Journal of Energy Research and Reviews

Journal Information
EISSN : 2581-8368
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 165
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Journal of Energy Research and Reviews pp 51-63; https://doi.org/10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i430220

Abstract:
There is a societal push to replace fossil and nuclear fuel, which currently generate ~ 85% of the world’s electric power, with wind and solar powered generation of electricity. However, there are significant physical, economic, reliability, and environmental barriers to this replacement. This paper discusses them and concludes that for the foreseeable future, we are stuck with the more conventional sources if we want civilization for the masses to survive.
, O. A. Adeaga, A. O. Babalola, A. O. Oladejo, A. S. Alabi
Journal of Energy Research and Reviews pp 39-50; https://doi.org/10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i430219

Abstract:
Air conditioning systems have condensers that remove unwanted heat from the refrigerant and transfer the heat outdoors. The optimization of the global exploit of heat exchanging devices is still a burdensome task due to different design parameters involved. There is need for more and substantial research into bettering cooling channel materials so as to ensure elevated performance, better efficiency, greater accuracy, long lasting and low cost heat exchanging. The aim of this research work is to improve the heat transfer rate of air conditioning condenser by optimizing materials for different tube diameters. Simulations using thermal analysis and Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis were carried out to determine the better material and fluid respectively. The analysis was done using Analysis System software. Different parameters were calculated from the results obtained and graphs are plotted between various parameters such as heat flux, static pressure, velocity, mass flow rate and total heat transfer. The materials used for CFD analysis are R12 and R22, and for thermal analysis are copper and aluminium. From the CFD analysis, the result shows that R22 has more static pressure, velocity, mass flow rate and total heat transfer than R12 at condenser tube diameter 6 mm. In thermal investigation, the heat flux is more for copper material at condenser tube diameter 6 mm. Copper offers maximum heat flux. Also, refrigerant R22 scores maximum for the heat transfer criteria, but cannot be recommended due to toxicity
, Mike Onyekonwu, Joseph Ajienka
Journal of Energy Research and Reviews pp 21-38; https://doi.org/10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i430218

Abstract:
Aims: Nigeria has a lot of conventional and heavy oil resources. Although much of the conventional oil resources have been developed since independence, the heavy oil resources have remained underdeveloped due to low recovery based on primary production and consequently doubts about economic viability based on the current fiscal regime. This paper examines the application of Steam Flooding enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method to suitable Nigerian heavy oil reservoirs, seeks to develop a diagnostic model to predict the performance, evaluates the economics to determine the viability of the EOR method. The development of heavy oil will increase Nigeria’s oil reserves and production. Study Design: Data was collected for two heavy oil reservoirs from two oil companies in Nigeria following a Non-disclosure Agreement (NDA). Place and Duration of Study: Emerald Energy Institute, University of Port Harcourt Nigeria, 2016 - 2021. Methodology: The screening criteria of commercially effective EOR methods were applied to select steam flooding for the studied reservoirs. Design of Experiment (DoE) was used to evaluate the reservoirs and operating parameters and to determine their optimum values, which were then used to predict the performance of the reservoirs. The economics of the steam flood technique endorsed for the reservoirs considered were also evaluated using Discounted Cash Flow Analysis (DCFA). Results: These assessments confirmed that steam flooding technique was technically and economically viable for the heavy oil reservoirs considered. The steam flood was observed to have a good recovery efficiency of 24%, as against the waterflooding technique which had 13% OOIP and natural depletion of 9% for the offshore reservoir. For the onshore reservoir, the recovery efficiency was 20% for steam flood, and 4% for natural depletion. The economic analysis showed that even at a worst-case heavy oil price of US$15, the project was viable. Conclusion: Steam flooding is viable, can be applied to develop heavy oil reservoirs in Nigeria that meet the screening criteria, and thus increase national oil reserve and production. Recommendation: The fiscal policy should be adjusted, especially the petroleum profit tax from 85% to 50% as an incentive to operators and investors to embark on steam flooding and other EOR methods.
Journal of Energy Research and Reviews pp 17-20; https://doi.org/10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i430217

