Biomedika

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1979-035X / 2302-1306
Published by: Universitas Setia Budi (10.31001)
Total articles ≅ 108
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, Pepin Meilani Hildawati, Dewi Peti Virgianti
Published: 31 March 2021
Biomedika, Volume 14, pp 47-54; https://doi.org/10.31001/biomedika.v14i1.1168

Abstract:
Indonesia is one of the countries with a tropical climate that has high temperature and humidity, a good atmosphere for fungal growth so that fungi can be found somewhere. Fungus Trichophyton rubrum is a fungal disease that attacks the nails, skin, hair. One of the preventions of this disease is by giving traditional medicines, namely clove flowers (Syzygium aromaticum) which contain chemical compounds saponins, tannins, flavonoids. Serves as an antioxidant that can prevent dermatosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the inhibition power of clove flowers (Syzygium aromaticum) on the growth of Trichophyton rubrum fungi. This research was carried out an experimental method with the Kirby Bauer method. Concentration dilution of clove ethanol extract (Syzygium aromaticum) from concentration 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 100%. The results of this study showed that the clove ethanol extract (Syzygium aromaticum) inhibit the growth of Trychophyton rubrum fungus from the concentration of 10% inhibition zone 14 mm, 20% inhibition zone 26 mm, 30% inhibition zone 36 mm, 40% inhibition zone 41 mm, 50% 45 mm inhibition zone, 60% 46 mm inhibition zone, 70% 48 mm inhibition zone, 80% 49 mm inhibition zone, 90% 51.0 mm inhibition zone, 100% inhibition zone of 56 mm.
Published: 31 March 2021
Biomedika, Volume 14, pp 9-18; https://doi.org/10.31001/biomedika.v14i1.1162

Abstract:
Nata is not only made from coconut water; it is also possible to produce it from other raw materials. In our study, nata de soya has successfully made using tofu whey as raw material. Research focused is on the utilization of lamtoro (Leucaena leucocephala L.) leaves as an alternative source of nitrogen in addition to the use of ammonium sulphate and urea which have generally been used in nata production. The selected research method was experimental. First, the Lamtoro leaves were mashed and then inserted into the medium and cooked until it boils. The medium was incubated at room temperature for 12-14 days and the thickness of the cellulose was then measured. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the using of lamtoro leaf extract (Leucaena leucocephala L.) as an alternative source of nitrogen for nata de soya cellulose formation. The optimization of pH and nitrogen contentration have been obyained. Three types of formula have been arranged, i.e. 1⁄2 of the control nitrogen concentration, equivalent, and 2 times of the control nitrogen concentration, to provide the variation concentration. Results found that the optimum pH was 3 and the optimum nitrogen concentration was ½ of the control nitrogen level. Nata de soya has then prepared using optimum condition of pH and nitrogen concentration. The maximum average of nata de soya thickness was 7.6 mm. In addition to leveraging the ability of medicinal plants and reducing the use of chemicals in the food processing, the use of alternate sources of nitrogen may also be adopted in the wider cellulose nata application.
Yulia Shara Sembiring, Cut Fatimah Zuhra
Published: 31 March 2021
Biomedika, Volume 14, pp 19-28; https://doi.org/10.31001/biomedika.v14i1.1164

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the essential oil composition as well as antibacterial activities of essential oil of Lantana camara L flowers against four bacterial strains. Essential oil of Lantana camara L flowers was obtained by hydrodistillation method using Sthal and analyzed by GC-MS. The antibacterial activities of essential oil were tested by using disk diffusion method against four bacterial strains. Results showed 72 compounds for Lantana flowers essential oil, of which caryophyllene (10,87%), davanone (9.84%), a-humulene (7.59%), a-curcumene (3.35%), germacrene D (3.09%), calarene (2.42%), a-muurolene (2.27%), p-cymene (1.79%), 1,8 cineole (1.59%) , δ-cadinene (1.59%), a-copaene (1.12%), nerolidol B (1%) and ß-ocimene (0.54%) were detected as major components. Antibacterial activity assay of Lantana camara L flowers essential oil was examined against four bacterial strains including Gram (+and-) by using disk diffusion agar method. All the tested Gram (+and-) bacterial strains displayed slight to moderate antibacterial activity (7 – 10 mm) against all concentrations of essential oil. The essential oil of Lantana camara L flowers showed remarkable antibacterial activity with inhibition in concentrations of 10% and 20% against the phatogen bacterias Basillus subtilis (9.6 mm; 10.8 mm), Propionibacterium acnes ( 7.6 mm; 8.7 mm), Eschechia coli ( 8.4 mm ; 9.6 mm) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( 8.3 mm ; 9.3 mm) showed from zone of inhibition that was formed, zone of inhibition in concentration 20% was bigger than concentration 10%.
Yusup Subagio Sutanto, Magdalena Sutanto, Agnes Sri Harti, Nony Puspawati
Published: 31 March 2021
Biomedika, Volume 14, pp 36-46; https://doi.org/10.31001/biomedika.v14i1.1128

