Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences

Journal Information
EISSN : 2661-3190
Current Publisher: Bilingual Publishing Co. (10.30564)
Total articles ≅ 24
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Pierre Wotchoko, Primus Azinwi Tamfuh, Margaret Awah Tita, Alice Magha, Glory Anonchuh Wonyi, Fritz Oben Tabi, Dieudonné Bitom
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jees.v3i1.2582

Abstract:
This paper studies the effect of basalt and tephra dusts, as alternatives to chemical fertilizers, on soil fertility and Radish (Raphanus sativus) production. The experiment was conducted in the field and in the laboratory in the years 2017 and 2018 on two separate plots so as to annul residual effects of fertilizers). The experimental design in the field was a randomized complete block design (56 m2), including five treatments and three replications: control (T0 ), basalt dust (T1 ), tephra dust (T2 ), effective micro-organism (EM) fertilizer (T3 ) and NPK 20-10-10 (T4 ). The main results show the following decreasing trend based on yield: T1>T3>T0>T4>T2. The best yields appear in T1 and T3 probably because they supplied the highest levels of soil nutrients to match the needs of the plant. Although T2 plants performed poorly, soil properties like pH.H2O (6.14 to 6.49), sum of exchangeable bases, base saturation, available phosphorus and cation balance were improved after tephra treatment. T2 plants might have performed poorly due to intrinsic properties of the tephra dust like low availability of trace elements compared to T1 and T3. T4 plants show the highest number of leaves, leaf area index and plant height. The Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn levels in bulbs and leaves will not pose danger of toxicity to human upon consumption and could serve as nutrient supplement for children and expectant mothers. The most profitable treatment is T1 permitting to recommend the popularization of basalt dust for radish cultivation as an alternative to chemical fertilizers.
Moses Oghenenyoreme Eyankware, Bassey Edem Ephraim
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jees.v3i1.2900

Abstract:
This research presents a review on water resources in Delta state, southern part of Nigeria, with emphasis on hydrogeochemical and microbial assessment. It also evaluate factors responsible for water contamination, and their resulting health problems within the study area. To achieve the objective of this study, related articles were downloaded from Google, published article on influence of hydrogeochemical and microbial activities on water resources, these articles were thoroughly studied. Findings from this study revealed that groundwater was more studied than surface water. It was observed that groundwater within the riverine communities are much more prone to pollution when compared to groundwater in upland area. From reviewed article, it was observed that, larger percentage of groundwater showed presence of coliform. Study from reviewed article further suggested that hydrogeochemical processes such as rock water interaction, saltwater intrusion and precipitation influences groundwater quality within the study area especially within Sombreiro-Warri Deltaic Plain Deposit.
Oghenegare Emmanuel Eyankware, Idaeresoari Harriet Ateke
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/jees.v2i2.2642

Abstract:
The need for a net zero carbon emission future is imperative for environmental sustainability hence, intensive carbon fuels would need to be replaced with less carbon emitting energy sources such as natural gas till clean energy source such as hydrogen becomes commercialized. As a result, this mini review discusses the use of metal organic framework (MOF) for adsorption of methane and hydrogen in specially designed tanks for improved performance so as to increase their applicability. Herein, adsorption (delivery) capacity of selected high performing MOFs for methane and hydrogen storage were highlighted in reference to the targets set by United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) and Fuel Cells Technology Office. In this regard, specific design and chemistry of MOFs for improved methane and hydrogen adsorption were highlighted accordingly. In addition, an overview of computational and molecular studies of hypothetical MOFs was done – the various approaches used and their proficiency for construction of specific of crystalline structures and topologies were herewith discussed.
Endeshaw Lake
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/jees.v2i2.2286

