Kyiv Historical Studies
ISSN / EISSN : 25240749 / 25240757
Current Publisher: Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University (10.28925)
Total articles ≅ 81
Latest articles in this journal
Kyiv Historical Studies; doi:10.28925/2524-0757
Київські історичні студії - наукове видання, присвячене актуальним питанням історії та археології,перевага надається дослідженням з історичної урбаністики, насамперед з історії Києва, засновано Київським університетом імені Бориса Грінченка, дата заснування - 2015 рік, виходить двічі на рік
Kyiv Historical Studies; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2020.1
Kyiv Historical Studies pp 83-90; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2020.1.11
The article highlights and analyses the attitude of the public of the city of Kherson and Kherson Governorate to the events of 1917–1918, including the period of activity of the Ukrainian Central Rada, the attempt to fight for power by the Provisional Government and the Bolsheviks’ resistance to the process of becoming Ukrainian forces. Attention is paid to the characteristics of the meetings, congresses of the region, which were aimed at demonstrating the attitude of the political forces and local authorities of the Kherson region to the main state-political acts of the period — the Universals of the Central Rada and the reaction to the Temporary Instruction to the General Secretariat of the Provisional Government in Ukraine. During the mentioned period, the Kherson District Meetings, the Regional Congress of Farmers and the Provincial Ukrainian National Congress were held. In general, representatives of these meetings supported the Central Rada and the autonomy of Ukraine. The opposition to the Ukrainian issue was the Kherson Revolutionary Council, the Council of Rural Deputies of the Kherson province, negatively held the Ukrainian congresses, and also opposed the broad representation of national minorities at these meetings. Attention is drawn to the political activity of the city community, in particular, the city government, as well as officials authorized by heads of public institutions of the city. The main directions of activity of national Ukrainian forces are described: Unions of Ukrainian national organizations, “Ukrainian House”, which later became “Enlightenment” and others. It is noted that the Kherson public supported the activities of the Central Rada, demanded the inclusion of the Governorate under the jurisdiction of the General Secretariat, opposing the Provisional Instruction of the Provisional Government. The Ukrainian forces of the Kherson province were at the organizational stage of activity.
Kyiv Historical Studies pp 6-11; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2020.1.1
The article examines and first introduces into scientific circulation the seal of the “Cossack” skete on Mount Athos “Black Whirlpool” (“Mavro Vyr”) of the 18th — early 19th centuries. Its image was found in Ukrainian and foreign archives among three skete documents of 1758, 1766 and 1802. For the first time, two skete documents from this era are published in applications. Based on the analysis of archival sources, little-known facts are revealed, in particular regarding the status of the Black Whirlpool as a self-governing skete on Mount Athos. It has been established that the seal of the Black Whirlpool has not only historical value, but also represents an example of Ukrainian printing art and also has artistic value. This seal is an important confirmation and attribute of the official status of the monastery. This status of a self-governing skete and the national composition of its inhabitants are indicated on the seal itself, which in itself is a significant historical evidence. The study introduces scientific novelty in the context of studying the historical, spiritual and cultural ties between Ukraine and Athos in the early modern ages.
Kyiv Historical Studies pp 12-16; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2020.1.2
The purpose of the study is to unveil the religious crisis through the impact of the “Magical Revival” and esoteric secret organizations in France during the 18th century. The research methodology is based on the principles of historicism and scientific objectivity. In addition to general scientific methods such as analysis, synthesis, induction and deduction, special historical methods are used in the research: historical-comparative and historical-typological method, as well as for interdisciplinary sympathetic method was used for the complex study of esotericism as a religious component of society. The scientific novelty of the chosen question is in the formulation and development independent topic and holistic research problem. At the same time, in the historiography of the esoteric secret societies of Western Europe of modern times, the role of the religious crisis of the 18th century in the revival of “Magical revival” is not investigated. The analysed facts allow us to establish a clear link between the development of the 18th century religious crisis and the formation of esoteric secret societies in the context of the “Magical Revival” in the territory of nineteenth-century France. This is quite substantially demonstrated in the facts of anti-religious agitation and struggle, as well as in the context of increasing the number of occult organizations, as an alternative sacred form
Kyiv Historical Studies pp 39-52; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2020.1.6
Important components of the study of ancient technologies are their experimental reproduction and use of the methods of natural sciences. Information on the composition of raw materials, formulations of paints and angobs of painted pottery of Trypillian Culture of the Dnieper region gave the possibility to search for the evidences concerning its local origin, according to the researchers. An important component of the study is investigating the process of manufacturing the ceramics from local raw materials, as well as its firing in a pottery ciln built for this purpose. The obtained results allow us to consider quite reasonable previous assumptions about the possibility of local production of a wide range of painted hand-drawn utensils by the Trypillia population of the Dnieper region in the second half of the 4 millennium BC.