Abstract:
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection caused by M. tuberculosis (MTb) and is transmitted through droplets of phlegm in the air from patients or those suspected of having TB. In general, treatment for TB is done with anti-tuberculosis drugs (ATDs), specifically streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol (SIRE) that takes a long time due to the level of resistance of MTb bacteria. The resistance of MTb triggers ATDs based on natural bioactive compounds. Chitosan as a result of chitin deacetylation can function as an antimicrobial agent because it is polycationic, which is biodegradable, biocompatible, and non-toxic. Snail (Achatina fulica) seromucoid contains antibacterial bioactive compounds, namely glycans, peptides, glycopeptides, achasin protein, and chondroitin sulfate. This study aims at testing the sensitivity of MTb isolates against snail seromucoid and chitosan in vitro. This research applied the experimental research method. MTb isolates were obtained from sputum samples of patients suspected of TB at the Surakarta Regional Public Hospital (RSUD Surakarta). The results of screening for MTb were positive, based on the microscopic examination of MTb using the Ziehl Nelson (ZN) method, the MPT 64 rapid test, and the quick molecular test using the Genexpert method. The research was completed through several stages, including the preparation of a suspension of germs with a concentration of 1 mg/ml or Mc. Farland 0.5-1.0; preparation of the stock solution and working solution (WS); drug sensitivity test (DST) against snail seromucoid; chitosan and ATDs (SIRE) on Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) media; and incubation at 37°C for 3-4 weeks. The results were interpreted on day 28 or day 42. The results have revealed that MTb isolates are 100% resistant to snail seromucoid and 2% chitosan. This study concludes that MTb isolates from suspected TB are resilient to 100% snail seromucoid and 2% chitosan.
Martga Bella Rahimi, , Yanwirasti Yanwirasti
Published: 31 March 2021
Biomedika, Volume 14, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.31001/biomedika.v14i1.1111

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to analyze the relations of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) expression and E-Cadherin (CDH1) expression in breast cancer patients. To date, the synergistic effect of this CDH1/HER2 complex is not well clarified. The design of this study was cross-sectional with a total sample of 56 formalin-fixed paraffin tissue blocks that had been examined for HER2. Furthermore, CDHI expression was examined using the Immunohistochemistry staining technique with the Labeled Streptavidin Biotin Complex (LSAB) method. Bivariate analysis was performed using the Spearman correlation test with abnormally distributed data (p>0.05). Of the 56 data on breast cancer patients, most of the patients (87.5%) were diagnosed at the age of ≥40 years. The majority of cancer staging was IIIB, which was 42.9% of the total 56 patients. The study results shows that 80.0% of HER2-positive patients were in the strong CDH1 group. From these data, there is evidence of correlation between HER2 expression and CDH1 expression in breast cancer patients, however this correlation was not significant (p>0.05).
Yusianti Silviani, Ardy Prian Nirwana
Published: 5 March 2021
Biomedika, Volume 14, pp 29-35; https://doi.org/10.31001/biomedika.v14i1.869

Abstract:
Diarrhea is a health problem that commonly occurs in developing countries. Bacteria that cause diarrhea are among others Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhosa and Staphylococcus aureus. This research aimed to investigate the diameters of inhibition zones of breadfruit leaf (A. altilis) ethyl acetate extract in different concentrations against the growth of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The research applied an experimental laboratory by using a post-test control group design. This research was performed at the Bacteriology Laboratory of STIKES Nasional by using the diffusion disk method. The research showed the radical zone diameters against Escherichia coli with the concentrations of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%, were 6.16 mm, 6.41 mm, 6.74 mm, 7.49 mm, and 7.79 mm, respectively. The inhibition zones against Staphylococcus aureus were 8.15, mm 9.43 mm, 10.29, 10.38 mm and 11.42 mm, while against Salmonella typhosa were 7.94 mm, 8.87 mm, 10.15 mm, 10.26 mm, and 11.23 mm, respectively. The results of the ANOVA test showed the p-value=0.00 and the results of the LSD test revealed the differences in the inhibition effects of A. altilis leaf extract against the growth of E. coli, S. typhosa and S. aureus. This study concludes that concentration variations of Artocarpus altilis leaf ethyl acetate extract can inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhosa.
Indah Tri Susilowati, Purwati Purwati
Published: 19 September 2020
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 117-122; https://doi.org/10.31001/biomedika.v13i2.900

