Kyiv Historical Studies

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2524-0749 / 2524-0757
Current Publisher: Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University (10.28925)
Total articles ≅ 112
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Latest articles in this journal

Kyiv Historical Studies, Volume 11, pp 66-68; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2020.2.9

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the burial sites of the Polish Army fallen soldiers discovered on the territory of Ukraine, as well as to the role of these places in modern memorial practices of Ukrainians and Poles, who turned them into peculiar places of memory. Individual researchers, historic re-enactment clubs, Polish cultural societies, etc. are now involved in research work to identify the burial sites for soldiers of the Polish and Ukrainian armies who carried out separate and joint military operations against the Bolshevik Red Army in 1920. The result of their activities was the identification and reconstruction of the burial sites of Polish soldiers in Ukraine and Ukrainian soldiers in Poland. The burial sites which have been known since the 20th century included the graves of fallen Poles who died near Zadvirya and Brody, in Lviv. The burial sites of the Polish soldiers in a separate area at the Baikove Cemetery in Kyiv are among those discovered in the early 1990s. Recently restored were graves in a village cemetery near the village of Susly in the Novohrad-Volynskyi district of Zhytomyr region in Ukraine. The lists of Polish soldiers are still being clarified. The research work is underway to study the biographies of the fallen. The commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the Polish-Ukrainian military alliance in 2020 highlighted the need for joint memorial events to honour the memory of the fallen representatives of both nations, organized information campaigns for citizens of both countries to create awareness about common history.
Olha Musiiachenko
Kyiv Historical Studies, Volume 11, pp 24-28; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2020.2.3

Abstract:
The results of the study of Kyiv music environment in the late 19 — early 20 centuries are presented through the analysis of business documentation. The peculiarities of researching the music environment of cities and the experience of using different types of sources when studying the music environment have been examined. The study of archival documents of Kyiv of this period allowed us to determine the specific components of the music environment of the city that were presented in the business documentation in late 19 — early 20 centuries. Our main source is data taken from archival institutions of Kyiv. We have identified blocks of data that reflects the conditions and tendencies of the city’s music life, such as the influence of government policies and censure restrictions on music and concert life and the formation of a contingent of musicians, the coexistence of old guild organization and new global trends in professional music making. The place of guilds in the music environment of Kyiv of late 19 century has been determined. Examples of applications for permission to perform songs in Ukrainian on the open stages of Kyiv and the reasons that prompted the performers or the administration of institutions to ask for such permits have been shown. Restrictions on residence in Kyiv that existed for Jewish musicians and Jewish entrants to music schools in Kyiv, as well as the reasons for the refusals have been presented. Data from reports and programs of educational institutions has been analysed. There are also examples of cases that illustrate the individual episodes of music life and allow to vividly recreate the atmosphere of the city at that time, such as an anonymous complaint of Kyiv citizens about the “obscenities” that took place in the Chateau de Fleur Garden and the Apollo Variety Theater, etc.
Oleh Ivanyuk, Yana Martianova
Kyiv Historical Studies, Volume 11, pp 16-23; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2020.2.2

Abstract:
The article reviews the infrastructure projects of the Kyiv City Duma, which were implemented during 1906–1910s. Special attention is paid to the most ambitious programs: the development of sewers, public transport, arrangement of the streets, which contributed to the transformation processes in urban space. It has been established that the principle of development of not only the downtown, but also Kyiv suburbs, declared in the election programs, ultimately failed. The infrastructure projects announced by the City Council sometimes did not take into account the financial capabilities of the city, the bureaucratic red tape inherent in the Empire, lobbying and the influence of business on decision-making. The political struggle, the low level of technical awareness of the vowels, the dishonesty and indifference of some of the elected officials to the performance of duties, which were transformed into non-attendance and frequent disruption of meetings, significantly slowed down their implementation. The most informative source, which allows to cover in detail and quite emotionally the decision-making process and the main stages of implementation of infrastructure projects are Kyiv periodicals — “Kyivlianyn”, “Hromadska Dumka”, “Rada”, in particular.
Artem Kukhto
Kyiv Historical Studies, Volume 11, pp 6-15; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2020.2.1

