PAAKAT: Revista de Tecnología y Sociedad

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EISSN : 2007-3607
Published by: Universidad de Guadalajara (10.32870)
Total articles ≅ 87
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, Argentina Consejo Nacional De Investigaciones Científicas Y Técnicas
PAAKAT: Revista de Tecnología y Sociedad, Volume 11, pp 1-25; https://doi.org/10.32870/pk.a11n21.629

Abstract:
The development of smart cities has yielded into a desirable objective among many cities around the world. International indexes of smart cities focus on large urban cities without interest on intermediate cities of developing countries. This paper pretends to fill this gap by proposing a smart city index for the capital cities in Argentina, together with Buenos Aires City and Bahia Blanca. The index is compound of four dimensions: Environment, Governance, Society and ICT, and Mobility and Transport which are based on a set of indicators. Data emerges from official websites and national statistics. In the case of Bahia Blanca, a wider smart city index with subjective indicators from an online survey is built. Alternative versions of the index, weighted (according to the vision of citizens, enterprises and politicians) and non-weighted are provided. Results show that the cities of Bahia Blanca, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires and Cordoba are the third smartest cities in Argentina.
Lourdes Carolina Hernández Calvario, México Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana
PAAKAT: Revista de Tecnología y Sociedad, Volume 11, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.32870/pk.a11n21.586

Abstract:
This article aims to analyze the development of the productive forces as a central element to understand the modifications generated in the social relations of production, as shown by the technological changes incorporated into the production process in the automotive and steel industries in Mexico. This work was based on the most recent technological revolutions and the productive reconfiguration that results from them. In a second moment, the impact of technological advances on the social relations of production upon the aforementioned industries was analyzed. Through the dialectical method, elements were proposed to suggest that the technological development achieved in these cases has led to a production process that functions as a global chain of social events, which generate social products, where the trend in innovation is to implement cooperative practices of international partnership.
Jéssica Araújo Do Nascimento, Ana Paula Holanda Lima Ávila,
PAAKAT: Revista de Tecnología y Sociedad, Volume 11, pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.32870/pk.a11n21.645

Abstract:
A evolução das tecnologias digitais e o surgimento das mídias sociais abriram espaço para o florescimento de uma nova categoria de líderes de opinião: os influenciadores digitais. Dentro desse grupo, os nano influenciadores são indivíduos que possuem até dez mil seguidores e suas particularidades os distinguem dos demais tipos. Assim sendo, este trabalho buscou identificar os motivos que levam os consumidores a seguirem e se engajarem em perfis de nano influenciadores digitais no Instagram. Utilizou-se, para tanto, uma abordagem qualitativa, servindo-se da pesquisa observacional e documental além da aplicação de entrevistas em profundidade. O locus de pesquisa foi o perfil @ritualdoskincare, onde foram coletados dados como o número de seguidores, e também se observaram alguns comportamentos relacionados ao engajamento dos consumidores. Por meio deste perfil foram pré-selecionados os respondentes para as entrevistas. Como critério de validade da pesquisa, optou-se pela triangulação. Os resultados apontaram que os principais motivos para seguir influenciadores digitais são: autenticidade, identificação com o nano influenciador, identificação com o conteúdo e busca por resenhas, inspiração, acessibilidade. Como achado original, encontrou-se que a busca por conteúdos e promoções locais também podem levar os consumidores a seguirem os nano influenciadores. O estudo apontou ainda que esse tipo de influenciador possui maiores níveis de engajamento por ser mais disponível para interatividade com seus seguidores, que participam ativamente por meio de curtidas, comentários e compartilhamento.
, México Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila,
PAAKAT: Revista de Tecnología y Sociedad, Volume 11, pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.32870/pk.a11n21.613

Abstract:
Based on the observation of the comments made to the official and personal accounts on Facebook and Twitter of the mayor of Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico; an identification is made of the way in which the expression of the digital citizen identity takes place from four variables: support, opposition, demands and proposals. The most outstanding results obtained from a quantitativedescriptive perspective suggest that this identity manifests itself mainly from expressions of demand towards the solution of issues related to the services provided by he city council (security, public lighting, etc.), as a sign of citizen identity. In contrast, proposal-related entries are much less frequent. It is concluded that the participation manifested in the observed platforms reflects a relevant collective sense of identity that its more evident in terms of the immediate spatial contexts (such as the neighborhood or the neighborhood), than in relation to broader areas (such as the region), depending on the platforms observed.
Ronald Andrés Sáenz Leandro, Costa Rica Universidad De Costa Rica, Roberto Luis Sánchez Moreno
PAAKAT: Revista de Tecnología y Sociedad, Volume 11, pp 1-28; https://doi.org/10.32870/pk.a11n21.606

Abstract:
In order to carry out a first approach to the dynamics of political mobilization associated with the arrival and consolidation of digital platforms in national contexts, this article seeks to characterize the field of protest against lean platforms, in terms of the repertoires, demands and modalities of collective action, this from the construction of a database for the case of Costa Rica under the methodology of Protest Event Analysis (PEA) and Political Claims Analysis (PCA). The results of the descriptive statistical analysis allow us to observe that the contentious dynamics has gone from being totally dominated by the traditional taxi driver sector, to showing the entry of new actors such as platform workers and some civil society groups that have come to complicate the panorama of action for the Costa Rican government in terms of regulation and, therefore, to incorporate new demands and decision arenas within the political-social field.
José Felipe Ramírez Pérez, México Universidad Autónoma De Baja California, Dariel Corchado López del Castillo, Maylevis Morejón Valdés, Cuba Universidad De Las Ciencias Informáticas
PAAKAT: Revista de Tecnología y Sociedad, Volume 11, pp 1-27; https://doi.org/10.32870/pk.a11n21.598

