terbiasa. Kata kunci: COVID-19; dokter gigi; modifikasi praktik
Azkya D. M. Latupeirissa, Calvin Kurnia,
Published: 6 June 2022
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 168-175; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i2.39786

Abstract:
: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease caused by microorganisms resulting in progres-sive damage of periodontal tissue. One of the main pathogens is Porphyromonas gingivalis. Periodontal disease can be treated with antibiotics but they have side effects and cause bacterial resistance. Herbal plants that can be used as alternative medicine, inter alia, lemon peel (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck). Its active compounds such as flavonoids, tannins, steroids, and triterpenoids have antibacterial effects. This study aimed to determine the antibacterial effectiveness of the ethanolic extract of lemon peel (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck) against Porphyromonas gingivalis in several concentrations of 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%. The method used in this study was the broth microdilution test to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).The results showed that MIC was at a concentration of 2.5% with an inhibition result of 75.80% and MBC at a concentration of 10% with an inhibition result of 99.53%. In conclusion, lemon peel extract (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck) had antibacterial effectiveness against Porphyromonas gingivalis.Keywords:lemon peel extract (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck; periodontitis; Porphyromonasgingivalis Abstrak: Periodontitis merupakan penyakit inflamasi yang disebabkan oleh mikroorganisme sehingga terjadinya kerusakan progresif pada jaringan periodontal. Salah satu patogen utama ialah Porphyromonas gingivalis. Penyakit periodontal dapat diobati dengan antibiotik namun memiliki efek samping dan resistensi bakteri. Tumbuhan herbal yang dapat digunakan sebagai pengobatan alternatif ialah kulit jeruk lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck) yang memiliki senyawa aktif seperti flavonoid, tanin, steroid dan triterpenoid yang mengandung efek antibakteri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas antibakteri ekstrak etanol kulit jeruk lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck) terhadap Porphyromonas gingivalis pada konsentrasi 0,625%, 1,25%, 2,5%, 5%, dan 10%. Metode yang digunakan ialah uji broth microdilution untuk menentukan konsentrasi hambat minimum (KHM) dan konsentrasi bunuh minimum (KBM) berdasarkan Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Hasil penelitian pada berbagai konsentrasi yang diujikan menunjukkan bahwa KHM berada pada konsentrasi 2,5% dengan hasil inhibisi 75,80% dan KBM pada konsentrasi 10% dengan hasil inhibisi 99,53%. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah ekstrak kulit jeruk lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck) memiliki efektivitas antibakteri terhadap Porphyromonas gingivalis. Kata kunci:ekstrak kulit jeruk lemon(Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck; periodontitis; Porphyromonas gingivalis
Farisa D. P. Widhani, Isniya Nosartika, Ira A. Kusuma, Yoghi B. Prabowo
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 24-31; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.37333

Abstract:
Tobacco use in Indonesia is still relatively high among teenagers-adults or the average of university students. There is a relationship between smoking and periodontal tissue parameters as well as gingival melanin pigmentation. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the knowledge of periodontal disease and gingival melanin pigmentation and smoking behavior among college students. This was an analytical and observational study with a cross-sectional study design. Samples were 108 undergraduates of Diponegoro University batch 2018-2020 who met the inclusion criteria, obtained by using purposive sampling and non-probability sampling techniques. Data were collected by using an online questionnaire through the Google platform regarding the knowledge of periodontal disease and gingival melanin pigmentation on smoking behavior. The data were analyzed by using the Spearman Rank Correlation Test.The results showed that the students’ knowledge about periodontal disease and gingival melanin pigmentation was in a good category, meanwhile students’ smoking behavior was in the moderate smoker category. The Spearman Rank correlation test showed no significant correlation between knowledge of periodontal disease and gingival melanin pigmentation with smoking behavior (p=0.403). In conclusion, there was no significant relationship between the knowledge of periodontal disease and gingival melanin pigmentation and smoking behavior. Keywords: knowledge; behavior; smoking; periodontal disease; gingival melanin pigmentation  Abstrak: Penggunaan tembakau di Indonesia masih tergolong tinggi di kalangan usia remaja-dewasa atau rata-rata usia mahasiswa. Terdapat keterkaitan antara merokok dengan parameter jaringan periodontal dan perubahan pigmentasi melanin gingiva. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan pengetahuan penyakit periodontal dan pigmentasi melanin gingiva dengan perilaku merokok mahasiswa.Jenis penelitian ialah observasional analitik dengan desain potong lintang. Sampel penelitian ialah 108 mahasiswa Strata 1 Universitas Diponegoro angkatan 2018-2020 yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi diperoleh dengan teknik sampel purposive sampling dan teknik pengambilan sampel non-probability. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan kuesioner online melalui platformGoogle form tentang pengetahuan penyakit periodontal dan pigmentasi melanin gingiva terhadap perilaku merokok. Analisis statistik menggunakan uji korelasi Spearmanrank dengan menggunakan aplikasi statistik SPSS. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan tingkat pengetahuan penyakit periodontal dan pigmentasi melanin gingiva mahasiswa dalam kategori baik, dan untuk perilaku merokok mahasiswa termasuk dalam kategori perokok sedang. Uji korelasi Spearmanrank menunjukkan bahwa tidak terdapat hubungan bermakna antara pengetahuan penyakit periodontal dan pigmentasi melanin gingiva dengan perilaku merokok (p=0,403). Simpulan penelitian ini ialah tidak terdapat hubungan bermakna antara pengetahuan penyakit periodontal dan pigmentasi melanin gingiva dengan perilaku merokok pada mahasiswa Strata 1 Universitas Diponegoro. Kata kunci: pengetahuan; perilaku; merokok; penyakit periodontal; pigmentasi melanin gingiva
Indrayadi Gunardi, Rahmi Amtha, Helena G. V. Widyadhana
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 6-15; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.37089

