ISSN / EISSN : 1979-035X / 2302-1306
Published by: Universitas Setia Budi (10.31001)
Total articles ≅ 102
Latest articles in this journal
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 98-103; https://doi.org/10.31001/biomedika.v13i2.843
House dust mite was one of the most common allergens in homes around the world and associated with manifestations of allergies of skin and respiratory tract such as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. This arthropod was commonly found on carpets, mattresses, children's toys, and other home furnishings. This study was aimed to identify and quantify the number of Dermatophagoides spp in Detention Center. This descriptive study was conducted using flotation method on 52 samples of mattress dust collected in February 2020. The results showed that 49 out of 52 mattress dust samples were positive of Dermatophagoidesspp..Of all Dermatophagoides spp, there were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (71.2%) and Dermatophagoides farinae (28.8%). In conclusion, this study found two species of Dermatophagoides spp. in Detention Center and suggested that the fascility maintain the cleanliness of the mattress by drying the mattress and changing the sheets at least once a week.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 111-116; https://doi.org/10.31001/biomedika.v13i2.855
Forensic is a multi-discipline science that is used to obtain evidence of various criminal cases, such as rape. DNA analysis on sperm specimen is needed to identify the rapist. However, the success of this analysis depends on the DNA isolation method used. Several methods of DNA isolation from human sperm have been developed, but no method has been proven effective for the forensic analysis need. This study aimed to determine the effective sperm DNA isolation method for forensic analysis. In this study, the DNA of sperm specimens was isolated using three methods: Boiling Water, modified TRIzol, and Chelex-100. The DNA isolation result was visualized using agarose gel electrophoresis method. The concentration and purity of isolated DNA were measured using a Nanodrop by comparing the absorbance of DNA at λ 260 nm and protein at λ 280 nm. The effectiveness of the sperm DNA isolation method was determined based on the concentration and purity of DNA, the specimen volume, the implementation time, and the costs involved. The result showed that the successful methods for isolating sperm DNA were TRIzol and Chelex-100. The quantity of DNA isolated using the modified TRIzol method was 1,5 times higher than Chelex-100 but equired 120 times more specimen volume than Chelex-100. From 25 µl sperm specimens, the concentration of DNA isolated using the Chelex-100 method was 612.6 ng/µl with a purity of about 1.7. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Chelex-100 is the most effective method for isolating sperm DNA for forensic analysis.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 142-147; https://doi.org/10.31001/biomedika.v13i2.943
Candidiasis is an important nosocomial infection with high morbidity value, high mortality rate, and expensive clinical cost. However, public access to well-developed treatment is not acquired. Current medicines mostly used like -azol drugs had been showing the resistant effects because of the long period use of the same medicines. Alternative medicines like herb medicine are discussed to reduce multi-resist infections, such as lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus essential oil. This study aims to know the effect of lemongrass essential oil on the growth of Candida albicans in vitro. Laboratory experimental (in vitro) was conducted in this research. Candida albicans strains were being used as the objects, which were picked by random sampling. Candida albicans were divided into 12 groups of treatment, the group I was treated with ethanol 96% as the negative control, group II with fluconazole 25μg as the positive control, and group III-XII with Cymbopogon citratus essential oil with 10%, 20% to 100% concentrated. The diameter of inhibition zones was measured after 2x24 hours incubation. The data was analyzed by post-hoc Mann Whitney test with SPSS 18.0 (p<0.05 considered as significant). Cymbopogon citratus essential oil showed antifungal activity to the Candida albicans began in the 10% to 100% concentration (p0.05). The Cymbopogon citratus essential oil has an antifungi effect toward Candida albicans in vitro significantly by the negative control.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 117-122; https://doi.org/10.31001/biomedika.v13i2.900
Antioxidant activity tests of methanol extracts of velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens) and velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens) in coffee preparations have been previously carried out by several researchers. This present study aims to examine the phytochemical and antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of Mucuna pruriens and Mucuna pruriens in coffee preparations. The methanol extract was tested for the phytochemical and antioxidant activities by applying DPPH (1,1-Dhiphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil) method. The results of the phytochemical test showed that the methanol extracts of the Mucuna pruriens and Mucuna pruriens in coffee preparations contained secondary metabolites of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, and tannins. The outcomes of the antioxidant activity test revealed that the methanol extracts of the Mucuna pruriens and Mucuna pruriens in coffee preparations had antioxidant activities, as indicated by the IC50 values of 42.09 ppm and 37.23 ppm. It was also revealed that the antioxidant content of Mucuna pruriens in coffee preparations was stronger than the content in the velvet beans alone.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 148-154; https://doi.org/10.31001/biomedika.v13i2.750
Urinary tract infection or what is often called a UTI is an infectious disease of the urinary tract epithelium and is commonly caused by gram-positive bacteria, namely the Staphylococcus aureus, with a prevalence rate of 68 million patients in the world and 1.2 million patients in Indonesia. The diagnosis of UTI is established with a positive urine culture significance value ≥105 (CFU)/ml. The existing clinical management for cases of urinary tract infections in pregnant women uses amoxicillin to kill gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus. However, there have been 469 cases of antibiotic resistance in pregnant women in Indonesia due to the non-compliance of using antibiotics for urinary tract infections. Vitis vinifera can be used as an alternative to natural bactericidal resveratrol containing anthocyanidin to kill gram-positive bacteria. This study used 28 white mice (Mus musculus) aged 6-21 weeks and weighing 120-200 grams injected with Staphylococcus aureus. The 28 subjects were divided into 4 groups, each of which consisted of 7 mice. The mice received K1 treatment with 250 mg/kgBW of amoxicillin and treatments with 200, 300, and 500 mg/KgBW red grape seed and skin extract. Before treatments were given, a pre-test was conducted to ensure that the results were not biased. Post-test was also performed after the Staphylococcus aureus injection, which was measured after 5 days of urine culture that reached 107 CFU/ml. The treatment in P3 using 500 mg/KgBW of red grape seed and skin extract contributed to the smallest result with 102 Cfu/ml, equals to the result produced by giving 250 ml/KgBW of amoxicillin.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 123-129; https://doi.org/10.31001/biomedika.v13i2.842