Abstract:
The construction of small-hydro power stations does not require high technologies, but needs to provide a river or stream water is smooth. Through the establishment of small dams on the stream can control the amount of water necessary to rotate the water turbine, which in turn converts the potential energy of water into kinetic energy. Through the transfer of kinetic energy of rotation of the turbine to the generator can convert this energy into electrical energy. The idea of ​​our plan of research for electrical energy from the power of water using small- hydroelectric plants, which can be built on small rivers, streams, and through the construction of small dams to control the amount of water. Electrical energy derived from small- hydroelectric plants could help feed the electrical loads to areas isolated from the national grid and can be linked with the national grid to add additional electric power.
, Salma I. Abdalbagi
Journal of Energy Research and Reviews pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i430215

Abstract:
Renewable bio-energy is receiving worldwide importance in view of depleting fossil energy. Research works on sorghum as bio-fuel crop in sub-Saharan Africa are meager. The study aimed to investigate the potential of sweet sorghum for ethanol production from stem-juice. The experiment was conducted in Sudan, Khartoum State, during 2016-2017. Forty local and exotic sweet sorghum varieties arranged in RCB Design were investigated under irrigated conditions across three sowing times. Yields of cane, juice, sugar, ethanol and related attributes were studied. Highly significant differences (P=.01) were detected among varieties and interaction with sowing time. Ethanol yield potentials for some varieties were comparable to those reported in India and USA (1162-1416 L ha-1). High brix values (20-22%) and cane yields (45-51 ha-1) were encountered. Juice yield was low (3673-13743 L ha-1) probably due to reduced milling efficiency. The exotic materials performed better than the local ones in theoretical ethanol productivity and related attributes other than cane yield. Eight exotic and five local varieties were recommended for ethanol production. None of the Ankolib materials appeared to have notable potential for ethanol production. Interaction of sowing time with variety has great impact on ethanol yield implying the importance of variety option for different sowing times. It was concluded that the study furnished basic data needed for assessing the economic feasibility of ethanol production from irrigated sweet sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa-Sudan.
, Omowumi O. Iledare, Joseph A. Ajienka
Journal of Energy Research and Reviews pp 40-61; https://doi.org/10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i330214

Abstract:
The chance to discover hydrocarbon volumes of economic quantity diminishes with progressive discovery in explored basins. Given the preponderance of smaller deposits in extensively explored basins and the cost implications of discovering deposits less than the required Minimum Economic Reserves (MER), explorationists and investors in exploration activities need a framework to evaluate the chance of a successful petroleum resources discovery to minimize the risk of unsuccessful exploration. This study develops a new framework to evaluate the chance of discovery of at least a minimum economic reserves volume in an extensively explored basin. It leverages on the postulation for the determination of probability of hydrocarbon economic success as a building block for the new framework. The model combines the concepts of Minimum Economic Reserves, Discovery Efficiency and Probability to derive an explicit analytical function for discovery efficiency and hydrocarbon probability for a commercial discovery. It digitalizes existing Risk Table to ease the complexity to obtain geological chance of success and hydrocarbon asset evaluation for commerciality. Nine Case studies from the prolific Niger Delta basin of Nigeria are used to validate the model. The result of the semi-digital solution of the model shows that three of the studied cases are commercial whereas the remaining six cases are sub-commercial. The study recommends the application of the new framework for hydrocarbon asset evaluation for chance of commerciality to complement models like the cream off curve to predict chance of commercial discovery of hydrocarbon assets.
, Akoshile Clement Olufemi
Journal of Energy Research and Reviews pp 31-39; https://doi.org/10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i330213

Abstract:
The performance of a thermosiphon based parabolic trough collector (PTC) used for direct steam generation depends largely on the heat losses of the solar thermal system. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the heat losses in a thermosiphon based solar thermal system that used a linear receiver with a PTC for the generation of low temperature steam. A locally constructed PTC was used to concentrate sun rays to a linear copper pipe enclosed in an evacuated glass tube and held at the focal line of the PTC to heat water and generate steam. Circulation of the water in the closed-loop solar thermal system was through natural convection. A solar meter was used to measure the incident radiation flux at the experimental site and PT100 temperature sensors were installed at different points of the system to measure the temperature distribution within the system. The thermal efficiency and overall heat losses of the system were investigated by fitting the experimental data to standard equations. The results showed that the instantaneous thermal efficiency of the system was 46.48%, 43.1% and 45.32% respectively for three days examined. The overall heat losses in the system were 1211.95, 974.32 and 911.26 kwh per day respectively for the three days investigated. Heat losses from the tank accounted for over 83% of the losses for all the days examined. The evacuated glass tube reduced heat losses from the receiver to very low values of 2.31, 1.63 and 1.43 KWh per day respectively for the three days tested. The use of a better insulating material on the tank was recommended to reduce convective and conductive heat losses, thereby enhancing the performance of the system.
I. Saidu, A. M. Danjuma, A. Wakkala
Journal of Energy Research and Reviews pp 26-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i330212

