ISSN / EISSN : 1979-035X / 2302-1306
Current Publisher: Universitas Setia Budi (10.31001)
Total articles ≅ 77
Latest articles in this journal
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 92-97; doi:10.31001/biomedika.v13i1.687
The location of milkfish ponds around the Port of Tanjung Mas is adjacent to an industrial area. This can increase the possibilities of milkfish being contaminated by heavy metals, for example Cadmium (Cd) metal. Therefore it is necessary to determine the levels of Cadmium metal in milkfish that are cultivated in ponds around the Port of Tanjung Mas. The aims of this study is to find out the levels of Cadmium metal in milkfish samples at the Port of Tanjung Mas whether or nor it exceeds the threshold. The method commonly used for metal analysis is the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) method, because this method is simple, selective and sensitive for analyzing metal content in a sample of animal origin, such as milkfish. In the initial treatment, milkfish samples were separated between meat and bones. The milkfish was then dried by heating at 150oC for 1 hour and continuing with ashes up to 550oC. The ash-shaped sample was dissolved in concentrated HNO3 and diluted with aquabidest. The aqueous sample solution was analyzed using ASS at a wavelength of 228 nm to determine the metal content of Cd in the sample. The level of Cd metal in milkfish samples analyzed using ASS, showed that it was still in accordance with the quality standard, which was below the threshold set in SNI No. 7387: 2009. Samples of milkfish taken from several pond locations showed that the farther pond was from the industrial area, the less Cd metal pollution in milkfish in the pond area.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 83-91; doi:10.31001/biomedika.v13i1.613
Anemia is a decrease in the number of erythrocytes in the blood circulation or the level of hemoglobin that is less than normal. The three major body mechanisms that cause anemia are excessive destruction of erythrocytes, blood loss, and decreased erythrocyte production. Based on the Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) in 2013, the prevalence of anemic women of reproductive age (WORA) aged 15-44 years in Indonesia was 35.3%. Anemia is classified based on the morphology of erythrocytes, including hypochromic microcytic, normocytic normochromic, and macrocytic. Erythrocyte morphology can be observed using peripheral blood smear examination. The objective of this study was to determine the morphology of erythrocytes in anemic women of reproductive age. This study belongs to descriptive research. The population of the study was 136 women of reproductive age, covering the students of D-IV in Medical Laboratory Technology at Setia Budi University. Forty-one respondents suffering from anemia were taken using a purposive sampling technique. The types of anemia were determined with examination using an Easy Touch hemoglobinometer with the Hb level of less than 12g/dL. Preparation of peripheral blood smear examination using EDTA venous blood and stained with Giemsa. Microscopic examination was performed with 1000x objective magnification. The peripheral blood smear reading showed the erythrocyte morphology that includes normocytic normochromic (38 samples or 93%), microcytic hypochromic (three samples or 7%), and poikilocytosis consisting of teardrop cells, target cells, ellipstocytes, and stomatocytes (five samples or 18%). Further study is required to investigate the correlation of erythrocyte index and peripheral blood smear in anemia.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 74-82; doi:10.31001/biomedika.v13i1.748
Fungi are eukaryotic and opportunistic organisms that can cause damage and disease. Fungi can be identified by direct staining. The composition of the dyes used in fungi staining are toxic, mutagenic and harmful to laboratory personnel and the environment. Consequently, it is necessary to consider use fungi dye continuously, so its need alternative safety dyes to identify fungi in the laboratory. This research aims to determine the potential of iodine lactoglycerol with different concentrations (1.25%, 2.5%, and 5%) as an alternative dye for fungi in the laboratory. The research method used experimental design. The samples originate from moldy bread and made 27 of microscopic slides. The microscopic slides were observed with objective 40x magnification. The parameters assessed in this study were the structure and morphology of fungi including hyphae, conidiophores, vesicles, sterigmata and conidiospores and color intensity using the image analysis of ImageJ. The results showed that various concentrations of iodine lactoglycerol can staining the structure and morphology of the fungi properly and clearly. The value of color intensity of each concentration measured has a different average. The