Abstract:
Antioxidant activity tests of methanol extracts of velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens) and velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens) in coffee preparations have been previously carried out by several researchers. This present study aims to examine the phytochemical and antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of Mucuna pruriens and Mucuna pruriens in coffee preparations. The methanol extract was tested for the phytochemical and antioxidant activities by applying DPPH (1,1-Dhiphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil) method. The results of the phytochemical test showed that the methanol extracts of the Mucuna pruriens and Mucuna pruriens in coffee preparations contained secondary metabolites of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, and tannins. The outcomes of the antioxidant activity test revealed that the methanol extracts of the Mucuna pruriens and Mucuna pruriens in coffee preparations had antioxidant activities, as indicated by the IC50 values of 42.09 ppm and 37.23 ppm. It was also revealed that the antioxidant content of Mucuna pruriens in coffee preparations was stronger than the content in the velvet beans alone.
Satriya Manggala Liastra, Ninuk Dwi Ariningtyas, Yelvi Levani
Published: 19 September 2020
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 148-154; https://doi.org/10.31001/biomedika.v13i2.750

Abstract:
Urinary tract infection or what is often called a UTI is an infectious disease of the urinary tract epithelium and is commonly caused by gram-positive bacteria, namely the Staphylococcus aureus, with a prevalence rate of 68 million patients in the world and 1.2 million patients in Indonesia. The diagnosis of UTI is established with a positive urine culture significance value ≥105 (CFU)/ml. The existing clinical management for cases of urinary tract infections in pregnant women uses amoxicillin to kill gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus. However, there have been 469 cases of antibiotic resistance in pregnant women in Indonesia due to the non-compliance of using antibiotics for urinary tract infections. Vitis vinifera can be used as an alternative to natural bactericidal resveratrol containing anthocyanidin to kill gram-positive bacteria. This study used 28 white mice (Mus musculus) aged 6-21 weeks and weighing 120-200 grams injected with Staphylococcus aureus. The 28 subjects were divided into 4 groups, each of which consisted of 7 mice. The mice received K1 treatment with 250 mg/kgBW of amoxicillin and treatments with 200, 300, and 500 mg/KgBW red grape seed and skin extract. Before treatments were given, a pre-test was conducted to ensure that the results were not biased. Post-test was also performed after the Staphylococcus aureus injection, which was measured after 5 days of urine culture that reached 107 CFU/ml. The treatment in P3 using 500 mg/KgBW of red grape seed and skin extract contributed to the smallest result with 102 Cfu/ml, equals to the result produced by giving 250 ml/KgBW of amoxicillin.
A. Kaisar Adiwijaya Putra, Rizalinda Sjahril, Arif Santoso, Dianawaty Amiruddin, Andi Alfian Zainuddin, Firdaus Hamid
Published: 19 September 2020
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 123-129; https://doi.org/10.31001/biomedika.v13i2.842

Abstract:
Listeriosis is a foodborne infectious disease caused by Listeria monocytogenes and is considered a serious health problem, due to the severity of symptoms and a high mortality rate in worldwide This study aims to identify and determine the prevalence of Listeria species through prs gene screening of fresh vegetables distributed in several markets of Makassar City. A total of 57 fresh vegetable samples were collected from February to May 2019 in four traditional markets Makassar. The isolates is examines to phenotypically and genotypically Vitek and Multiplex PCR with prs and lmo1030 primer. Phenotype analysis did not show the presence of Listeria species, but the results of genotypic was found 8 positive prs gene samples (14.03%), consisting of 31.2% long beans, 18.2% cabbage, and 9.1% cucumber and. All Listeria species found in this study is Listeria monocytogenes. This study also provide information and additional data that prs genes can be used as screening genotype for identify Listeria species in fresh vegetables.
Sitti Nurfaizah, Mansyur Arief, Uleng Bahrun
Published: 19 September 2020
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 131-135; https://doi.org/10.31001/biomedika.v13i2.708

Abstract:
Thrombocytopenia is a disease characterized by a decreased platelet count. Some of the causes are decreased platelet production, increased platelet use, such as due to infection, and autoimmune causes, namely the loss of tolerance of the immune system to self-antigens on the surface of the platelets and megakaryocytes marked with a platelet count <100,000 / μL and based on the pathomechanism classified as primary Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) and secondary, as well as several other causes. IL-4, one of the cytokines produced by Th2 which stimulates B cells to increase antibody production. The aim of this study was to compare IL-4 levels in primary ITP patients and non-primary ITP tombocytopenia. This study involved 30 primary ITP subjects and 30 non-ITP primary tombocytopenia subjects obtained based on data medical records, examination of IL-4 cytokine levels by the ELISA method. The results of this study that the IL-4 levels of the primary non ITP tombocytopenia subject group were higher than the primary ITP subject group, which means that there were differences in IL-4 levels in the primary ITP subject group and the non-ITP primary tombocytopenia subject group.
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