Emerald Open Research

Journal Information
EISSN : 26313952
Current Publisher: Emerald (10.35241)
Former Publisher: F1000 Research Ltd (10.12688)
Total articles ≅ 46

Latest articles in this journal

Published: 27 May 2020
Emerald Open Research; doi:10.35241/emeraldopenres

Saadan A. Edson, Adam M. Akyoo
Published: 22 May 2020
Emerald Open Research, Volume 2; doi:10.35241/emeraldopenres.13447.1

An increasing demand of agricultural intensification and value addition necessitates the use of improved inputs such as improved seed. Smallholder farmers contribute about 70 % of agricultural production in Tanzania. Agriculture sector in Tanzania contributes about 24.1 % of the GDP, 30 % of exports and 65% of industrial raw materials. Thus, agriculture development, economic growth and industrialization are inseparable. Due to the nature of the product, smallholder farmers cannot judge the overall excellence of seed at the time of buying. This paper assessed quality uncertainty in maize and vegetable seed and its implication for market exchange between farmers and seed sellers in Kilolo district, Iringa Tanzania. The study used a random sample of 130 smallholder farmers and representatives from ten seed companies. Asymmetric information prevails between the two trading sides i.e. sellers and buyers. Moreover, product augmentation is profoundly overlooked whereby most of seed companies have not augmented their products. Despite that genetic and environmental interaction sways crop performance, the paper offers a thorough deduction of the results and its implication on market exchange. This paper adds information in the body of knowledge on how an improved seed can intensify upsurge production of food and industrial raw materials, which is a step towards desired industrialization agenda in Tanzania.
Mathew Donald
Published: 22 May 2020
Emerald Open Research, Volume 2; doi:10.35241/emeraldopenres.13713.1

Organisations have over time adopted conservative, structured and controlled processes to manage and achieve goals set with their stakeholders. Contrary to that, an environment of disruption has emerged, that being a faster, less predictable and less certain environment than the previous fifty or more years. This environmental difference has emerged due to the interconnectivity of trade formed out of globalisation, technology, internet and social media. The historical organisational decision models and structures are perhaps too slow and conservative for a faster less certain new age. Whilst pandemic was considered but one disruption to consider for the new age, more guidance is required for those leading and managing organisations through the current specific Covid-19 pandemic, into the pending recovery and beyond. Whilst wide-scale jobs may be lost in this new future, new opportunities for entrepreneurs, creativity and skills will likely emerge. This article will research how disruption, pandemic in particular, is changing leadership and management practices. Additionally, this article recognises that many of the organisational structures and processes of today were originally designed over thirty to forty years ago, so may no longer be appropriate. The design aspects or organisations, decision models and dealing with stakeholders will likely need to change in a pandemic, so this paper will recommend new and modified ways for organisations to operate. This research will offer a theoretical solution to assist management and leaders adjust their business and decision models in a pandemic. The past operating organisational models may lack the creativity and flexibility necessary for a world that has locked down, works from home or have closed without notice at once. Leading and managing is so different in a pandemic, especially when so much has changed so quickly, so this article will contribute by recommending new organisational principles to work to.
Gerard Hastings
Published: 21 May 2020
Emerald Open Research, Volume 2; doi:10.35241/emeraldopenres.13603.2

COVID-19 is bringing hardship and tragedy. Health workers are having to take appalling risks; loved ones are being lost; lockdown is causing great distress. And, as always in testing times, the disadvantaged are being hit worst. As we emerge from the shadows, the call from the vested interests, from the systems current winners, will be for a rapid return to business as usual. We must resist this; business as usual got us into this mess. COVID-19 is trying to tell us something; we health educators and social marketers must listen, think and, above all, take action.
James Woodall
Published: 19 May 2020
Emerald Open Research, Volume 2; doi:10.35241/emeraldopenres.13608.1

The role of health promoters and educators in the current and future response to COVID-19 is critical, but, to date, under explored. This opinion paper offers a number of important contributions that this professional group may offer both in the immediate and future strategy of global public health. While the importance of a medical model of health cannot be underplayed, the social model of health suggests that some groups in society are being more disproportionately impacted than others. Health promotion has been committed to reducing inequalities and therefore offers ‘a voice’ to those most marginalised. The paper suggests that bottom-up approaches focusing on building individual and community control is essential and, moreover, the concepts of a settings approach in health promotion, the fostering of critical health literacy and ‘salutogenesis’ may be worthy of further debate and discussion.
Murray Drummond, Sam Elliott, Claire Drummond, Ivanka Prichard
Published: 19 May 2020
Emerald Open Research, Volume 2; doi:10.35241/emeraldopenres.13661.1

This conceptual / study protocol paper provides important context around the role of sport in Australia where sport provides aspects of community agency through participation, organisation and volunteerism. It provides a descriptive analysis of how sport assists young people in developing physical and mental “fitness” through its community orientation. However, it also provides discussion around the potential of a “generation lost” to sport as a consequence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The conceptual nature of this paper means that the data collection underpinning this research has not yet been conducted. However, given that we have applied for human research ethics along with having accrued sporting clubs and organisations eager to be involved in the research, we are planning to roll out this research by mid 2020. The design will be based on mixed methods approach whereby large-scale surveys together with focus groups and interviews will be central to the research data collection process. This research is unique given the nature of the time in which it exists. The last global pandemic was around 100 years ago when sport did not play such a significant role in society. Understanding the implications of the pandemic on young people and to the sporting clubs and organisations will be key in re-establishing sport as a central component of community agency towards the physical and mental health of young people. The urgency of understanding this is key to assisting the loss of potential young people to sport and the benefits that go with it to the individual, the community, and society as a whole.
Johnson Okoro, Tobechukwu Odionye, Benedicta Nweze, Martins Onuoha, Chinenye Ezeonwuka, Jude Owoh, Joel Nkire
Published: 14 May 2020
Emerald Open Research, Volume 2; doi:10.35241/emeraldopenres.13684.1