Abstract:
The article studies the process of establishment of Andronyk Stepovych Kyiv Private Boys Gymnasium in 1906–1913s. The analysis is made on the materials of archival documents of the funds of Manuscript Institute of Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine. The problems that Anronyk Stepovych, the founder of the institution, faced are indicated. The features of the functioning of the gymnasium and its place in the educational process of Kiev at the beginning of the 20th century are shown. Having founded a gymnasium, Andronyk Stepovych tried to improve the educational level of the youth in the region. Special efforts were aimed at attracting children from low-income families to the educational process. Realizing this plan, he had to overcome many organizational, administrative, material, and other difficulties. The introduction of self-management in the institution at the level of teachers and students was one of the important tasks that the gymnasium set itself. However, the tough and inconsistent policy of the Ministry of Public Education did not allow to do this as well as prohibited any independence for private educational institutions. In addition, every year the Kyiv private gymnasium lost a number of privileges, which made the work of the gymnasium impossible. The management and staff of Kyiv educationaldistrict body with their belated orders, meticulous inspections brought the gymnasium to almost complete destruction. As a result, the gymnasium operated in 1906–1913. Over the years, more than a thousand children acquired education at the educational institution where by Andronyk Stepovych Kyiv Private Boys Gymnasium made its contribution to the growth of the number of educated youth of Kyiv region.
Oleksandr Komarnitskyi, Liudmyla Komarnitska
Kyiv Historical Studies pp 108-116; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2020.1.14

Abstract:
In the 20–30s of the 20th century special attention was paid to the formation of the ideological worldview of students of education institutions, future teachers who were to shape the political consciousness of the younger generation with communist ideals. The ideological principles of the party were subordinated to the social activities of youth, in particular, in Kyiv pedagogical educational institutions. The article deals with the work of student clubs and student government bodies, various organizations. Since the mid-20s of the 20th century trade union organizations took over the functions of youth advocates, which were largely influenced by university administrations and controlled the social composition of students, who presented themselves as an exclusively peasant workers. Some of the students were embraced by work in the cells of voluntary societies, the government used to propagate their ideas of socialist construction and the ideological education of the masses. The most active were the cells of Tsoaviakhim, which oversaw the work of the rifle circles. Close to them were sports clubs. Universities also operated cells of MOPR, the Friends of the Children societies, the All-Ukrainian Society for Land Organization of Working Jews OZET, and the Friends of Radio. The ideological work among students was intensified by the student press, the production of “live and light newspapers” that covered the processes of building a higher school, the participation of youth organizations in the proletariat of institutes and technical schools, the life and attitude of students, their participation in cultural work etc. Most of the time, students took part in enriching work. In particular, they worked on various campaigns related to raising funds for the state’s economic needs, participating in fundraising to strengthen defense, days of industrialization, etc.
Yevhen Kovalev
Kyiv Historical Studies pp 129-133; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2020.1.17

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the study of the content of “D. V. K. Project”. This text proposes to abolish serfdom in Russia by liberating newborn peasant children. The project was created by Russian statesman and Ukrainian landowner Dеmian Kochubey (1786–1859) and probably dates from 1856, when the preparation of the Emancipation Reform began in Russia. Kochubey’s proposals were preceded by a number of similar projects, which began to appear from the end of the 18th century. “D. V. K. Project” remained unrealized because it could not guarantee a positive solution to the agrarian question.
Олександр Бонь
Kyiv Historical Studies, Volume 11, pp 106-115; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2020.2.15

