Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences

Journal Information
EISSN : 2661-3190
Published by: Bilingual Publishing Co. (10.30564)
Total articles ≅ 44
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Baraou Idi Souley, Abdoulwahid Sani, Abdoul Wahab Djibo Maïga, Moussa Konaté
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jees.v4i2.4697

Abstract:
The Agadez city is built on the faulted and fractured sandstones formation of the “Agadez Sandstones”, which deposit in unconformity on the Precambrian basement of the Aïr Mountain. The present study focuses on the geotechnical risk assessment and geological origin of building fracturation in Agadez city. A methodological approach integrating measurement of fractures planes affecting the buildings and their statistical analysis has been implemented. Statistical analysis of obtained data showed that in 100 fractured buildings, about 3% buildings are at risk of collapse (very high risk), 64% buildings are fractured (medium risk of collapse), and 34% buildings are cracked (lower risk of collapse). These results showed as well that the nature of the material (rheology) influences the buildings fracturation. Indeed, the buildings made from cement are more easily fractured than buildings made from clay materials. Statistical analysis of fracture planes reveals that the geotechnical risk associated with buildings fracturation propagates in NW-SE, corresponding to the major directions of risk propagation, mainly dipping in northwest sectors (zones) of the Agadez city. The interpretation of geological and geophysical data combined to those obtained in the case of this study, reveals that the risk associated with buildings fracturation in Agadez city is caused by geological seismic events and or anthropogenic activities (explosive firing on the uranium mining sites like Somaïr and Cominak).
Mazurkin Peter Matveevich
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jees.v4i2.4586

Abstract:
The regularities of the dynamics of the average annual temperature of Irkutsk from 1820 to 2019 were revealed. It is proposed to use the sum of temperatures. However, this indicator requires the continuity of the dynamic series, so for Irkutsk the sum of temperatures could be accepted only from 1873. The first three terms of the general wavelet model gave a very high correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The second indicator is a moving average, calculated as the ratio of the sum of temperatures to the current time. Here the first three wavelets gave a correlation coefficient of 0.9962. In the dynamics of the average annual temperature from 1820 to 2019, 86 wavelets were obtained, of which 47 affect the future. The temperature has a high quantum certainty, and the change in the average annual temperature of Irkutsk is obtained up to a measurement error of 0.05 °C, and the identification process occurs as a full wavelet analysis. The basis of the forecast in 200 years makes it possible to replace the non-linear two-term trend with an oscillatory perturbation. With an increase in the number of terms in the model, the ordinate of the average annual temperature increases: for three terms, the temperature interval is from –2.95 °C to 2.61 °C; for 12 members from –4.06 °C to 4.02 °C; for the forecast for 47 members for 2020- 2220, from –4.62 °C to 4.40 °C.
Jixin He, Debo Chen, Ye Zhan, Chao Liu, Ruichen Liu
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jees.v4i2.4687

Abstract:
There are rich oil and gas resources in Alberta oil sand mining area in Canada. Since the 1960s, the Canadian government decided to increase the mining intensity. However, the exploitation will bring many adverse effects. In recent years, more people pay attention to the environmental protection and ecological restoration of mining area, such as issues related with changes of vegetated lands. Thus, the authors used the Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-8 OLI remote sensing images as the basic data sources, and obtained the land cover classification maps from 1995 to 2020 by ENVI. Based on the NDVI, NDMI and RVI, three images in each period are processed and output to explore the long-term impact of exploitation. The results show that from 1995 to 2020, the proportion of vegetation around mining areas decreased sharply, the scale of construction land in the mining area increased, and the vegetated land was changed to land types such as tailings pond, oil sand mine and other land types. In addition, three vegetation indexes decreased from 1995 to 2020. Although the exploitation of oil sand mining area brings great economic benefits, the environmental protection (especially vegetation) in oil sand mining areas should be paid more attention.
Wondimu Bekele Goba, Alemayehu Muluneh, Kebede Wolka
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jees.v4i1.4322