This was a cross-sectional study to assess the psychological response to quarantine during COVID-19 pandemic and the level of knowledge about the disease among inmates of a Custodial Center in Enugu, Nigeria. A total of 66 new prison inmates were assessed for psychological distress using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10); and inmates’ knowledge about COVID-19 using a COVID-19 Knowledge Questionnaire developed by the researchers. Participants had a mean age of 28.39±8.71 years; 63 (95.5%) were male inmates and 3 (4.5%) were female inmates. In total, 61 (92.4%) were awaiting-trial inmates, 43 (65.1%) had psychological distress, and 35 (53%) had completed at least secondary school. Those with higher educational level were significantly more knowledgeable about the disease than those with lower educational level (t(64)=-5.72; p˂0.01). Though not statistically significant, psychological distress was found to be associated with insufficient knowledge about the disease (t(64)=1.42; p=0.16). The mean score for the COVID-19 questionnaire among the participants was 3.82±3.33 which is indicative of poor knowledge of the disease among them. Considering responses to specific questions contained in the questionnaire, knowledge about some questions was relatively high. For example, a majority of the participants 45 (68.2%) correctly responded that death can be a complication of COVID-19; whereas half of them 33 (50%) correctly responded that regular hand washing with soap and water can help prevent the spread of the disease. Nevertheless, responses to some questions showed poor knowledge about the disease as 18 (27.3%) correctly answered that COVID-19 can affect the lungs, while 20 (30.3%) correctly responded that COVID-19 is caused by a virus. Our study highlighted the need to have all quarantined persons educated about the disease for which they are being quarantined. It also provided the opportunity to raise awareness of COVD-19 among the inmates.
Gabriele Ruiu, Maria Laura Ruiu
Published: 13 May 2020
Emerald Open Research, Volume 2; doi:10.35241/emeraldopenres.13699.1

Italy has been the first Western Country to suffer a massive outbreak of COVID-19. Starting from the 11st of March 2020, the Italian Government approved a series of emergency restrictive measures to limit people’s movement and social contacts. The aim of this short paper is to test if the number of norm-violations (related to people’s movement) might contribute to the peaks of new COVID-19 positives after few days. We show that peaks in the violations of the lockdown norms correspond to peaks in new positive cases about 6 days later.
Madeleine Power, Bob Doherty, Katie Pybus, Kate Pickett
Published: 13 May 2020
Emerald Open Research, Volume 2; doi:10.35241/emeraldopenres.13539.2

This article draws upon our perspective as academic-practitioners working in the fields of food insecurity, food systems, and inequality to comment, in the early stages of the pandemic and associated lockdown, on the empirical and ethical implications of COVID-19 for socio-economic inequalities in access to food in the UK. The COVID-19 pandemic has sharpened the profound insecurity of large segments of the UK population, an insecurity itself the product of a decade of ‘austerity’ policies. Increased unemployment, reduced hours, and enforced self-isolation for multiple vulnerable groups is likely to lead to an increase in UK food insecurity, exacerbating diet-related health inequalities. The social and economic crisis associated with the pandemic has exposed the fragility of the system of food charity which, at present, is a key response to growing poverty. A vulnerable food system, with just-in-time supply chains, has been challenged by stockpiling. Resultant food supply issues at food banks, alongside rapidly increasing demand and reduced volunteer numbers, has undermined many food charities, especially independent food banks. In the light of this analysis, we make a series of recommendations. We call for an immediate end to the five week wait for Universal Credit and cash grants for low income households. We ask central and local government to recognise that many food aid providers are already at capacity and unable to adopt additional responsibilities. The government’s - significant - response to the economic crisis associated with COVID-19 has underscored a key principle: it is the government’s responsibility to protect population health, to guarantee household incomes, and to safeguard the economy. Millions of households were in poverty before the pandemic, and millions more will be so unless the government continues to protect household incomes through policy change.
James I. Novak, Jennifer Loy
Published: 13 May 2020
Emerald Open Research, Volume 2; doi:10.35241/emeraldopenres.13697.1

The COVID-19 pandemic significantly increased demand for medical and protective equipment by frontline health workers, as well as the general community, causing the supply chain to stretch beyond capacity, an issue further heightened by geographical and political lockdowns. Various 3D printing technologies were quickly utilised by businesses, institutions and individuals to manufacture a range of products on-demand, close to where they were needed. This study gathered data about 91 3D printed projects initiated prior to April 1, 2020, as the virus spread globally. It found that 60% of products were for personal protective equipment, of which 62% were 3D printed face shields. Fused filament fabrication was the most common 3D print technology used, and websites were the most popular means of centralising project information. The project data provides objective, quantitative insight balanced with qualitative critical review of the broad trends, opportunities and challenges that could be used by governments, health and medical bodies, manufacturing organisations and the 3D printing community to streamline the current response, as well as plan for future crises using a distributed, flexible manufacturing approach.
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