Asian Food Science Journal

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EISSN : 2581-7752
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 496
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, Atobla Koua, Kamirou Chabi-Sika, Haziz Sina, Ibrahim Konate, Lamine Baba-Moussa
Asian Food Science Journal pp 48-55; https://doi.org/10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130375

Abstract:
Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main pathogens found in street food, including hot beverages. However, information about S. aureus isolated from street hot beverages from coffee carts is very limited in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Aims: We aimed to characterize phenotypically S. aureus isolated from street hot beverages sold in Abidjan. Methodology: A total of 400 samples of hot beverage were collected and analyzed. The identification was made through conventional microbial and biochemical analysis. Macroscopic identification on the Baird Parker agar supplement with egg yolk tellurite. Microscopic observation through Gram staining as well as biochemical tests such as catalase, DNase and coagulase were performed. To confirm staphylococcal strains, the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was used. After identification, the susceptibility of the staphylococcal isolates was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results: Result showed that most of Staphylococcus aureus (18.4%) were isolated from tea. All the strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from street beverages were sensitive to cefoxitin and vancomycin. All the S. aureus isolated from milk were resistant to Erythromycin. Although beverages are consumed hot, the presence of S. aureus in ready-to-drink beverage transmitted infections to consumers. Conclusion: This drink need attention for the seller and the user to avoid some infections.
Juan Alexander Torres Mejía, Elyn Antonieta Romero, Maribel Medina Barahona, Fredy Torres Mejía, Henry Edgardo Maradiaga Galindo
Asian Food Science Journal pp 36-47; https://doi.org/10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130374

Abstract:
An experimental study was conducted to determine inhibition and / or destruction of pathogens in the following; Controls, M-EC, MS, Me-EC, Me-S, Treatments M-EC-LC, LC-MS, LC-EC-I, Me-S-CL, M-EC-C, M-S-C, Me-EC, Me-SC, M-EC-B, M-S-B, Me-EC-B and Me-S-B. Where: M = mango, Me = melon, EC = Escherichia coli, S = Salmonella sp, CL = clove, C = cinnamon, B = sodium benzoate. Qualifying each treatment according to the bactericidal power, as: non-effective, minimum, and fulminant lethal effect on days 0 (t0), 7 (t7) and 15 (t15); the bactericidal effect of aqueous extracts of cinnamon, clove in concentrations of 2.5% and sodium benzoate at concentrations permitted by FDA 0.1% was evaluated using the method of quantification or counting of forming colony units (FCU), on two bacterial strains, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis, were inoculated in samples of tropical fruits, mango Haden (Mangifera indica) and Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo). The bactericidal effect of clove was different in the two fruits treated; in the mango inoculated with E. coli was observed a minimal effect and in the other hand, the sample inoculated with Salmonella spp. there was no bactericidal effect. In the melon sample inoculated with both bacteria, the bactericidal effect of clove was observed. The effect of cinnamon was minimal in both fruits inoculated with E. coli. In the mango inoculated with Salmonella spp. there was no bactericidal effect. In the melon, it was a lethal effect. The use of sodium benzoate had a bactericidal effect, in both, the mango and in the melon inoculated with both bacteria. The analysis found that the mango inoculated with E. coli had a devastating effect (death at day 0). Dry matter, matter balance and sensory analysis were determined to have a better conclusion of the investigation.
J. N. Okafor, J. N. Ishiwu, J. E. Obiegbuna
Asian Food Science Journal pp 23-35; https://doi.org/10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130373