Abstract:
: The main transmission medium of Covid-19 is aerosol from nose and oral cavity when coughing, sneezing, and speaking. Due to the vast transmission of the virus, the Indonesian government has established various health protocols to reduce the impact of the disease. Until now, the high number of confirmed COVID-19 patients in Jakarta is suspected as a result of lack of knowledge and perception. This study was aimed to determine the relationship between knowledge, perception, and attitudes of COVID-19 transmission in dentistry in JABODETABEK Jakarta. This was an analytical and observational study with a cross-sectional design using online questionnaire containing 50 questions. This study was conducted on 572 subjects. The validity of the questionnaire was analyzed by using the Rasch model and the linear regression between variables and mediation analysis. The results obtained that the questionnaire showed a Cronbach alpha of 0.82 and item reliability of 1.00 with a separation of 29.97. Most subjects were in high category of knowledge (97.20%), perception (60.66%), and attitudes (93.88%). There was a relationship between knowledge and perception (p<0.001; 95%CI 0.357-0.925); perception and attitude (p<0.001; 95%CI 0.643-0.829); and the perception as a mediator between both variables. In conclusion, JABODETABEK community’s perception of COVID-19 transmission has an impact as mediator or influence people’s attitude in implementing their knowledge in dentistry. Keywords: knowledge; perception; attitude; COVID-19  Abstrak: SARS-CoV-2 merupakan tipe coronavirus baru yang dapat menimbulkan penyakit COVID-19. Media transmisi primer dari virus ini ialah aerosol yang keluar dari hidung dan rongga mulut saat batuk, bersin, maupun bicara. Oleh karena transmisi tinggi virus, pemerintah Indonesia telah menetapkan berbagai protokol kesehatan untuk menurunkan dampak dari keparahan penyakit. Hingga sekarang, adanya sejumlah tinggi kasus COVID-19 pada populasi Jakarta, diduga akibat adanya pengetahuan dan persepsi yang rendah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan hubungan antara pengetahuan, persepsi, dan sikap dari transmisi COVID-19 dalam bidang kedokteran gigi pada populasi JABODETABEK. Jenis penelitian ialah observasional analitik dengan desain potong lintang, dilakukan dengan kuesioner online yang terdiri dari 50 pertanyaan, dan diujikan pada 572 responden. Validitas kuesioner dianalisis model Rasch, dan regresi linier antara variabel dan analisis mediasi. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan kuesioner menunjukkan Cronbach alpha 0,82 dan reliabilitas item 1 separasi 29,97. Seluruh responden masuk ke dalam kategori pengetahuan tinggi (97,20%), persepsi (60,66%) dan sikap (93,88%). Hubungan ditemukan antara pengetahuan dan persepsi (p=<0,001; 0,357-0,925), persepsi dan sikap (p=<0,001; 0,643-0,829), dan persepsi sebagai mediator antara kedua variabel. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah persepsi masyarakat JABODETABEK terhadap transmisi COVID-19, berperan sebagai mediator atau memengaruhi sikap mereka dalam mengimplementasikan pengetahuannya di bidang kedokteran gigi. Kata kunci: pengetahuan; persepsi; sikap; COVID-19
Niko Falatehan, Denilson Denilson
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 51-56; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.38791

