International Journal of Innovations in Science and Technology
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 4 March 2020
International Journal of Innovations in Science and Technology; https://doi.org/10.33411/ijist/2020020103
Ethylene glycol is solvent used in sol-gel method to synthesize NiO/ZnO nanocomposites. ZnCl2 along with NiCl2.6H2O were used as precursors during synthetization of NiO/ZnO nanocomposites. We used various techniques such as Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and particle size analysis for synthesis of the nanocomposites which confirm that these nanocomposites act as catalyst.
Published: 3 March 2020
International Journal of Innovations in Science and Technology; https://doi.org/10.33411/ijist/2020020104
T he nanoparticles play a significant role in fabrication process which are used at large scale in various fields e.g., sensors, electronics drug delivery, optics, catalysis and in water purification process. Nanoparticles (NiO/ZnO) were synthesized using sol-gel technique. In this method, 2-propanol was taken to analyze the particle size. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the presence of ZnO/NiO. Ultraviolet Visible (UV) data recorded a band gap for ZnO that was 4.1 eV while UV spectrum of methylene blue demonstrated a decrease in concentration of methylene blue while using NiO/ ZnO as catalyst.
Published: 23 December 2019
International Journal of Innovations in Science and Technology; https://doi.org/10.33411/ijist/2020020102
This study describes the surface deformation in lower Jehlum and eastern Potwar using remotely sensed Shutter Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) to identify regional uplift rates. Mapping of active surface deformations help to predict seismic hazards. DEMs are the fundamental input factors that identify the surface geometry and its belongings. These belongings include stream offset, elevation, and slope breaks within a contributing area. This study provides an evidence of tectonic activity and its impact on regional drainage network using SRTM DEM. Various indices including concavity and steepness were computed using power law in steady state conditions. We prepared the drainage network map of the study site showing uplift rates in mm/year. The deflection in stream network proves the existence of active fault in this region which controls the local drainage network. The results prove the relative uplift along Main Boundary Thurst (MBT) and the impact of active tectonic on evolving young organs.
Published: 14 December 2019
International Journal of Innovations in Science and Technology; https://doi.org/10.33411/ijist/2020020101
Cloud computing emphasis on using and underlying infrastructure in a much efficient way. That’s why it is gaining immense importance in today’s industry. Like every other field, cloud computing also has some key feature for estimating the standard of working of every cloud provider. Elasticity is one of these key features. The term elasticity in cloud computing is directly related to response time (a server takes towards user request during resource providing and de-providing. With increase in demand and a huge shift of industry towards cloud, the problem of handling user requests also arisen. For a long time, the concept of virtualization held industry with all its merits and demerits to handle multiple requests over cloud. Biggest disadvantage of virtualization shown heavy load on underlying kernel or server but from past some decades an alternative technology emerges and get popular in a short time due to great efficiency known as containerization. In this paper we will discuss about elasticity in cloud, working of containers to see how it can help to improve elasticity in cloud for this will using some tools for analyzing two technologies i.e. virtualization and containerization. We will observe whether containers show less response time than virtual machine. If yes that’s mean elasticity can be improved in cloud on larger scale which may improve cloud efficiency to a large extent and will make cloud more eye catching.
Published: 5 September 2019
International Journal of Innovations in Science and Technology; https://doi.org/10.33411/ijist/2019010411
Earth is a blue planet because of the rudimentary cause of life, that is water. All the biochemical reactions which are pre-requisite for nourishing life of animals and plants, use water as a basic element. Being a universal solvent, it dissolves almost all minerals present in the soil. It is one of the basic and necessary compounds responsible for the survival of life. The main purpose of research was to determine the quality of groundwater in Kasur near the tanneries. The study is focused on the bacteriological and physicochemical (pH, Temperature, DO, BOD, CO2, TOSM, TDS, TM and heavy metals) parameters. We selected four sites as Din Garh, Qatal Garhi, Mangal Mandi and Kot Haleem Khan for investigation. Coliforms were present in high concentration that produce viruses and bacterial diseases such as typhoid fever, hepatitis, gastrocnemii, dysentery and ear infections. World Health Organization (WHO) has justified that the drinkable water must have zero level of coliform and E.coli. Regarding the Total Suspended Matter (TSM), the values ranged from 0.3-0.5g/l in DIN GHARH, 0.2-0.5g/l in QATAL GHARHI, 0.2-0.5g/l in MANGAL MANDI and 0.2-0.6g/l in KOT HALEEM KHAN. The study concludes that the water pollution due to tanneries in Kasur have changed the bacteriological and physicochemical properties of ground water to a considerable level which is not drinkable. It also conclude that groundwater was contaminated with high concentrations of BOD, TOSM, TDS, TM and Heavy metals due to discharge of industrial effluents.