Abstract:
The aim of this research was to produce acceptable ‘fufu’ from a mixture of sorghum, millet, and African yam bean flours that will have a moderate carbohydrate and protein content with most optimized texture. The functional and sensory properties of flour blends produced from Sorghum, Millet and African yam bean was studied. Sorghum, Millet and African yam bean were processed into flour and mixed at different ratios to obtain composite flours. The flour formulations obtained were analyzed for water absorption capacity, bulk density, least gelation concentration , and viscosity .The water absorption capacity ranged from 1.00 to 3.00, the bulk density ranged from 0.56 to 0.82;the least gelation concentration ranged from 5.77 to 6.87,while the viscosity ranged from 0.956 to 9.30.Also proximate composition of the individual flours before formulation was analyzed, it ranged from 6.13 to 8.46 moisture, 2.00 to 4.67 ash, 0.17 to 8.00 fiber,5.47 to 8.61 fat, 7.57 to 21.84 protein, 58.34 to 69.27 carbohydrate.The sensory values ranged from 5.60 to 6.45 for taste; 4.25 to 6.85 for colour; 5.15 to 6.80 for texture; 3.85 to 5.70 for aroma; 5.45 to 6.45 acceptability. Sample 10 (with the ratio of 40:70:20) had the highest rating for general acceptability. It was observed that sample 1(with the ratio of 60:50:60) had the lowest rating in taste and aroma. The mixture components that could produce optimum texture was determined through optimization plot. This work has demonstrated that acceptable ‘fufu’ with moderate protein and carbohydrate could be successfully produced using composite flours of sorghum, millet and African yam bean.
, Ijeoma Chidinma Akujobi, Kabuo Canice Obioma Obinna
Asian Food Science Journal pp 13-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130372

Abstract:
Objective: The study aimed at production and quality evaluation of composite flours and cookies from cassava (Maniholt esculenta) -grey speckled palapye cowpea (Vigna sinensis). Methods: Flour was respectively produced from cassava and palapye cowpea. The flours of cassava and palapye cowpea were mixed in the ratios of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30 respectively before being analyzed for antinutrient and functional properties. Cookies were produced from the flours and then evaluated for their respective nutrient and organoleptic attributes. Data was analysed using using spss version 21.0. Results: The anti-nutrient concentration ranged from 0.83 to 1.25% (phytate), 0.07 to 0.19% (phenol), 0.12 to 0.17% (tannin), 0.09 to 0.21 Tiu/mg (trypsin inhibitor) and 0.28 to 0.88 mg/kg (hydrogen cyanide). The functional properties were found to be within 0.47 to 0.58 g/ml (bulk density), 1.62 to 2.04 g/g (capacity), 1.58% to 2.06 g/g (oil absorption capacity), 1.26 to 1.74 g/ml (swelling capacity) and 10.47 to 14.86% (foaming capacity). Proximate composition of the cookies samples showed 9.43 to 10.77% (moisture), 2.03 to 6.88% (protein), 1.03 to 1.91% (fat), 1.24 to 2.55% (ash), 3.22 to 4.26% (fibre) and 76.01 to 80.82% (carbohydrate). The sensory scores of the cookies ranged from 6.2 to 7.3 on the hedonic scale. Conclusion: The cassava-grey speckled cowpea flour proved satisfactory in cookies production and could also serve well in formulations for other food products.
B. B. Adamu, , H. Babayi, A. I. Adebayo
Asian Food Science Journal pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1130371

Abstract:
The effect of cold storage on fermented soy drink from tamarind and nono was assessed. Soymilk was produced by milk extraction from whole soybean seeds and pasteurized at 76oC for 30 minutes. The soymilk was divided into two portions. One portion inoculated with tamarind pulp containing 5.3×103 cfu/mL and the other with nono containing 11.6×103 cfu/mL. They were incubated at 42oC for 12 hours, fermentation was harvested by stirring, packaged, refrigerated at 5oC and subjected to microbial analysis using standard method. Preservation of drink by refrigeration method increased the microbial load of sample A from day 0 (8.7×103 cfu/mL) to day 9 (15.0×103 cfu/mL) but decreased on day 12 (11×103 cfu/mL). Similar results were recorded for samples B and C. However, sample A had neither coliform nor fungal growth. Sample A and B had no significant (p>0.05) difference in energy value (41.91±0.89 and 42.50±1.14) but sample C had the highest energy (96.69±2.03- 77.80±1.17), ash (4.10±0.13- 96.69±2.03), crude protein (0.51±0.01- 0.55±0.03), oil extract (3.44±0.17- 3.65±0.15) and NFE (7.61±0.14- 11.16±0.17) but lowest in moisture (79.84±1.07- 80.27±1.30) contents on day 6– 12. However, sample B had high moisture content ranged (84.43±1.17- 87.15±2.3) but lower in other parameters. Statistical analysis for the vitamin C, potassium and calcium of sample’s A, B and C were carried to determine their significant differences. Refrigeration slows down the bacterial activity hence reducing spoilage thus making fermented soy drink a good source of desired protein in Nigeria.
, Catherine Bomoh Ebah, Jean-Baptiste Gnelie Gnahoua, Bilo Régis Jean-François Loa, Françoiseakissi Kouamé
Asian Food Science Journal pp 145-153; https://doi.org/10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1030370