Abstract:
In this paper we access the effects of two atmospheric variables (temperature and relative humidity) on two important pollutants in the atmosphere (Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO)) by using one year (2016) data of Addis Ababa. Temperature has impact on atmospheric mixing and cause for the reduction of NOx as temperature increases. There are positive correlation between temperature and CO concentration from January to April with (R2 = 0.69), negative correlation from May to August with (R2 = 0.92) and no correlation for the remaining months. NOx and CO have moderate positive and negative correlation with relative humidity during the months January-April (R2 = 0.294 for NOx and R2 = 0291 for CO) and in the months May-August are R2 = 0.97 and R2 = 0.15 for NOx and CO respectively. But there are no clear correlation between the NOx and CO with relative humidity from September-December. NOx concentrations during wet season was almost about twice that of the dry season, but no such difference was observed in the case of CO. The seasonal average air temperature in wet season is relatively lower than dry season. NOx exhibited positive and CO negative seasonal correlations with relative humidity.
Sisir Kanti Nag, Shreya Das
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/jees.v2i2.2479

Abstract:
To achieve the goal of water security, particularly in rapidly expanding areas, identification of safe and sustainable water resources is an absolute necessity. The present study conducted an exploratory investigation of the hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater and thereby assessed the suitability of groundwater as an alternative and reliable resource for public use in the Khoyrasole block, Birbhum district, India. A total of 15 groundwater samples, collected from bore wells spread well over the Khoyrasole block have been considered. After the hydrogeochemical analysis, the study evaluated the present state of the groundwater quality and determined the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as pH, Total Dissolved solids (TDS), Hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Iron, Chloride, Carbonate, Bicarbonate, Sulphate, Nitrate and Fluoride. High to very high levels of iron and fluoride have been observed to be present in 67% and53% of the samples respectively.Based upon the calculated parameters like SAR, MAR, PI and Chloro Alkaline Indices, groundwater of Khoyrasole block is majorly suitable for the purpose of agriculture and irrigation.Plotting of ionic scatter plots and geochemical facies also indicate the water samples to be of ‘fresh water’ category, with no dominant cation or anion playing a selectively dominant role in influencing the groundwater chemistry in the region.
E.Y. Mbiimbe, I.B. Goni, J.M. El-Nafaty, A.U. Yuguda
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/jees.v2i2.1633

Abstract:
An assessment of the protective capacity of the vadose zone overlying the aquifer systems in the Kaltungo area was carried out to determine its influence on groundwater quality. Applying the schlumberger array with a maximum electrode spread AB/2 = 100m through VES, thirty water well points were surveyed using Omega terrameter (PIOSO1) resistivity meter. The field data was first subjected to manual interpretation through curve marching and then digitized modeled curves using computer software. The interpreted data revealed that the area is characterized by eleven different curve types representing three to five geo electrical layers. In order to assess the protective capacity of the vadoze zone over the aquifer systems, the longitudinal conductance (S) and transverse resistance (T) (secondary geoelectric parameters) were computed from the primary data using the Dar Zarouk formula. The values of S obtained range from 0.0018 to 0.4056 ohms with a mean value of 0.0135 ohms while the values of T range from 0.55 ohms to 1195.68 ohms with a mean value of 39.84 ohms. The values of S and T obtained reveal that 90% of probed points has poor protective capacity, 10 % has moderate protective capacity and 83 % has high transmissivity, 17 % has intermediate transmissivity. The T and S values are skewed towards poorly protective capacity thus making groundwater in the area highly vulnerable to contamination from the surface. To achieve good groundwater quality in the area, proper completion of newly constructed wells should install protective casing through the entire vadose zone.
Philip Gathogo Muiruri, Joy A. Obando, Ishmail O. Mahiri
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/jees.v2i2.1935

