Emerald Open Research

Journal Information
EISSN : 26313952
Current Publisher: Emerald (10.35241)
Former Publisher: F1000 Research, Ltd. (10.12688)
Total articles ≅ 18
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Published: 21 October 2019
Emerald Open Research; doi:10.35241/emeraldopenres

Alex Zarifis, Christopher P. Holland, Alistair Milne
Published: 1 October 2019
Emerald Open Research, Volume 1; doi:10.35241/emeraldopenres.13249.1

Abstract:The increasing capabilities of artificial intelligence (AI) are changing the way organizations operate and interact with users both internally and externally. The insurance sector is currently using AI in several ways but its potential to disrupt insurance is not clear. This research evaluated the implementation of AI-led automation in 20 insurance companies. The findings indicate four business models (BM) emerging: In the first model the insurer takes a smaller part of the value chain allowing others with superior AI and data to take a larger part. In the second model the insurer keeps the same model and value chain but uses AI to improve effectiveness. In the third model the insurer adapts their model to fully utilize AI and seek new sources of data and customers. Lastly in the fourth model a technology focused company uses their existing AI prowess, superior data and extensive customer base, and adds insurance provision.
Published: 16 July 2019
Emerald Open Research; doi:10.12688/emeraldopenres

Martin Caraher, Robbie Davison
Published: 3 July 2019
Emerald Open Research, Volume 1; doi:10.12688/emeraldopenres.12842.2

Abstract:In the UK, food poverty has increased in the last 15 years and the food aid supply chain that has emerged to tackle it is now roughly 10 years old. In this time, we have seen the food aid supply chain grow at a rate that has astounded many. Recently that growth has been aided by a grant of £20m from a large supermarket chain. It appears institutionalisation is just around the corner, if not already here. It also appears that there is far greater emphasis on dealing with the symptoms as opposed to solving the root causes of the problem. As an opinion piece, this paper reflects on some of the prevalent issues, and suggests some ways forward.
Judith Irene Nagasha, Lawrence Mugisha, Elizabeth Kaase-Bwanga, Howard Onyuth, Michael Ocaido
Published: 13 June 2019
Emerald Open Research, Volume 1; doi:10.12688/emeraldopenres.12953.2

Abstract:Background: Climate change has been increasingly recognized as a global crisis with effects on gender roles. Recently, communities surrounding Lake Mburo national park, Uganda have been experiencing frequent severe droughts. It was against this background that the study was designed to understand the effect of climate change on gender roles. Methods: This cross sectional study reviewed the effect of climate change on men and women’s gender roles using a pragmatic research paradigm based on a thematic review model using participatory methods and a structured questionnaire. Results: The study found that men and women’s gender roles were altered during extreme dryness. Men played their roles sequentially focusing on one single productive role, while women played their roles simultaneously, balancing the demands of each role with their limited available time. Effect of climate change affected productive roles more in Kiruhura district than Isingiro district. There was migration of both men and women in search of water and pasture for livestock in Kiruhura district which distorted gender roles of women. Consequently, women and girl children had a heavier load and were the most people affected by climate change effects in these districts. Conclusion: Gender roles of communities surrounding Lake Mburo National Park were affected and altered by the effects of climate change. Therefore, institutions offering climate services to local communities should consider gender in decision making, access to resources, information and knowledge during participation in climate change mitigation and adaptation.
Nakeshia N. Williams, Brian K. Williams, Stephanie Jones-Fosu, Tyrette Carter
Published: 7 June 2019
Emerald Open Research, Volume 1; doi:10.12688/emeraldopenres.12852.1

Abstract:As the P-12 student landscape continues to grow in cultural and linguistic diversity, teacher preparation programs have yet to adequately prepare teacher candidates’ teaching and learning skills in meeting the academic and socio-emotional needs of diverse student demographics. This article examines teacher candidates’ cultural competence and cultural responsiveness to enhance candidates’ educator preparation and stimulate candidates’ personal growth development as developing culturally and linguistically responsive new teachers. While many teacher preparation programs require one multicultural or diversity education course, the authors examine a Minority Serving Institution’s integration of a cultural immersion experience for teacher candidates as one way of supporting their development as culturally and linguistically sustaining pedagogues. This paper aims at supporting school districts’ need of culturally competent new teachers who have the content knowledge and pedagogy to teach and support culturally and linguistically diverse children. Recognizing this need, this qualitative analysis highlights the importance of and a need for cultural and linguistic competence among teacher candidates. Findings from this study provides a means by which universities can implement cross-cultural coursework and field-based experiences to prepare culturally responsive teacher candidates.
Julie Bayley, David Phipps
Published: 7 June 2019
Emerald Open Research, Volume 1; doi:10.12688/emeraldopenres.13140.1