highest average value of color intensity concentration was 5% and the lowest was 1.25%. However, the result of ANOVA test showed a significance of 0.380 (P> 0.05), which means that is no difference significantly from three of various concentrations. The result showed that the difference concentration of iodine lactoglycerol does not affect the color intensity. The conclusion of this study was iodine lactoglycerol solution can be used as an alternative dye or Lactophenol-cotton Blue (LPCB) substitute for fungi identification. It is recommendation for further research be carried out regarding the decrease in the concentration of alternative color solutions below 1.25%, the incubation time for the preparation of the preparations, and the color stability of the prepared mushroom preparations.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 68-73; doi:10.31001/biomedika.v13i1.707
Thrombocytopenia or platelet deficiency is a condition, in which platelet level in the blood circulation is below normal, which is less than 150,000 cells/µl. Thrombocytopenia is classified into some conditions, including decreased platelet production, increased need for platelets, and other thrombocytopenia. The need for increased platelets can be subdivided into primary immune thrombocytopenia, secondary immune thrombocytopenia, non-primary ITP, and thrombocytopenia that are not immune-mediated. Several cytokines play a role in the process of thrombocytopenia, one of which is Interleukin-17 (IL-17) that will be further discussed in this study. A previous study reported that IL-17 production increased in ITP and cITP patients. The objective of this study was to analyze the IL-17 levels and figure out the differences in IL-17 levels in the serums of patients with primary ITP and secondary ITP. The samples were taken from Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital and the specimens were examined in the Research Unit Laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Hasanuddin/Hospital of Universitas Hasanuddin. The comparative test resulted in p-value = 0.005, where p
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 58-67; doi:10.31001/biomedika.v13i1.657
The hematocrit value test serves as a parameter to help reach an established diagnosis. A centrifuge is an equipment that is used to separate the components of blood from each other based on the properties of each constituent substance. This study aims to developing hand-powered centrifuge made from cotton material to assess the hematocrit of blood in pregnant and non-pregnant ewes. To make the Katunfuge, two circles were cut from a piece of cotton cloth that had been impregnated with batik wax. The knitting thread was inserted into the middle part of the cotton disc and each end rope was tied to the handler. The centrifugal speed resulted from Katunfuge was greater than 2,000 rpm, meaning that it is 99% effective for separating blood components in 15 minutes with 14 times of pulling with hands. The hematocrit values of pregnant ewes (33.0 ± 4.1) were lower than those of non-pregnant ewes (38.5 ± 3.4%). This has proven that Katunfuge is highly potential to be used to assess the hematocrit of other animals.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 46-50; doi:10.31001/biomedika.v13i1.703
Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by hyperglycemia or an increase in blood glucose levels. The state of hyperglycemia is one of the supporting factors for oral candidiasis infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of hyperglycemia with the incidence of Candida albicans infection in patients with Diabetes mellitus. this study was conducted on 30 respondents. Blood glucose levels and Candida albicans culture were measured using the germ tube test method. Data analysis to see the correlation using the Chi-Square test obtained Sig. (0.015 0.00.050) and it can be stated there is a correlation between variables. From the results of data analysis, it can be concluded that there is a correlation between hyperglycemia and Candida albicans infection which causes oral candidiasis in DM patients.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 51-57; doi:10.31001/biomedika.v13i1.746