Abstract:
With increasing age, a person's ability to maintain dental and oral hygiene will decrease which can result in tooth loss, therefore, a complete denture is needed to restore esthetic, masticatory, and phonetic functions. Control time can affect the success of denture usage. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of control time on behavioral changes among elderlies by using the complete denture cleaning leaflet. This was an experimental study with a cross sectional design. Data were collected by using a questionnaire containing 15 questions. Subjects were 36 elderly living at Yayasan True Love Batam nursing home. Data collection was carried out in four meetings, namely the day before the instruction in the form of leaflet was given; control I was one day after the instruction; control II was one week after control I; and control III was two weeks after control II. The elderly behavior assessed from the questionnaire was then analyzed using the Friedman test. The results showed that the behavior of elderlies before being given instructions was in the moderate category. The highest increase of mean value of behavior was obtained after control II. The Friedman test resulted in a p value of 0.000. In conclusion, the best control time that had the most significant increase of behavior changes in complete denture cleaning was control II. Keywords: elderly; control time; leaflet; behavioral change; complete denture   Abstrak: Dengan bertambahnya usia, kemampuan seseorang dalam menjaga kebersihan gigi dan mulut akan menurun. Keadaan ini dapat mengakibatkan kehilangan gigi sehingga diperlukan gigi tiruan lengkap (GTL) untuk mengembalikan fungsi estetik, mastikasi, dan fonetik. Waktu kontrol dapat memengaruhi keberhasilan GTL. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas waktu kontrol terhadap perubahan perilaku pasien lanjut usia (lansia) dengan menggunakan leaflet pembersihan GTL. Jenis penelitian ialah eksperimental dengan desain potong lintang. Data dikumpulkan menggunakan kuesioner berisikan 15 pertanyaan. Subjek penelitian sebanyak 36 lansia di panti jompo Yayasan True Love Batam. Pengambilan data dilakukan sebanyak empat kali pertemuan yaitu pada hari sebelum diberikan instruksi berupa leaflet; kontrol I yaitu satu hari setelah instruksi; kontrol II yaitu satu minggu setelah kontrol I; dan kontrol III yaitu dua minggu setelah kontrol II. Perilaku lansia dinilai dari kuesioner kemudian dianalisis menggunakan uji Friedman. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perilaku lansia pengguna GTL di Yayasan True Love Batam sebelum diberikan instruksi berupa leaflet termasuk dalam kategori sedang. Kenaikan nilai rerata perilaku lansia tertinggi diperoleh setelah kontrol II serta hasil uji Friedman mendapatkan nilai p=0,000. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah waktu kontrol terbaik dan yang memiliki peningkatan perubahan perilaku paling bermakna yaitu kontrol II. Kata kunci: lansia; waktu kontrol; perubahan perilaku; gigi tiruan lengkap
Theofany L. A. Santoso, Dinar A. Wicaksono, Paulina N. Gunawan
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 66-74; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.37606

Abstract:
One of the instantaneous lifestyle can be seen inter alia from the high level of soft drink consumption. Consumption of carbonated soft drinks produces a pH ranging from 2.4 to 4.07 which is classified as low. CO2 dissolved in carbonated soft drinks is thought to increase acidity, therefore, decrease the pH of saliva. The continuous decrease in salivary pH can lead to demineralization of tooth structure which triggers the occurrence of dental caries. This study aimed to determine the effect of soft drink consumption on salivary pH related to the incidence of dental caries. This was a literature review studi using four databases as follows: Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and ClinicalKey. The keywords were "minuman bersoda" OR "minuman berkarbonasi" AND "pH saliva"; dan “soft drink” OR "carbonated drink" AND "salivary pH". The literatures were selected through inclusion and exclusion criteria and then a critical appraisal was carried out. The results showed that 29 abstracts met the criteria. Full-text articles that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and be used in this study were 18 articles in total. It was found that there was a change in the degree of acidity after consuming carbonated drinks. In conclusion,carbonated soft drinks can affect the pH of saliva which triggers the occurrence of dental caries. Keywords: carbonated soft drinks; salivary pH   Abstrak: Salah satu gaya hidup masyarakat Indonesia yang serba instan dapat terlihat dari tingginya tingkat konsumsi minuman ringan bersoda. Minuman ringan ini tersedia secara komersil dan bila dikonsumsi menghasilkan pH berkisar antara 2,4 hingga 4,07 yang tergolong rendah. CO2 yang terlarut dalam minuman bersoda dianggap dapat meningkatkan keasaman dan menurunkan pH saliva. Penurunan pH saliva yang terjadi secara terus-menerus dapat menyebabkan demineralisasi struktur gigi yang merupakan awal dari terjadinya karies gigi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh konsumsi minuman bersoda terhadap pH saliva pada kejadian karies gigi. Jenispenelitian ialah suatu literature review, yang menggunakan database Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, dan ClinicalKey serta kata kunci "minuman bersoda" OR "minuman berkarbonasi" AND "pH saliva"; dan “soft drink” OR "carbonated drink" AND "salivary pH". Literatur diseleksi melalui kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi serta dilakukan critical appraisal. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan jumlah literatur sebanyak 29 abstrak yang memenuhi kriteria sedangkan artikel fulltext yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi sebanyak 18 artikel. Hasil kajian mendapatkan terjadi perubahan derajat keasaman setelah mengonsumsi minuman ringan bersoda. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah minuman bersoda dapat memengaruhi pH saliva yang selanjutnya memicu terjadinya karies gigi.Kata kunci: minuman bersoda; pH saliva
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