Abstract:
Cassava occupies an important place in the food security of populations in Côte d'Ivoire. There are many products derived from cassava but«attiéké» remains the flagship product in Côte d'Ivoire. Faced with the productivity challenges, organic fertilization is increasingly used by farmers in order to sustainably increase cassava production. The perspective of our study is to assess the effects of the uncombined use of cowpea and poultry manure as organic soil fertilizers on certain physicochemical and sensory characteristics of «attiékés» of three varieties of cassava. To do this, on an experimental plot installed, cowpea fertilization was tested at planting densities of 62,500; 250,000 and 125,000 plants/ha and poultry manure at rates 5; 15 and 5 t/haon, respectively, the cassava varieties Yavo, BoCou1 and Yacé.The results obtained show that cowpea and poultry manure increased the dry matter content respectively by 3.99 and 3.53 % in the Yavo variety by 3.57 and 18.06 % in the BoCou 1 as well as by 17.43 and 17.64 % in the Yacé. For the other parameters of pH, titratable acidity, total carbohydrates and free glucose, the variations depended on the variety and the level of fertilization. The sensory attributes of attiekes from these varieties grown on fertilized soil have been accepted by consumers in terms of color, smell, taste and consistency. In addition, they were rated less good than the controls obtained without fertilizer due to color, taste and consistency, while in terms of odor, it would be the same rating.
Asian Food Science Journal pp 137-144; https://doi.org/10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1030369

Abstract:
Introduction: Particle size is one of the main variables that influence coffee brewing process and also most obvious to the consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different particle sizes on the color of ground coffee. Methods: A laser diffraction analyzer was used to determine the particle size distribution of the 14 dry ground coffee samples. The particle size distribution of the roasted ground coffee samples that underwent grinding at different time periods was based on volume distribution. Color measurements of all coffee samples were made using a portable CR-400 tristimulus colorimeter and Spectra-Match software, set to L*, a*, b* mode. Color measurements were recorded for two replicates of each sample. Results: Coffee samples ground for short times of 30s, 20s and 10s, were observed to have coarser particles than those that underwent longer grinding times. The 20s and 30s grinding times did not exhibit any significant differences for the D50 and D90 particle size distributions. There was no significant difference in D50 and D90 values for Colombian 1.3, Leyenda and Tarrazu brands. It was observed that lightness (L*) as well as a* and b* were highly significantly different between the different coffee samples with P < 0.0001. The coffee samples that underwent grinding for 60s had the highest L*, a* and b* values of 30.72, +1.31 and +1.39 respectively. Colombian 1.3 coffee brand had the lowest L* and a* values of 29.8 and +0.67 respectively, with brand 1820a having the lowest b* value of +0.39. Conclusion: The results of this study show that there was no significant effect of particle size distribution of coffee samples on color of the ground coffee particles. L*, a* and b* values decreased during roasting, due to the darkening of the beans resulting from sugar caramelization and Maillard reactions.
, Beatrice Ekesa, Jeanette M. Andrade, Diana S. Grigsby-Toussaint, Robert Mugabi, John Muyonga, Juan E. Andrade
Asian Food Science Journal pp 125-136; https://doi.org/10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1030368

