ISSN / EISSN : 1979-035X / 2302-1306
Current Publisher: Universitas Setia Budi (10.31001)
Total articles ≅ 77
Latest articles in this journal
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 74-82; doi:10.31001/biomedika.v13i1.748
Fungi are eukaryotic and opportunistic organisms that can cause damage and disease. Fungi can be identified by direct staining. The composition of the dyes used in fungi staining are toxic, mutagenic and harmful to laboratory personnel and the environment. Consequently, it is necessary to consider use fungi dye continuously, so its need alternative safety dyes to identify fungi in the laboratory. This research aims to determine the potential of iodine lactoglycerol with different concentrations (1.25%, 2.5%, and 5%) as an alternative dye for fungi in the laboratory. The research method used experimental design. The samples originate from moldy bread and made 27 of microscopic slides. The microscopic slides were observed with objective 40x magnification. The parameters assessed in this study were the structure and morphology of fungi including hyphae, conidiophores, vesicles, sterigmata and conidiospores and color intensity using the image analysis of ImageJ. The results showed that various concentrations of iodine lactoglycerol can staining the structure and morphology of the fungi properly and clearly. The value of color intensity of each concentration measured has a different average. The highest average value of color intensity concentration was 5% and the lowest was 1.25%. However, the result of ANOVA test showed a significance of 0.380 (P> 0.05), which means that is no difference significantly from three of various concentrations. The result showed that the difference concentration of iodine lactoglycerol does not affect the color intensity. The conclusion of this study was iodine lactoglycerol solution can be used as an alternative dye or Lactophenol-cotton Blue (LPCB) substitute for fungi identification. It is recommendation for further research be carried out regarding the decrease in the concentration of alternative color solutions below 1.25%, the incubation time for the preparation of the preparations, and the color stability of the prepared mushroom preparations.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 15-22; doi:10.31001/biomedika.v13i1.745
Aceh is one of the biggest coffee producers in Indonesia’s province. The coffee farmers separate the coffee beans with the flesh of the fruit for processing the seeds, while the coffee fruit is considered as waste used as animal feed. Based on existing research, the coffee flesh produced contains polyphenol compounds as antibacterial. A very promising sea product from Aceh is seaweed. Brown seaweed (Sargassum sp.) is very common in the west coast of Aceh province. One of the derivatives is alginate. In this study, a combination of polyphenols extracts from coffee flesh and alginates from seaweed Sargassum sp. used as a basic ingredient in making face masks. Tests on organoleptic observations, pH testing, testing time of dried preparations, and testing of bacterial activity have been carried out in this study. In addition, variations in the mixture preparation based on the particle size of alginate powder have also been carried out in this study. The results obtained indicate that the yield produced from coffee fruit extracts is 5.86%, the highest yield of alginate is by potassium carbonate of 40.77%, the acidity of the combination is 4.5 - 6.5. For preparations, drying time has an average estimated time of approximately 6 minutes. Bacterial activity test showed that K2CO3 extracting agent concentration of 2% was strong against bacterial growth with a clean area of 14 mm. With these results, it can be seen the combination is able to inhibit the rate of bacterial growth, so it is recommended for alternative ingredients in the manufacture of cosmetics pharmaceutical industry masks.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 31-39; doi:10.31001/biomedika.v13i1.774