Abstract:
Over 40 billion tons of sand is mined worldwide every year which is estimated to be higher than the natural replacement rates. In Kenya, the rate of sand mining is raising concerns over its environmental effects since it is not regulated. This paper presents findings on the geomorphic effects of sand mining in the ephemeral River Tyaa channel in Kitui County. The study adopts the concept of feedback response mechanism of a natural geomorphic system. Through purposive sampling River Tyaa was selected for the study, where rampant sand mining was reportedly taking place. Random sampling on the five sand mining sites identified came up with a representative site namely Kanginga on which systematic sampling was applied while collecting data at both the active and control sites. Data on channel width, depth and slope angles was obtained through physical measurements while data on quantity of sand mined was obtained from Mwingi Sand Mining Cooperative. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyse data whereby the model compared active and control sites. Test results indicated that sand mining had significantly increased river channel’s width (O.R. =1.531), depth (O.R. =1.527) and slope angles (O.R. =1.634) at active mining sites as deduced from the respective Odds Ratios. It concluded that sand mining had altered channel’s morphology resulting to adverse environmental effects such as loss of riparian vegetation and channel incision. It recommended curbing of illegal sand mining through licencing operators and reducing quantity of sand mined by closing some mines. Furthers, it recommended monitoring through regular Environmental Impact Assessment (E.I.A) and Audit (E.A) to inform protection of the river system from degrading.
Boyu Jiang, Jiming Yu, Yihang Liu
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/jees.v2i2.2340

Abstract:
The pollution caused by disposable plastic products is becoming more and more serious, and "plastic limit" has become a global consensus. This article mainly discusses the pollution problem from the following aspects:Integrate all relevant important indicators to establish a multiple regression model of the maximum amount of disposable plastic waste to estimate the maximum amount of disposable waste in the future without causing further damage to the environment;Establish an environmental safety level evaluation model and analyze the impact of plastic waste on environmental safety;Try to set the lowest level target that can be achieved by global waste at this stage, and conduct correlation analysis on the impact of humans, enterprises, and the environment;Select several countries based on their comprehensive strengths, conduct a comparative analysis of their plastic production, economic strength, and environment, and try to explore their responsibilities.
Moses Oghenenyoreme Eyankware, Ezekiel Obinna Igwe, Christopher Ogwah, Ruth Oghenerukevwe Eyankware Ulakpa
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/jees.v2i2.2505

Abstract:
Water resource is available in Nigeria to meet demand for domestic, agricultural and industrial use, if well enhanced and protected from various source of pollution. However, less information is available on suitability of water resources for irrigation in Nigeria. This article reviews literature of past few years with regards to influence of geogenic and anthropogenic activities on water resource for irrigation purpose in Nigeria and also to explain the current state of suitability of water resource for irrigation studies in Nigeria and gaps in studies. It also summarizes future ways on water resource management and preventive measure for water resource pollution for irrigation. Related articles were downloaded from Google scholar in water-related issues. This paper tends to review previous article on water resource in Nigeria, and its suitability for irrigation. The primary aim of this paper is to produce a synoptic overview of the water resources in Nigeria and its suitability for irrigation. From paper reviewed it was observed that 89 % of water resources were considered suitable for irrigation.
Ahmed Babeker Elhag
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/jees.v2i1.1279

Abstract:
The geology and hydro-geophysical features can aid in identifying borehole location. The study aims to investigate groundwater aquifers and best location of boreholes in the crystalline basement area of Abu Zabad near El Obeid Southwest, Sudan. The study area is underlain by two aquifers formations from Precambrian age. The oldest units of basement complex of area under investigation consist of metamorphic rocks including gneiss, schist, and quartzite.The geophysical methods electromagnetic (EM) and vertical electrical sounding (VES) surveys showed that best aquifers yield for construction of boreholes are in weathering and fractures formation. The EM results revealed that structural features are significant for groundwater potential and interpretation of the VES data also revealed four geo-electric layers, but generally two distinct lithologic layers, which include Superficial deposit and bedrock-basement respectively. The curves generated from the data revealed H curve and HK curve, and thickness of these layers varies from 15 m to 50 m in the area. The aquifer thickness range from 20 m to 30 m. The study concludes that these techniques are suitable for identifying borehole location in the basement rock in Abu Zabad Area Sudan.
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