Abstract:
Soil erosion is a major environmental problem affecting development endeavor. Physical soil and water conservation (SWC) measures such as soil bunds are implemented to mitigate soil erosion. However, information on the effects of soil bunds on soil fertility is limited. This study was aimed to evaluate soil quality in fields with soil bunds and with no soil bunds in steep, middle and lower sloping cultivated lands as well as spatial variation of soil properties in between bunds in southwest Ethiopia. About 7-15 years old bunds and nearby cultivated fields lacking bunds were assessed. From 0 cm-20 cm soil depth, a 36 soil samples were collected. Soil texture, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (Ntot) and exchangeable potassium (Kexch) were analyzed. Soil bunds showed significantly (p<0.0.5) greater clay but less sand than adjacent no-bund fields. In steep, middle, and lower slopes, concentrations of SOC and Kexch were greater in fields with soil bunds than without. Lower slope fields showed greater clay, SOC and nutrients than steep slopes. In between soil bunds, soil was more fertile at above bunds than below the bunds. In Fanta watershed, soil bunds are vital conservation measure to retain soil fertility on cultivated mountainous area.
V. K. Balkhanov
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jees.v4i1.4576

Abstract:
On cosmic picture of the ice surface lake Baikal are discovered dark ring by diameter 7 km-8 km. The author shall give physical interpretation given phenomenon, having expected that shaping rings are connected with surge of the warm natural gas from sedimentary thick mass of the bottom of the Baikal. Convection is formed in thick mass of water in the manner of torah around surge of the natural gas, which carries become warm water before surface (the lower edge ice) in side from pole of the natural gas. The mechanism heatconductivity heat gets to upper edge ice, where snow and ice begin intensive to melt. As a result thawed patch is formed on snowclad ice in the manner of ring.
Emre Kuşkapan, Muhammed Yasin Çodur
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jees.v4i1.4570

Abstract:
Increasing air pollution around the world causes many problems, especially in the field of health. Air pollution affects not only human health but also other living things health. The factors that cause air pollution the most are heating, industry, and transportation. Many countries in the world carry out various studies to reduce the effect of these factors on air pollution. Especially in the field of transportation, studies have been quite a lot in recent years. In this study, air pollution caused by transportation in Erzurum, Turkey has investigated. Emission amounts of NOX, PM10, and SO2 values have calculated according to the types of vehicles in the city. Then, the amount of emissions from transportation in the total sector has revealed. The transportation structure of the city has examined in general terms and the missing aspects in terms of pedestrian transportation have revealed. Finally, some solution proposals aiming to encourage the use of pedestrian transportation and micro mobility vehicles in order to reduce motor land vehicles are presented.
Miebaka Oriasi, Eteh Desmond Rowland, Ayowei Alvin Harry
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jees.v4i1.4340

Abstract:
This research presents a novel approach to assessing the health implications of black soot using a MiniVol air sampler. The MiniVol air sampler was used to collect PM from the ambient air at six monitoring sites in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Sampling was conducted every day for seven days, for a period of 24 hours. PM2.5 concentrations at Uniport Junction, GRA Junction, Slaughter Roundabout, Abuloma Jetty, Rumuomasi Roundabout, and New Road Borokiri were 38.6 g/m3 , 28.3 g/m3 , 93.7 g/m3 , 72.9 g/m3 , 30.6 g/m3 , and 31.3 g/m3 , respectively. PM10 concentrations ranged from 71.2 g/m3 to 60.6 g/m3 , with 103.3 g/m3 , 85.5 g/m3 , 40.1 g/m3 , and 35.2 g/m3 being the highest. The level of PM2.5 and PM10 pollution in the ambient air was high across the six sampling sites, with mean PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations exceeding the WHO (2011) guideline. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) technique was used. The presence of heavy metals, such as mean metal concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, and nickel, ranged from 0.009 g/m3 -0.532 g/m3 , 0.002 g/m3 - 0.544 g/m3 , 0.002 g/m3 -0.338 g/m3 , 0.001 g/m3 , and 0.001 g/m3 -0.432 g/m3 , across the six sampling sites. The GC-MS was used to determine the presence of PAHs in particulate matter. Correlation results revealed a strong positive correlation between PM2.5 and PM10. The findings also revealed a positive relationship between the metals as well as between the metals and PAHs, resulting in asthma, lung cancer, breathing difficulties, and miscarriages among pregnant women, which have affected the health implications of the people living in the environment.
Pratigya Pathak, Shyam Bihari Dwivedi, Ravi Ranjan Kumar
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jees.v4i1.4397