Prison-assisted citizens or prisoners are one of the groups of people who are at high risk of Hepatitis B and C virus infections. The data on the prevalence of both viruses in prisoners in Indonesia are still limited. This study aims to determine the profiles of Hepatitis B and C virus infections in prison-assisted citizens in the Class IIA Narcotics Correctional Institution in Bandung Regency. A total of 30 prisoners were used as the samples in this study. All procedures performed in this study were following the applicable codes of ethics. The presence of surface antigens of Hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) in serums was detected using a qualitative sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay method. The existence of antibodies of the Hepatitis C virus (Anti-VHC) was detected using the immunochromatography method. The laboratory test results have shown five people (16.7%) were positive on the HBsAg test and one person (3.3%) was positive on the anti-VHC test. One case of Hepatitis B and C co-infection was also found in the prison-assisted citizens who were in the Class IIA Narcotics Correctional Institution in Bandung Regency. All the prisoners infected by the Hepatitis B and C viruses used injection drugs, had tattoos on their bodies and never received vaccinations.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 40-45; doi:10.31001/biomedika.v13i1.775
Examination procedure for pap smear preparation is influenced by fixation, drying and painting, and interpretation capability of examination. The Papanicolaou painting uses Harris Hematoxylin, Eosin Azure (EA) -50, and orange G. Orange G colors the orange matured and keratin cells Keratinizing-pink/orange cells. Chromatin in the nucleus will bind alkaline paint (hematoxylin) and cytoplasm protein will bind acidic paint (Orange G) and nucleus in the core will bind acid paint (EA 50) so that the cell will turn into pink with a blue core. The coloring stage according to procedure is using Orange G, but some PA laboratories do not use Orange G. The research goal is to know the comparison of pap smear preparation quality which contains orange G and without orange G towards papanicoulou painting result. The research type is experimental; the sample was 16 samples with two treatments namely coloring which using Orange G and without Orange G. The preparation quality which contains Orange G obtained moderate result of 12.5%, and good 87.5%. The preparation quality without Orange G was not good result of 6.3%, moderate 18.8%, and good 75%. The statistical test result of Chi Square and Kappa showed that the result was p>0.05 which means that comparison result of preparation quality which contains orange G and without orange G there was no significant difference.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 31-39; doi:10.31001/biomedika.v13i1.774
Materials used in the research are Ocimum sanctum L, a herbaceous shrub used in traditional medicine displaying as immunomodulator, anti-stress, hepatoprotective, kemopreventif, and anti-inflammatory. A research to identify its ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum has been conducted, showing that it possesses cytotoxic activities to HeLa cells with IC50 value of 209µg/ml. The aim of this research is to find out activities cytotoxic and apoptotic propagation chloroform fraction of Ocimum sanctum towards HeLa cells line. The extraction was done using maceration using ethanol 96% solvent and fractionation was done using chloroform. Effects of chloroform fraction on HeLa cells were tested using MTT at various dosages (500, 250, 125, 62.5, and 31.25) µg/ml. Cisplatin (Kalbe) was applied as positive control. The effect apoptotic propagation chloroform fraction of Ocimum sanctum on HeLa cells was observed by DNA painting method using orange ethridium bromide-acridine. The test results showed that the chloroform fraction of Ocimum sanctum extract on HeLa cells had an IC50 value of 155.67 µg / ml ± 46.99 and Cisplatin had an IC50 value of 16.81 µg / ml ± 20.37. Double staining test shows the existence of cells undergoing apoptosis. Based on these results, the chloroform fraction Ocimum sanctum has been shown to be cytotoxic and has the possibility of stimulating apoptosis of cervical cancer cells (HeLa). This can be used as a basis for the development of these plants as anticancer agents with specific action targets.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 23-30; doi:10.31001/biomedika.v13i1.718
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic bacterium that is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. But the lack of reporting of disease by this bacterium in Indonesia, one of the causes is because the diagnosis of pneumococcal infection is often clinically not typical and conventional methods which are still the standard gold method often give false-negative results. So the purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of culture and molecular diagnostic methods using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique in detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae in sputum clinical samples using the Autolysin (LytA) gene which is a virulence factor of this bacterium. 57 isolates from 60 samples were confirmed as Streptococcus sp through microscopic identification, culture, and biochemical tests. Then the sensitivity test with an optochin test of 9 (9%) compared the results descriptively with the PCR technique using the Autolysin A (LytA) gene which was obtained more sensitive by 15 (25%).