Articles in this journal
December 2019, Volume 3, pp 29-37; https://doi.org/10.26810/perioj.2019.a4
Background: Increased interleukin-17 (IL-17) leads to the production of proinflammatory mediators and increases local inflammation. Interleukin-17 may also promote receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) expression on gingival fibroblasts, T cells, and B cells, resulting in alveolar bone resorption. Interleukin-17A and IL-17F levels in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), were found to be elevated in periodontitis patients. Thus, IL-17A and IL-17F polymorphisms were hypothesized to be associated with a risk of periodontitis. Methods: The present study was conducted on 60 subjects, including 20 stage II grade B periodontitis patients, 20 stage III grade C periodontitis patients, and 20 healthy controls. Blood samples were drawn from the subjects and analyzed for IL-17A G-197A and IL-17F 7488T/C genetic polymorphisms using the TaqMan assay. Results: There was a significant statistical difference between the distribution of the different genotypes and the different alleles in the three groups for IL-17A G-197A with the A allele presence indicating a risk of periodontitis. Conclusions: Interleukin-17A G-197A polymorphism is significantly associated with different clinical forms of periodontitis in the Egyptian population. The A allele could be considered a risk factor for periodontal diseases.
December 2019, Volume 3, pp 38-48; https://doi.org/10.26810/perioj.2019.a5
Background: Vitamin D is an important micronutrient possessing valuable and diverse biological effects that are related to periodontal disease pathogenesis. Vitamin D levels are regulated by fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) which is strongly associated with inflammation. The aim of the present study was to explore the relation of vitamin D and FGF23 with periodontal disease through the assessment of their levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum in periodontitis patients before and after non-surgical periodontal therapy and to compare those levels with healthy controls in order to identify any possible correlation between them. Methods: Serum and GCF samples were collected at baseline and 3 months after therapy to evaluate levels of vitamin D3 and FGF23 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in both study groups. Group I consisted of 15 controls who were systematically and periodontally healthy, while group II consisted of 15 subjects who were systematically healthy with stage II periodontitis. Results: A significant elevation in vitamin D3 levels in both GCF and serum were recorded 3 months after therapy with a 25.98% and 39.29% increase respectively. On the contrary, a significant reduction in mean values of FGF23 in both GCF and serum were found after treatment with a 49.75% and 39.28% decrease respectively. Conclusion: The results of the present investigation have shed light on a vital association of both FGF23 and vitamin D3 with periodontitis, where FGF23 is associated with periodontal inflammation and vitamin D3 is associated with periodontal health.
December 2019, Volume 3, pp 7-17; https://doi.org/10.26810/perioj.2019.a2
Background: Regulation of the plasminogen activation system (PAS) is a vital component in governing proteolytic events within the extracellular matrix (ECM). PAS is believed to play a substantial role in the destruction and healing of periodontal tissues. Thus, the current work aimed to study the histopathological effect of open flap debridement (OFD) on periodontitis, as well as its effect on tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) gene levels in gingival tissues. Methods: A total of 30 subjects were enrolled in the present study. They were divided into two groups: Group I (control group) included 10 periodontally healthy volunteers and group II (periodontitis group) comprised 20 patients suffering from stage III grade B periodontitis. Gingival tissue samples were collected from all periodontitis patients, before and after OFD, and from healthy controls. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides were subsequently examined and gene expression levels of t-PA and PAI-1 were assessed in the gingiva through quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Gingival tissue samples from periodontitis patients showed widely dilated blood vessels, diffuse hemorrhage, areas of edema, and disorganized collagen fibers together with large amounts of inflammatory cells in between. Following OFD, smaller sized blood vessels, a restored collagen fiber distribution, and an obvious decrease in the inflammatory infiltrate were noted. Gene expression levels of t-PA and PAI-1 were significantly higher in the periodontitis patients compared to the healthy controls. Although their levels showed a significant decrease following OFD in the periodontitis group, they were still significantly higher than the control group. Conclusion: OFD procedures resulted in down regulation of t-PA and PAI-1 expression levels in the gingiva of periodontitis patients, which could signify an important role of these proteins on periodontal disease progression.
December 2019, Volume 3, pp 18-28; https://doi.org/10.26810/perioj.2019.a3
Background: Entamoeba gingivalis was the first commensal parasite detected in the oral cavity of humans, and a high incidence has been reported in patients with poor oral hygiene. The current study aimed to investigate the association of Entamoeba gingivalis with gingivitis and periodontitis among Egyptian subjects. Methods: A total of 120 plaque samples were collected for this case-control study and were divided as follows: 40 plaque samples from gingivitis patients (group 1), 40 from stage II grade A and B periodontitis patients (group 2), and 40 samples from healthy volunteers (group 3). Diagnosis of parasitic stages relied on direct microscopic detection using permanent stains, trichrome stain, and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, in addition to ocular micrometry to confirm the diagnosis. Results: The occurrence of Entamoeba gingivalis within the gingivitis group was significantly higher (40%) than that observed in the control group (22.5%), whereas the occurrence within the periodontitis group was 15%. Samples from diseased subjects, regardless of immune status, were found to be moderately to severely affected with numerous parasitic nests, in contrast to a moderate near mild occurrence that was recorded in the healthy control group. Moreover, Entamoeba gingivalis occurrence was significantly higher (77.4%) in subjects with bad oral hygiene. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest a potential role for the neglected oral parasitic Entamoeba gingivalis, especially the intensively multiplying forms, in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. This certainly needs further elucidation on a larger scale to explore the basis behind such multiplication, which may be related to genetic variation or may be pathophysiological in origin.
December 2019, Volume 3, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.26810/perioj.2019.a1
Background: Periodontal disease has been reported to play a causative role in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), which may add to the various risk factors associated with coronary heart disease. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of Prevotella intermedia – an established periodontal pathogen – in subgingival plaque samples of chronic periodontitis and AMI patients in order to identify a possible association, and to evaluate the susceptibility of Prevotella intermedia to nine antimicrobial agents. Methods: After undergoing screening for eligibility, a total of 50 subjects were included in the present study. Twenty patients were diagnosed with AMI and generalized chronic periodontitis (Group I), 20 patients were diagnosed with only AMI (Group II), and 10 subjects were healthy controls (Group III). The isolated Prevotella intermedia strains were tested for susceptibility to bacitracin, chloramphenicol, penicillin G, polymyxin, gentamycin, neomycin, tetracycline, cefotaxime, and cefoxitin using an antibiotic zonescale to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Results: Periodontal pathogens were identified by phenotypic and enzymatic methods. The mean bacterial load of Prevotella intermedia species was higher in Group I compared to Group II and Group III. It was also found that pencillin G, gentamycin, neomycin, tetracycline, cefotaxime, and cefoxitin inhibited 90% of Prevotella intermedia, whereas bacitracin, chloramphenicol, and polymyxin inhibited 80% of Prevotella intermedia. Thus, only 10% of Prevotella intermedia were resistant to these antibiotics. Conclusion: The present study confirms that Prevotella intermedia is associated with chronic periodontitis and AMI.