Abstract:
Bioethanol can be produced from biological matter through processing of food wastes or crops meant for bioethanol production. This study used potato wastes from food vendors in Sokoto, Nigeria as a cheap and renewable carbon source for fermentation of ethanol. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to optimize the growth parameters and hydrolysis of potato wastes of the ethanol fermentation aimed at achieving maximum production of bioethanol. Following the analysis, results indicated that, a combination of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5% of H2SO4 at 121˚C for 20 min in an autoclave can yield complete hydrolysis of all starch contents of potato wastes. The average proximate composition of the potato wastes showed 13.94%,1.42%, 1.72%,1.38%,0.43% and 81.11% of Moisture, Ash, Fat, Crude protein, Fiber and Carbohydrate contents respectively. Positive confirmation of reducing sugars and bioethanol was achieved by using benedicts and Jones’ reagents respectively, Quantitative Test for reducing sugars indicated 124.9 mg/gm, 88.6 mg/gm, 61.45 mg/gm, 53.22 mg/gm, 47.23 mg/gm for 0.5%, 1.5%, 2.0%,2.5% and 3% concentrations respectively.
, T. D. Ebinowen, F. T. Oyediji, A. A. Adetunji
Journal of Energy Research and Reviews pp 17-25; https://doi.org/10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i330211

Abstract:
Introduction: Relevancies of electrical power system to consumers cannot be overemphasized. This requires healthy operation of such system. 132/33KV network is an important network within the transmission system and its importance calls for effective and efficient operation. However, due to the long distance at which the transmission line span, the nature of the lay (either overhead or underground) and type of cable used, there are series of voltage instability and power loss along the transmission network which are threat both economically and technically to both electricity providers and consumers because of the cost implication of the losses and effect on the stability of the network. Aims: This research aims is to seek optimal placement of a capacitor bank to proffer solution to both voltage instability and power loss problem by simulating Ondo 132/33KV transmission network using NEPLAN software. Methodology: The network model was developed using NEPLAN software. The voltage profile and power loss with and without capacitor bank were determined from power load flow solutions using Newton-Raphson method. Results: Effects of optimal placements of capacitors along the studied transmission line is established. Conclusion: Proper installation of capacitor bank is also found to enhance performance with an accompanied improvement in voltage profile along the buses.
Raúl Venancio Díaz-Godoy, José López-Monroy, Jaime Moreno-Alcántara, Judith Castellanos-Moguel, María Teresa Nuñez-Cardona, Martha Patricia Sierra-Vargas, Octavio Gamaliel Aztatzi-Aguilar, Angélica Flores-Ortiz
Journal of Energy Research and Reviews pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i330210

Abstract:
Aims: In the present work, health risk from inhalation of PM2.5 pollutants in both areas was assessed spatially Place and Duration of Study: The metropolitan areas of the Toluca (MATV) and Mexico Valleys (MAMV), between September and November 2009. Methodology: A simultaneous sampling campaign was conducted in the Toluca and Mexico Valleys on alternate days from September-22 to November-29, 2009. From the samples collected, their gravimetric concentration was obtained, and S, Cl, K, Ca Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb were determined using the particle-induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE). Results: The health risk by inhalation of PM2.5 with a higher result for the metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley (2.09 for adults, 6.25 for children from 6-12 years old, and 6.58 for children from 2-6 years old) in contrast with that of the metropolitan area of the Mexico Valley (1.67 for adults, 5.20 for children from 6-12 years old, and 5.28 for children from 2-6 years old). Conclusion: These results are perhaps due to the higher concentration of Cl and Mn for the MATV. Additionally, the air parcels from sampling site MAMV go to MATV and thus contributes to an increased health risk from inhalation of PM2.5. There are health risks for the inhalation of PM2.5 in the MATV and MAMV study areas. The risk only considers the elemental risk. There are no similar studies for this comparison between MATV and MAMV in the literature.
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