Abstract:
The measurement and analysis of the authority and influence exercised by a person in an organization or social network, be it formal or informal, has been the subject of numerous researches in several fields of science. At present, this phenomenon has taken on greater connotation due to its irruption in the digital space and the importance of having this knowledge for decision-making in spheres such as politics, education and the dissemination of information. In this research, an algorithm was developed for the measurement and analysis of the authority and influence of users in social and professional networks. The study had a mixed approach, with correlational scope and experimental design. A random sample n = 30 specialists was used, which was carried out between May 2019 and October 2020. It was based on the premise that, in order to carry out an adequate measurement and analysis of authority and influence, the structure of the graph must be considered that represents the social network and the interactions that occur between users. As a result, the Total Authority algorithm is developed, a computer tool for the generation of the graph and a case study, which evaluates its relevance, operation and applicability, which shows satisfactory results in its comparison with the HITS algorithm and a sociogram.
Karina Yazmín Garduño Palomino, México Universidad Autónoma De Baja California
PAAKAT: Revista de Tecnología y Sociedad, Volume 11, pp 1-27; https://doi.org/10.32870/pk.a11n21.644

Abstract:
The maquiladora industry in Mexico especially in the north of the country represents an important source of employment and social security, therefore, this article addresses the question of what would happen if new technologies displaced workforce in this economical sector? The objective of this research is to determine the maturity level of Industry 4.0 in the electronic maquiladora of Mexicali, in Baja California and its possible repercussions on the employment for operators and engineers. To understand and know the nature of this phenomenon, a case study was carried out on five of the most important companies in the region, the methodology used was quantitative and qualitative. Three surveys were designed based on the research of the Sectorial Model Reference Industry 4.0 made by the Valencian Institute of Business Competitiveness (IVACE) and the European Regional Development Fund and were applied to engineers in the department of investigation and development, operators, and to a Human Resources worker. In this regard was designed an interview that was applied to a key expert that gave us the point of view about the actual status of the developing of the industry 4.0 in the city of Mexicali. The overall conclusion is that the state of advancement of Industry 4.0 in the electronic maquiladora in Mexicali has an intermediate digital maturity (level 2-3), that is, in many cases the technology is known and used, but only by specific processes. Regarding the digital skills of engineers, it was found that they are highly trained to face the challenges of the new digital era, while the operator positions report a level of digital competence between low and medium, which places this profile of worker in a vulnerable situation for keep their position.
Lucía Carmina Jasso López, Unam Instituto De Investigaciones Sociales,
PAAKAT: Revista de Tecnología y Sociedad, Volume 11, pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.32870/pk.a11n21.663

Abstract:
The article aims to analyze the relationship between digital technologies and the risk associated with digital gaps in some mexican cities in the context of the new normal. It is based on the premise that Covid-19 has meant a profound social transformation that has implied a greater use of digital technologies, which can translate into greater technological inequalities. The methodology of this research is based on digital ethnography and hypothesizes that the processes of technological implementation were accelerated to try to contain the contagions, mainly through digitalization; however, this type of actions are limited by previous conditions of the characteristics of Mexican cities, which would imply a widening of their technological gaps, as opposed to what is considered a hybrid city model.
Álvaro Antonio Ochoa Mendoza, México Centro de Investigaciones Y Estudios Superiores En Antropología Social
PAAKAT: Revista de Tecnología y Sociedad, Volume 11, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.32870/pk.a11n21.655

Abstract:
The study of environmental crisis that affects the world in contemporary times involves the analysis of different factors which contribute to a bigger problem. One of these factors is food loss and waste. This issue originates as well from different factors that can be approached from different strategies. This article analyses the use of smartphone apps as a tool to fight food loss and waste. Theoretical bases that support the use of these tools as a viable option to mitigate environmental problems and the different implications of food loss and waste. It is then analyzed the technical requirements of apps and considered their economic viability from the software developer and entrepreneur respectively. Finally, it is exemplified with a case study of a failed anti-food waste app launch in Guadalajara. Results show that these apps design is a development that requires of many resources compared to a slow return on investment that will hardly ensure the app sustainability. Potential reaches of the app are high, but hard to accomplish without a solid structure behind and, ideally, support from government or private institutions that are more interested in environmental impact than financial profit.
, México Tecnológico Nacional de México
PAAKAT: Revista de Tecnología y Sociedad, Volume 11, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.32870/pk.a11n20.588

Abstract:
The sudden arrival of the pandemic caused by the new coronavirus showed the most visible face of Latin American societies, so marked by their ancestral rejection of the economic and commercial development models imposed by neoliberalism, and so historically aggrieved by local governments that have failed to respond to their legitimate aspirations for equality, inclusion and human development. In this contextual framework, education is subject to new contradictions, categorically exposed when it is demanded to maintain its status quo, without considering the precarious conditions of infrastructure and technological equipment with which the academic dynamics were developed at all educational levels. On this argumentative basis, an analysis is presented on the response of governments to the health contingency, particularly in their educational strategies, centered on the massive use of information and communication technologies, and three categories of analysis are considered: the institutional educational response to the pandemic, the role of teachers in the state's response to the crisis and the social perception of the implementation of educational strategies designed by governments; all of the above framed in the Latin American context.
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