Abstract:
The amphibolites from the Mauranipur and Babina regions are located in the central part of the Bundelkhand Craton (BuC), northern India. During the geodynamic evolution of the BuC, these amphibolites underwent medium-grade metamorphism. This study combines textural observations of amphibolites from two distinct regions (Mauranipur and Babina) with mineral chemistry and phase equilibrium modelling. Observations suggest that the amphibolites of both areas have gone through three stages of metamorphism. The pre-peak stage in the amphibolites from the Mauranipur and Babina regions is marked by the assemblages Ep-AmpCpx-Pl-Ilm-Ru-Qz and Ep-Amp-Cpx-Pl-Ab-Ilm-Qz respectively; the peak metamorphic stage is characterized by the mineral assemblages Amp-CpxPl-Ilm-Ru-Qz and Amp-Cpx-Pl-Ilm-Qz-H2O, which is formed during the burial process, and the post-peak stage is represented by the assemblages Amp-Pl-Ilm-Ru-Qz and Amp-Pl-Ilm-Qz-H2O respectively, which is formed by exhumation event. By applying the phase equilibria modelling in the NCFMASHTO system, the P-T conditions estimated from pre-peak, peak to post-peak stages are characterized as 6.7 kbar/510 ℃, 7.3 kbar/578 ºC and > 3.0 kbar/>585 ºC, respectively, for the Mauranipur amphibolites; and 6.27 kbar/520 ºC, 5.2 kbar/805 ºC and > 3.0 kbar/>640 ºC respectively for Babina amphibolites. The textural association and P-T conditions of both amphibolites suggest that these rocks were affected by burial metamorphism followed by an exhumation process during subduction tectonism in the BuC.
Ruth Oghenerukevwe Eyankware Ulakpa, Wisdom Chukwuemeke Ulakpa, Oghenegare Emmanuel Eyankware
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jees.v4i1.4073

Abstract:
The poor state of the environment, especially in urban areas, has become a major global issue, with developing countries such as Nigeria voicing growing concern. There is a scarcity of knowledge on the environmental impact of PFSs as a result of the loss of life and property, as well as other serious socio-economic implications of non-compliance with PFSs siting criteria. The historical literature on the impact of residential buildings, the environment, and human health on PFSs in Nigeria, as well as the study’s gap, is examined in this research. It also outlines DPR compliance with PFSs location as well as established criteria for prohibiting PFS siting in Nigeria’s states. Relevant publications on PFSs-related topics were downloaded from Google Scholar. The goal of this study is to look back on a previous essay about PFSs in Nigeria and its impacts on the environment and human health. This study’s main purpose is to give a complete overview of Nigerian PFSs. According to the article analyzed, the majority of PFSs were located close to residents, with setbacks from the road and residential areas of less than 30 m in 90% of the filling stations. As a result, the landowners can band together to argue that a facility that is improperly sited cannot be built. A great deal of public participation is required. A campaign should be launched to raise awareness among filling station owners and other developers of the dangers of non-compliance with established norms. All violators of the established norms, as well as corrupt officials of enforcement agencies/bodies, should face open punishment so that others might learn their lessons. Finally, appropriate planning is required to allow future road expansion.
Piyoosh Rautela, Sushil Khanduri, Surabhi Kundalia, Girish Chandra Joshi, Rahul Jugran
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jees.v3i2.3069

Abstract:
204 persons were killed while two hydropower projects located in close proximity at Rishiganga (13.2 MW), and Tapoban (520 MW) were damaged in Dhauliganga flood of February 7, 2021 in the Indian Himalaya. This incidence occurred during the winter season when the discharge of the glacier fed rivers is minimal, and no rain was experienced in the region around the time of the flood. Despite discharge of the main river, Rishiganga, not involved in the flood due to damming upstream of its confluence with Raunthi Gadhera, based on field evidences massive volume of around 6 million cu m water involved in this flood is attributed to sequential intermittent damming at three different places; (i) Raunthi Gadhera was dammed first in its upper reaches, (ii) Rishiganga river was then dammed to the north of Murunna, and (iii) finally Dhauliganga river was dammed around Rini village to the upstream of its confluence with Rishiganga river. Lacking warning system only enhanced the flood-induced devastation. Legally binding disaster risk assessment regime, together with robust warning generation, and dissemination infrastructure are therefore recommended for all major infrastructure projects.
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