Materials used in the research are Ocimum sanctum L, a herbaceous shrub used in traditional medicine displaying as immunomodulator, anti-stress, hepatoprotective, kemopreventif, and anti-inflammatory. A research to identify its ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum has been conducted, showing that it possesses cytotoxic activities to HeLa cells with IC50 value of 209µg/ml. The aim of this research is to find out activities cytotoxic and apoptotic propagation chloroform fraction of Ocimum sanctum towards HeLa cells line. The extraction was done using maceration using ethanol 96% solvent and fractionation was done using chloroform. Effects of chloroform fraction on HeLa cells were tested using MTT at various dosages (500, 250, 125, 62.5, and 31.25) µg/ml. Cisplatin (Kalbe) was applied as positive control. The effect apoptotic propagation chloroform fraction of Ocimum sanctum on HeLa cells was observed by DNA painting method using orange ethridium bromide-acridine. The test results showed that the chloroform fraction of Ocimum sanctum extract on HeLa cells had an IC50 value of 155.67 µg / ml ± 46.99 and Cisplatin had an IC50 value of 16.81 µg / ml ± 20.37. Double staining test shows the existence of cells undergoing apoptosis. Based on these results, the chloroform fraction Ocimum sanctum has been shown to be cytotoxic and has the possibility of stimulating apoptosis of cervical cancer cells (HeLa). This can be used as a basis for the development of these plants as anticancer agents with specific action targets.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 9-14; doi:10.31001/biomedika.v13i1.680
Wound dressing has a function to protect the wound area from external exposure and provide a moist state around the wound area for accelerating wound healing process. Collagen and chitosan are known as appropriate biomaterials to synthesise of wound dressing because they have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, biodegradable and biocompatible properties. One of biocompatibility assay for a material is cytotoxicity assay using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT) that could be applied before In Vivo assay. The aim of the research was to know the cytotoxicity level of collagen-chitosan wound dressing with variance of concentration such as K0 as control used pure chitosan, K1 used collagen 25% and chitosan 75%, K2 used collagen 50% and chitosan 50%, K3 used collagen 75% and Chitosan 25%. Skin and scales of Gabus fish (Channa striata) were extracted using 2% HCl solvent to obtain collagen and chitosan powder dissolved in 1% acetic acid. Furthermore, wound dressing is made by a combination of collagen-chitosan concentration according to each group (K0, K1, K2 and K3. Citotoxicity assay used Brine Shrimp Level Test (BSLT) method with concentration each sample group were 10, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm. The results showed that each wound dressing group such as K0, K1, K2 and K3 had LC50> 1000ppm that indicated wound dressing was non-toxic.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 58-67; doi:10.31001/biomedika.v13i1.657
The hematocrit value test serves as a parameter to help reach an established diagnosis. A centrifuge is an equipment that is used to separate the components of blood from each other based on the properties of each constituent substance. This study aims to developing hand-powered centrifuge made from cotton material to assess the hematocrit of blood in pregnant and non-pregnant ewes. To make the Katunfuge, two circles were cut from a piece of cotton cloth that had been impregnated with batik wax. The knitting thread was inserted into the middle part of the cotton disc and each end rope was tied to the handler. The centrifugal speed resulted from Katunfuge was greater than 2,000 rpm, meaning that it is 99% effective for separating blood components in 15 minutes with 14 times of pulling with hands. The hematocrit values of pregnant ewes (33.0 ± 4.1) were lower than those of non-pregnant ewes (38.5 ± 3.4%). This has proven that Katunfuge is highly potential to be used to assess the hematocrit of other animals.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 23-30; doi:10.31001/biomedika.v13i1.718
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic bacterium that is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. But the lack of reporting of disease by this bacterium in Indonesia, one of the causes is because the diagnosis of pneumococcal infection is often clinically not typical and conventional methods which are still the standard gold method often give false-negative results. So the purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of culture and molecular diagnostic methods using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique in detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae in sputum clinical samples using the Autolysin (LytA) gene which is a virulence factor of this bacterium. 57 isolates from 60 samples were confirmed as Streptococcus sp through microscopic identification, culture, and biochemical tests. Then the sensitivity test with an optochin test of 9 (9%) compared the results descriptively with the PCR technique using the Autolysin A (LytA) gene which was obtained more sensitive by 15 (25%).