Abstract:
The Ukrainian humanitarian intellectuals became the object of the totalitarian regime repressions at the end of 1920–1930s. Ordinary social conditions of cultural life centers changed drastically. Even harsher conditions waited for the repressed humanitarian intellectuals — the conditions of Stalin’s GULAG prisons, concentration camps, and an exile. The survival strategies at GULAG’s extreme conditions had many differences and yet had common features. The subject matter of this article is an daily routine of the Ukrainian humanitarian intellectuals in 1930s. The objective of this research is to reflect upon the everyday life of well-known Ukrainian scientists, professorshumanitarians Stephan Taranushenko, Vasyl Dubriovskyi, Dmytro Gordieiev, and Vsevolod Zummer, who at different times were connected to Kyiv and its scientific environment. They met at BAMLAG (Urulha, Svobodniy) — where they were constructing the Baukal-Amur highway and two ways of Transsyb. Social transformations in the concentration camp had a sweeping character. But the Ukrainian humanitarians worked hard, under the psychological and ideological pressure, to the extent possible were doing art as well. The humanitarians of those days were forced to show their loyalty to the totalitarian regime. The sources for this paper are not only Vasyl Dubrovskyi’s memorials of concentration camp but also the documents and memoirs of Ivan Chystyakov, who at that time was a commander of BAMLAG security division. It was reflected how the prisoners were forced to a more productive work. The camp administration used food and the early release conditions to achieve that. The conclusion was the next — the Ukrainian professors managed to survive and left BAMLAG before the date due.
Yevhen Shymanskyi
Kyiv Historical Studies, Volume 11, pp 91-97; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2020.2.13

Abstract:
The article is based on academic biographical and genealogical literature with involvement of published legislative sources of the Polish-Lithuania Commonwealth Diet (Sejm). The researching instruments are represented by the method of the prosopography and ruled by principles of objectivity, chronology and historicism. This paper reveals the history of a nobleman group which occupied highest posts (voivode and castellan) in Chernihiv Voivodeship terrestrial office hierarchy during the reign of the king August II (1696-1733). It has been studied out that highest terrestrial officials were represented by people that came from rich magnate nobleman families from the different parts of the country. This group of noblemen were related to the different centers of political power and their careers were built on dependence not only on the land possession of their families but also on the great role of their political relationships with the king and various opposing political forces. Chernihiv Voivodeship can be named as “titular”or “exulant” due to absence of lands in its possession in contradistinction to real voivodeships of the Polish-Lithuania Commonwealth. This circumstance reduces the role of a highest terrestrial official of an “exulant” voivodeship only to the senator’s mission in a republican Diet. It has been found that terrestrial official’s titles can be characterized as “sinecurial” and they also were the instruments for a power increasing of large political fractions in the Diet. The narrower relationships between Chernihiv’s highest officials (senators) and Chernihiv Voivodeship exulants nobleman community grouped over Volodymyr dietine (sejmik) can be found on a wider material of different historical archival sources hiding a various data of political and parliamentarian processes.
Kyiv Historical Studies, Volume 11, pp 116-124; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2020.2.16

Abstract:
In this article, the role of periodicals in the propaganda activities of the occupation authorities of the Reichskommissariat Ukraine and the military administration zone has been revealed; the content and types of periodicals have been shown; the task set before them by the Nazi occupation authorities in forming appropriate ideological structures to influence the population of the occupied territories of Ukraine has been disclosed. It is shown that Hitler’s governance used the press as one of the effective means of influencing not only the opinion, but also the consciousness of the population of the temporarily occupied territories. The subject of the study is the content of periodicals and their influence on the behaviour, moral and psychological condition of the population of the Ukrainian territories occupied by the Nazi army. The main aspects of Nazi Germany’s information policy in the occupied territories have been revealed with the use of comparative-historical and problem-chronological methods, as well as content analysis, which allowed to analyse the content of periodicals and to highlight the features of their content lines. The occupation administration used various forms of propaganda: publishing newspapers and magazines in Ukrainian; demonstrating special films in cinemas; releasing visual agitation in the form of posters and leaflets, as well as documentary exhibitions; through theatre plays, radio broadcasts in Ukrainian, Russian and other languages. It resorted to the modern methods of using the press in times of the war. The population of the temporarily occupied territories of the USSR demanded news as the only opportunity to navigate in those difficult conditions. That is why Hitler’s governance used the press as one of the effective means of influence not only the opinion, but also the consciousness of the population of the temporarily occupied territories. The German occupation authorities tried to take advantage of the “information hunger” that prevailed after the retreat of Soviet troops and to fill the information vacuum with their own propaganda. In order to spread the necessary information among the population, the Nazi occupation authorities published newspapers and magazines in each region, district, city.
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