Abstract:
Valid and reliable questionnaires are necessary to improve the existence and quality of nutrition information, which determines interventions in low-resource settings, especially among decision makers and change agents. The present study evaluated the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the data collected among 255 head teachers from schools in Mukono and Wakiso districts in Uganda using a general nutrition knowledge questionnaire (GNKQ) earlier developed. Cronbach alpha (α) was used to determine internal consistency. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) and intraclass correlation coefficient were used to measure test-retest dependability on scores (ICC2,1). Overall internal consistency on 94 items was α = 0.89 at time one and 0.92 at time two. All items yielded data with a satisfactory internal consistency (α > 0.7). Two domains, Expert advice (ICC = 0.64) and Selecting food (ICC = 0.41), were determined to have insufficient test-retest reliability (r < 0.7 and ICC = 0.7), and their items were removed from the next analyses. The remaining nutrition knowledge topics with adequate test-retest reliability were food groupings (ICC = 0.9), nutrition and sickness (ICC = 0.91), and food fortification (ICC = 0.95). According to the findings, the prototype nutrition knowledge questionnaire had acceptable internal consistency and test-retest reliability. These findings indicate that the previously established questionnaire can be used to assess general nutrition knowledge among head teachers. To boost generalizability, future studies could use the questionnaire on a different group of adults.
Shilpa, Sangita Sood,
Asian Food Science Journal pp 114-124; https://doi.org/10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1030367

Abstract:
The present research was done to analyse the physico-chemical, Nutritional, Mineral, functional and phytochemical analysis in Functional cereals; oats, pearl millet, sorghum and finger millet. The protein content of the analyzed cereals varied from 7.45% to 14.69% with oats having higher concentration of protein content. The higher fibre content in oats accounted for its highest WAC while as the lowest fibre content in sorghum (2.35%) masked its WAC despite containing the highest carbohydrate content. Neutral detergent fiber that gives the measurement insoluble fibre was found highest in sorghum (11.29%) and lowest in pearl millet (5.56%). Total sugars comprising of reducing and non reducing sugars were found highest in pearl millet (2.88%) followed by sorghum (2.14%) and the least content was found in finger millet (1.69%). Oats were found to possess highest content of phosphorus (381.02mg/100g) and finger millet the lowest (8.21mg/100g). Resistant starch that is inaccessible to enzymes was found highest in oats (2.69g/100g) and lowest in sorghum (1.74g/100g).
Matthew Olusola Oluwamukomi, Olugbenga Olufemi Awolu,
Asian Food Science Journal pp 100-113; https://doi.org/10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1030366

Abstract:
Kokoro, a maize-based snack was made from maize flour and supplemented with Moringa seed flour (MSS) and defatted sesame flour (DSF) flours with the aim of improving its nutritional quality. An experimental design was carried out using optimal mixture model of response surface methodology which yielded 16 formulations in which three blends in terms of the best proximate composition and the control sample (100% maize) were selected. The snacks were analyzed for proximate, mineral, amino acid composition, sensory and antioxidant properties. Proximate analysis results showed significant (p<0.05) increase in protein (9.25–24.23%), fat (15.07–35.25%), ash (2.25–4.25%) content, and energy value (508.43–607.71 KJ/ g), while crude fiber (7.58–5.80%), moisture (4.58-3.64%) and carbohydrate (61.27–26.83%) content decreased with inclusion of MSF and DSF. Potassium (4.02-5.03mg/100 g) was the predominant mineral, followed by calcium (3.31-5.41mg/100 g) and potassium (1.67-3.75mg/100 g). Glutamic acid was the most abundant non–essential amino acids while leucine was the predominant essential amino acid in the enriched “kokoro”. There was an increase in the amino acid content (except for aspartic acid, arginine and histidine) of the kokoro samples as the proportions of MSF and DSF increased. The result also showed that the essential amino acid index, predicted biological value, protein efficiency ratio and nutritional index of the enriched kokoro were higher than the control sample with values ranging from 0.6108-0.8944, 54.88-85.79%, 1.63-3.49g/100g and 5.65-21.67%, respectively. The result also showed that there was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the flavonoid, phenolic content and DPPH of the kokoro as supplementation with MSF and DSF increased. The control sample compared favourably with kokoro supplemented with 6.25% and 17.5% MSF and DSF, respectively, in terms of sensory evaluation. Hence, acceptable and nutritious kokoro snacks from this blend can be formulated which could enhance the nutritional wellness of consumers.
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