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 1-8; doi:10.31001/biomedika.v13i1.747
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is defined as a condition in which a woman without diabetes develops abnormal glucose tolerance that is first recognized during pregnancy. GDM is a significant public health problem with an incidence of 1.9 – 3.6% of all pregnancies in Indonesia. Additionally, women with GDM during pregnancy have a high risk of developing diabetes when they are not pregnant, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). One alternative variable in the management of T2D globally is gut microbiota. Here, to find out the role of gut microbiota in pregnancy, we characterized the stools of 30 pregnant women, each consisting of fifteen GDM-detected pregnant women, and healthy pregnant women using metagenomic approach with genome analysis by directly isolating genomic DNA from the microbiota ecosystem that occupies the digestive tract. DNA sequencing results were analyzed by MEGA 6 software with the BLASTn algorithm in NCBI. Thus fifteen GDM-detected showed high nucleotide sequence homology with the Proteobacteria at phylum level, and Escherichia, Orchobacterium, Cronobacter, Shigella, Salmonella, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Kosakonia, Vibrio dan Gamma-Proteobacterium at genus level compared to the healthy pregnant women which found by Firmicutes at phylum level and Ruminococcus, Clostridium, Clostridiales, Lachnospiraceae, Roseburia, Weisella, Eubacterium at genus level had a higher abundance in healthy pregnant women. In this result, we found also one of the fifteen healthy pregnant women showed differential abundance with enrichment of Prevotella species. Gut microbiota of GDM-diagnosed pregnant women has more varied composition, and dominated by the phylum Proteobacteria than in normal pregnant women.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 68-73; doi:10.31001/biomedika.v13i1.707
Thrombocytopenia or platelet deficiency is a condition, in which platelet level in the blood circulation is below normal, which is less than 150,000 cells/µl. Thrombocytopenia is classified into some conditions, including decreased platelet production, increased need for platelets, and other thrombocytopenia. The need for increased platelets can be subdivided into primary immune thrombocytopenia, secondary immune thrombocytopenia, non-primary ITP, and thrombocytopenia that are not immune-mediated. Several cytokines play a role in the process of thrombocytopenia, one of which is Interleukin-17 (IL-17) that will be further discussed in this study. A previous study reported that IL-17 production increased in ITP and cITP patients. The objective of this study was to analyze the IL-17 levels and figure out the differences in IL-17 levels in the serums of patients with primary ITP and secondary ITP. The samples were taken from Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital and the specimens were examined in the Research Unit Laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Hasanuddin/Hospital of Universitas Hasanuddin. The comparative test resulted in p-value = 0.005, where p <α = 0.05; and therefore, there was a significant difference between IL 17 levels in ITP and non-primary ITP.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 51-57; doi:10.31001/biomedika.v13i1.746
Prison-assisted citizens or prisoners are one of the groups of people who are at high risk of Hepatitis B and C virus infections. The data on the prevalence of both viruses in prisoners in Indonesia are still limited. This study aims to determine the profiles of Hepatitis B and C virus infections in prison-assisted citizens in the Class IIA Narcotics Correctional Institution in Bandung Regency. A total of 30 prisoners were used as the samples in this study. All procedures performed in this study were following the applicable codes of ethics. The presence of surface antigens of Hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) in serums was detected using a qualitative sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay method. The existence of antibodies of the Hepatitis C virus (Anti-VHC) was detected using the immunochromatography method. The laboratory test results have shown five people (16.7%) were positive on the HBsAg test and one person (3.3%) was positive on the anti-VHC test. One case of Hepatitis B and C co-infection was also found in the prison-assisted citizens who were in the Class IIA Narcotics Correctional Institution in Bandung Regency. All the prisoners infected by the Hepatitis B and C viruses used injection drugs, had tattoos on their bodies and never received vaccinations.
Biomedika, Volume 13, pp 46-50; doi:10.31001/biomedika.v13i1.703
Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by hyperglycemia or an increase in blood glucose levels. The state of hyperglycemia is one of the supporting factors for oral candidiasis infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of hyperglycemia with the incidence of Candida albicans infection in patients with Diabetes mellitus. this study was conducted on 30 respondents. Blood glucose levels and Candida albicans culture were measured using the germ tube test method. Data analysis to see the correlation using the Chi-Square test obtained Sig. (0.015 0.00.050) and it can be stated there is a correlation between variables. From the results of data analysis, it can be concluded that there is a correlation between hyperglycemia and Candida albicans infection which causes oral candidiasis in DM patients.