Listeriosis is a foodborne infectious disease caused by Listeria monocytogenes and is considered a serious health problem, due to the severity of symptoms and a high mortality rate in worldwide This study aims to identify and determine the prevalence of Listeria species through prs gene screening of fresh vegetables distributed in several markets of Makassar City. A total of 57 fresh vegetable samples were collected from February to May 2019 in four traditional markets Makassar. The isolates is examines to phenotypically and genotypically Vitek and Multiplex PCR with prs and lmo1030 primer. Phenotype analysis did not show the presence of Listeria species, but the results of genotypic was found 8 positive prs gene samples (14.03%), consisting of 31.2% long beans, 18.2% cabbage, and 9.1% cucumber and. All Listeria species found in this study is Listeria monocytogenes. This study also provide information and additional data that prs genes can be used as screening genotype for identify Listeria species in fresh vegetables.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 131-135; https://doi.org/10.31001/biomedika.v13i2.708
Thrombocytopenia is a disease characterized by a decreased platelet count. Some of the causes are decreased platelet production, increased platelet use, such as due to infection, and autoimmune causes, namely the loss of tolerance of the immune system to self-antigens on the surface of the platelets and megakaryocytes marked with a platelet count <100,000 / μL and based on the pathomechanism classified as primary Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) and secondary, as well as several other causes. IL-4, one of the cytokines produced by Th2 which stimulates B cells to increase antibody production. The aim of this study was to compare IL-4 levels in primary ITP patients and non-primary ITP tombocytopenia. This study involved 30 primary ITP subjects and 30 non-ITP primary tombocytopenia subjects obtained based on data medical records, examination of IL-4 cytokine levels by the ELISA method. The results of this study that the IL-4 levels of the primary non ITP tombocytopenia subject group were higher than the primary ITP subject group, which means that there were differences in IL-4 levels in the primary ITP subject group and the non-ITP primary tombocytopenia subject group.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 136-141; https://doi.org/10.31001/biomedika.v13i2.805
Smoking causes an increase in cholesterol in the blood. It is well known that tobacco contains nicotine has a considerable influence on the increase of blood lipid levels. Normally, lipids play an important role in all aspects of biological life, but excessive cholesterol causes changes in lipid composition, induces ROS formation and lipid oxidation. This process can also cause damage to proteins and DNA, changing cellular function, which causes tissue damage. This research using analytic survey, with analytic cross sectional design with 30 subjects. The mean cholesterol level between tobacco smokers is 210.0 mg / dl and electric smokers is 123.73 mg / dl. The average difference in cholesterol levels among smokers was tested using One way ANOVA, p value = 0.000 (p <0.05). The cholesterol level of the tobacco smoker group was significantly higher when compared to the electronic smoker group.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 104-110; https://doi.org/10.31001/biomedika.v13i2.860
Degenerative disease is a serious health problem and causes a lot of deaths in Indonesia. One of the most dangerous degenerative diseases is cancer. Free radicals play a role in oxidative stress in the later stages of carcinogenesis. Antioxidant delays or inhibits cellular damage mainly through its free radical scavenging property. Meniran plants and guava leaves have high radical-scavenging activities. The previous studies reported that the combination of ginger and Meniran plant extract has a stronger antioxidant activity than the extract of a single plant. This research aims at determining the antioxidant activities of Meniran plants and guava leaves compared with its singular form. This research was conducted from October to December 2016 at the Chemical Laboratory of Nasional Health Science Institute and the Center for Development and Research of Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine, Tawangmangu, Karanganyar. The antioxidant activity assay was done using DPPH free radical method and vitamin C was used as the control. They were measured with UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. This study concludes that the IC50 value of Meniran plants was 30.689 ppm and the IC50 value of guava leaves was 13.7859. The IC50 values of Meniran plant and guava leaf combination with various ratios were 20.6095 ppm (1:1), 12.5629 ppm (1:2), and 16.841 ppm (2:1). The combination of Meniran plant and guava leaf extract (1: 2) had the strongest antioxidant activity of 12.56 ppm.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 51-57; https://doi.org/10.31001/biomedika.v13i1.746
Prison-assisted citizens or prisoners are one of the groups of people who are at high risk of Hepatitis B and C virus infections. The data on the prevalence of both viruses in prisoners in Indonesia are still limited. This study aims to determine the profiles of Hepatitis B and C virus infections in prison-assisted citizens in the Class IIA Narcotics Correctional Institution in Bandung Regency. A total of 30 prisoners were used as the samples in this study. All procedures performed in this study were following the applicable codes of ethics. The presence of surface antigens of Hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) in serums was detected using a qualitative sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay method. The existence of antibodies of the Hepatitis C virus (Anti-VHC) was detected using the immunochromatography method. The laboratory test results have shown five people (16.7%) were positive on the HBsAg test and one person (3.3%) was positive on the anti-VHC test. One case of Hepatitis B and C co-infection was also found in the prison-assisted citizens who were in the Class IIA Narcotics Correctional Institution in Bandung Regency. All the prisoners infected by the Hepatitis B and C viruses used injection drugs, had tattoos on their bodies and never received vaccinations.