Kyiv Historical Studies pp 75-82; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2020.1.10
The article deals with the main features of creating the negative image of the enemy by the Russian imperial authorities among the population of the Ukrainian lands of the Right Bank of Ukraine in 1914–1917s. The relevance and current state of scientific development of the problem are indicated in the article as well. It is found that during the war, the Russian Empire authorities were aware of high importance specific information campaign as a successful method of struggle. And one of the key areas in this context was connected with the negative image of the Germans and their allies. For this purpose, the authorities, through various mechanisms of informational influence on the society, in practice using of such method of propaganda as “demonization”, whose main task was not simply to form a negative image of the enemy, but to transform it into the plane of religious and dogmatic confrontation of good with evil and the collision of two worlds: Russian as civilized and German as barbaric. The key ideas of the method were: Germany, led by William II, the main culprit of the war; the German army and its allies committed immoral acts, manifested by numerous “atrocities” against civilians and prisoners of war; the Germans and their allies are nothing but absolute evil and the barbarians of the twentieth century, who seek to destroy the civilized world and to enslave free nations. During the war, such theses were not just widespread in society, but became a mass product of the Empire’s propaganda.
Kyiv Historical Studies pp 33-38; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2020.1.5
The article analyses the figure of John Foster Dulles, Secretary of State during the Dwight Eisenhower Presidency. Sufficient scientific background of the question is devoted mainly to the analysis of this figure from negative positions, attributing to him the role of “experienced evil genius”. The author provides brief biographical information on the life of the Secretary of State in order to find out the conditions under which his character and worldviews formed, which subsequently formed the basis of his political behavior. It is stated that in general, John Foster Dulles was one of the most influential statesmen in the history of the American political establishment. In fact, J. F. Dulles was a reflection of the tension that was so vividly observed in the United States of America in the late 1940s and 1950s, and therefore these factors could not but affect his personal life and career.
Kyiv Historical Studies pp 26-32; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2020.1.4
The article discloses attempts by the German authorities to use certain captive Ukrainians from the Russian army to destabilize its arson during World War I. Due to the lack of relevant archival sources, it is not possible to determine the degree of informative nature of agent messages recruited by the German Ukrainian activists, as well as the extent of their importance in planning strategic or tactical military operations at the front by the German command. The author of the article assumes that the most successful Ukrainian “turns” from captivity acted in the cause of revolutionizing Ukrainian provinces of the Russian Empire. It should also be noted that by agreeing to cooperate with the German military authorities, not all captive Ukrainians were guided by ideological motives. Some of them were driven by the desire to use this opportunity to accelerate their return home, and they were not a priori planning to collect and transmit intelligence to the Germans and to carry out the work of revolutionary content. Finally, a small proportion of Ukrainians who were sent home by the efforts of the Union of Liberation of Ukraine and the German authorities, joined the disintegration of imperial institutes at Ukrainian lands, and also took an active part in the Ukrainian state-building in 1917–1920.
Kyiv Historical Studies pp 53-59; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2020.1.7
The article is devoted to one of the elder town’s income-expenditure book which is considered as a source for the social stratification of the city of Lviv from 1404 to 1414. The main problems which are stated from the analysis of the book’s registries (registrum) connected to the citizen’s status and their occupation. It is also revealed the peculiarities of the connections between the city authorities and inhabitants. The account registries of the book exposed the average quantity of the dwellers who were obliged to pay a different kind of taxes, especially a szos which was levied from the citizens who had the property. Additionally, it showed that the registrum of the book could also be interpreted not only as an economic constituent of Lviv in the 15th century but also as a source for the depiction of the various spheres of citizen lives. For instance, the taxes registers provided a broad range of communities which were engaged in merchantry, craftsmanship, renovation work, and light manufacturing. We could find in the sources their titles, names, and sort of occupation. Notably, most of the citizens who were involved in a different kind of work received from the town’s government encouragement in the form of monetary payments and another benefit. The texts of the registries at the book have also shown capitulary of the middle ages Lviv streets. According to this, my presumption was stated to account how many dwellers had lived at the one the street and even if they did how it is calculated due to the average amount of Lviv’s citizens. Forasmuch as the Polish historian Stanislaw Kutrzeba idea was stated that at the beginning of the 15th century it was at least 2481 citizens of Lviv. Key words: Lviv, accounts book, szos taxes, citizens, properties.