Abstract:Building on the concept of ‘impact literacy’ established in a previous paper from Bayley and Phipps, here we extend the principles of impact literacy in light of further insights into sector practice. More specifically, we focus on three additions needed in response to the sector-wide growth of impact: (1) differential levels of impact literacy; (2) institutional impact literacy and environment for impact; and (3) issues of ethics and values in research impact. This paper invites the sector to consider the relevance of all dimensions in establishing, maintaining and strengthening impact within the research landscape. We explore implications for individual professional development, institutional capacity building and ethical collaboration to maximise societal benefit.
Richard M. Friend, Samarthia Thankappan, Bob Doherty, Nay Aung, Astrud L. Beringer, Choeun Kimseng, Robert Cole, Yanyong Inmuong, Sofie Mortensen, Win Win Nyunt, et al.
Published: 15 May 2019
Emerald Open Research, Volume 1; doi:10.12688/emeraldopenres.13104.1

Abstract:Agricultural and food systems in the Mekong Region are undergoing transformations because of increasing engagement in international trade, alongside economic growth, dietary change and urbanisation. Food systems approaches are often used to understand these kinds of transformation processes, with particular strengths in linking social, economic and environmental dimensions of food at multiple scales. We argue that while the food systems approach strives to provide a comprehensive understanding of food production, consumption and environmental drivers, it is less well equipped to shed light on the role of actors, knowledge and power in transformation processes and on the divergent impacts and outcomes of these processes for different actors. We suggest that an approach that uses food systems as heuristics but complements it with attention to actors, knowledge and power improves our understanding of transformations such as those underway in the Mekong Region. The key transformations in the region include the emergence of regional food markets and vertically integrated supply chains that control increasing share of the market, increase in contract farming particularly in the peripheries of the region, replacement of crops cultivated for human consumption with corn grown for animal feed. These transformations are increasingly marginalising small-scale farmers, while at the same time, many other farmers increasingly pursue non-agricultural livelihoods. Food consumption is also changing, with integrated supply chains controlling substantial part of the mass market. Our analysis highlights that theoretical innovations grounded in political economy, agrarian change, development studies and rural livelihoods can help to increase theoretical depth of inquiries to accommodate the increasingly global dimensions of food. As a result, we map out a future research agenda to unpack the dynamic food system interactions and to unveil the social, economic and environmental impacts of these rapid transformations. We identify policy and managerial implications coupled with sustainable pathways for change.
Ricardo Kaufmann, Norma Pontet-Ubal
Published: 17 April 2019
Emerald Open Research, Volume 1; doi:10.12688/emeraldopenres.12869.1

Abstract:The estimation of the burden of a disease is one of the tasks with the longest tradition in Health Economics, which allows us to know the volume of resources that a country allocates to a specific health problem, and to compare countries and diseases. Although the fundamental objective of Health Systems is not to reduce the cost of the disease, but to improve the health of the population, the studies of burden of disease establish the economic seriousness of the problem, orienting the priorities of action. Government-funded medical expenditure in Uruguay for the last ten years has tripled in US dollars. The increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity has contributed to this growth. According to the World Health Organization, Uruguay has the highest growing trend in the prevalence of both overweight and obesity in South America. We have previously estimated that economic burden linked to obesity will be more than US$500 million by 2020, a figure close to 1% of the country’s GDP. In this study, we tried to generate a measure of value to ascertain the cost of inaction in the fight against obesity and its consequences linked to several non-communicable diseases. The cost of inaction is not defined as the cost of not doing, but as the cost of not implementing the right policies (in this case health prevention policies) at the right time.
Abhilasha Singh
Published: 11 April 2019
Emerald Open Research, Volume 1; doi:10.12688/emeraldopenres.12891.1

Abstract:Background and objective: The lack of human and intellectual resources and capital has affected the survival of different industries and organizations in this globally competitive world. Universities have failed to provide necessary human resources to these organizations. The coordination between industries and universities is not optimal. Such challenges are being faced in the United Arab Emirates (UAE); therefore, there is a need to investigate the reasons behind these challenges to develop an ideal university-industry relationship in UAE. The present study aims to evaluate the missing links in the relationships between universities and industries of UAE. Methods: A quantitative research design has been used to recruit 100 department heads and senior professors from 20 public and private universities in the UAE. Descriptive statistics, regression analysis and factor analysis have been used to analyze the data collected through SPSS v.20. Results: The results have shown a significant and positive impact of intellectual property (IP) policies (p = 0.045) and scientific knowledge (p = 0.023) on knowledge transfer; IP policies (p = 0.067), shared governance (p = 0.018) and scientific knowledge (p = 0.017) on trust; IP policies (p = 0.069), shared governance (p = 0.034) and scientific knowledge (p = 0.018) on innovation performance. Conclusion: The findings have suggested that the role of interorganizational governance mechanisms is important in university industry collaborations to increase trust, innovation, and shared governance.