International Journal of Innovations in Science and Technology; https://doi.org/10.33411/ijist/2019010308
Urbanization has become a hot issue in context of environmental and socio-political scenarios which is addressed at every forum internationally. The mega cities are considered the main origin of socio-economic development which caused to emerge a number of issues like biodiversity, environmental degradation, resource consumption, implementation of law and order and provision of basic facilities to the general public. The area under investigation consists of Lahore, Gujranwala and Sheikhupura. The study site was bounded by 73-75 E longitudes and 31-33 N latitudes. We used Landsat satellite data to map Spatio-temporal variations in urban sprawl from 1990 to 2019 with a temporal window of 15 years. The Landsat data is free, highly reliable and considered as primary source. The classification results show that the total area of study site was site was 29355 km2 including 21933km2 were green index 4595 km2 was under human settlements and 2827 km2 was the waterbody in 1990. The classification of Landsat image of the year 2005 describes that area of human settlements was increased to 9366 km2, the volume of water body was reduced to 2111km2 and the vegetation was also degraded to 17878km2. Again, the urban area was computed using satellite imagery for the year 2019 which was 16105km2 in 2019. Kappa stat proved the accuracy of supervised classification what was around 87%. Remotely sensed datasets proved the reliability of Landsat satellite images for estimation of urban sprawl during last three decades.
International Journal of Innovations in Science and Technology; https://doi.org/10.33411/ijist/2019010310
Pakistan has faced numerous natural disasters like floods, earthquakes, landslides and environmental degradation which severely affects the Pakistan’s economy and results in various problems like causalities, diseases, water stress and severe damages (e.g., houses, public infrastructure and agricultural land erosion). There is a lack of systematic approaches to analyze pre and post damage assessment for estimation of exact loses and the total cost for rehabilitation of damaged infrastructure in an efficient way. There exist a variety of mechanisms but GIS based flood mapping is considered the most efficient to manage the flood situation. This study is focused on evaluation of flood affected areas especially in Punjab using WorldView-2, 8-band multi-spectral imagery by applying Remote Sensing (RS) and GIS techniques. The research area is comprised of Kot Addu and Muzaffargarh Districts in Punjab province of Pakistan that faced a catastrophic super flood of 2010. The WorldView-2, Quick Bird and multispectral satellite imagery are capable of making better decisions and assessment of flood effected area accurately. RS and GIS techniques can achieve the objectives and significant analyses through visual interpretations. These techniques are also used to identify the flood affected regions. The study site was examined by applying supervised classification on the basis of the training areas which were obtained during the field surveys in the study site. Supervised classification determines that 16900.96 Hectors of agriculture land was damaged while Sparse Riverine Forest had the area 44.52 hectors. The damaged built-up area was 1805.78 Hectors. RS and GIS techniques are efficient for flood mapping.
International Journal of Innovations in Science and Technology; https://doi.org/10.33411/ijist/2019010201
The rapid urbanization and the population growth, have increased the demands of fresh water to manage various tasks from domestic to industrial scales. Various man driven sectors such as agriculture, industry and water filtration plants, require fresh water to cater the need of increasing population. Therefore, the management of available fresh water reservoirs is of great importance to save water for a sustainable future “save water save life”. Digital elevation model (DEM) is efficient to extract the drainage network, basin boundaries and to evaluate the volume of fresh water available in study site. We used Arc hydro tools in Arc GIS interface for extraction of drainage network in the study site. Flow direction and accumulation were computed according to Z-value of individual pixel available in the raster grid. A total 127 streams were extracted against 127 catchments. We observed that the catchments bearing steep slopes were incised in comparison to gentle slopes which were mostly eroded. We evaluated the total discharge in cusec using Q=CIA, where the coefficient ‘C’ of rainfall was substituted as 0.76 for each catchment having rocky soil type. The total discharge was estimated as 10871 cusec. GIS tools proved efficient to map watershed in the study site.
International Journal of Innovations in Science and Technology; https://doi.org/10.33411/ijist/2019010409
A massive tremor stuck Baluchistan Pakistan on September 24, 2013 with a magnitude of 7.7 recorded on Richter scale. The epicenter was Awaran Baluchistan which directly affected about 300,000 people leaving about 386 causalities. The impact of this earthquake was so much large that it created a new landmass which was named as Zalzala Koh later. It was the result of strike slip faulting at a depth of 15km. The new born island was full of rich minerals, gases and dead sea animals. This island was 60 feet high, 100 feet wide and 250 feet long. The classification results of Landsat 8 show that the island completely disappeared in 2019 after 6 six years of its birth. First the volume of this island decreases due to reduced pressure of internal gases and secondly, the high-pressure water waves vanished it completely. Satellite imagery proved efficient for spatio-temporal monitoring of various landuse classes.
International Journal of Innovations in Science and Technology; https://doi.org/10.33411/ijist/2019010307
The global emerging trends of E-Governance utilizes Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to support the governance functions. It emphases on improving governance by innovating administrative processes, transforming relationships, improving public services delivery, ensuring accountability, increasing participation and collaboration among civil society, government and private sector. Whereas, E-Governance is considered a revolutionary reform of promoting good governance through greater control over state power, authority and resources to promote equality, peace and prosperity by eliminating corruption, unemployment and hunger. Pakistan had made huge investments on deploying ICTs infrastructure and human resource development in public sector but the country could not achieve the expected outcomes. The results show that public sector has adequate level of ICTs infrastructure and competent human resource to obtain the promising benefits of these initiatives. However, all these resources remained underutilized which is considered a public sector dilemma in Pakistan. Most of public sector businesses are still relying on the manual systems rather than the fully computerized or automated and the public officials are bound to exchange and processes information manually. The under-utilization of these technologies and human resource cannot reap the benefits of E-Governance and therefore could not promote transparency, accountability, equality, and participation for sustainable socio-economic growth and development of Pakistan.