Indonesian Journal of Cancer

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 19783744 / 23556811
Total articles ≅ 72

Latest articles in this journal

Andree Kurniawan, Nata Pratama Hardjo Lugito, Bernard Agung Baskoro, Devina Adella Halim
Indonesian Journal of Cancer, Volume 14; doi:10.33371/ijoc.v14i2.736

Introduction: The number of confirmed cases of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the world has been increasing significantly since December 2019. Cancer patients are one of the vulnerable populations to become severe cases of COVID-19 or death when they are contacted with COVID-19. A treatment delay is associated with higher breast cancer-specific mortality and all-cause mortality. However, there is still limited data about how to manage cancer patients in this pandemic of COVID-19. This study aims to appraise the current evidence about the management of cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.Method: We searched and found 16 articles evaluating the management of cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic by searching in PubMed and EMBASE databases. We only included articles discussing COVID-19 and cancer in adults. There were three observational trials, four review articles, two case reports, six letters to the editor, and one guideline.Results: There were several recommendations regarding patient care in the COVID-19 era. Firstly, outpatient visits, such as follow-up and surveillance of cancer patients, should be postponed. Alternatively, they can do teleconsultation, and their drugs will be delivered to their homes. Stratification and screening for the risk of COVID-19 infection should be done to those who needed urgent or emergency surgery. Otherwise, elective surgery should be postponed. However, several cases can be proceeded after discussion in the Multidisciplinary Team (MDT). Adjuvant and palliative chemotherapy should also be done as scheduled after discussing in MDT. Patients with ongoing radiation treatment should be continued as daily scheduled. Meanwhile, new patients should be carefully evaluated, and those with stable cancer can be postponed for treatment Conclusions: There is still scarce evidence related to the management of cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further studies, in terms of stratification, risk, and management of cancer patients during the pandemic, need to be done to get better evidence on it.
Muhammad David Perdana Putra, Kristanto Yuli Yarso, Mudib Mudib, Zhafirah Ramadhanty
Indonesian Journal of Cancer, Volume 14; doi:10.33371/ijoc.v14i2.715

Background: This study aimed to develop a patient satisfaction level-questionnaire (UNS-BsQ8) for breast fibroadenoma patients in Indonesia and to test the reliability and validity of the questionnaire by using established models. Methods: A total of 83 women with breast fibroadenoma completed the questionnaire after their surgeries. We assessed the construct validity and the reliability by referring to its Pearson’s r table value and Cronbach’s α coefficient. Results: It showed that 83 subjects completed all 8 questions of the instrument between January 1–31, 2020; the Pearson’s value of all items of the UNS-BsQ8 with the lowest value of r = .398 in question number 8, followed by r = .411 in question number 7 with an r-value of r > .1584 indicated that these questions were valid. Cronbach’s α coefficient of > .60 indicated questionable internal consistency. Conclusions: The result of this study proves that UNS-BsQ8 is accepted, valid, and reliable. It can be used for future investigation, especially in patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery.
Yesiana Dwi Wahyu Werdani
Indonesian Journal of Cancer, Volume 14; doi:10.33371/ijoc.v14i2.692

Background: The stigma of cancer as a deadly disease greatly affects the patient’s perspective in shaping self-concept, which impacts on hopes and influences the stability of psychological well-being. The purpose of this study was to prove that the self-concept influences the hopes and psychological well-being of cancer survivors. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Samples were 90 cancer survivors from three public health centers in Surabaya, Indonesia taken by simple random sampling. All participants completed the instruments of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, Herth Hope Index, and Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scale. All the instruments were valid and reliable based on the test. Ethical feasibility has been conducted. The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Test was applied to analyze the data with P < .05. Results: The demographic characteristics of cancer survivors include the age majority of 46-65 years (53%), female sex (80%), married (61%), having stage-III cancer (44%), diagnosed of cancer for 1–6 years (56%), having support system from nuclear families (73%), and actively involved in the community (66%). The mean score of self-concept is 78.2, hope 38.2, and psychological well- being 76.3. Self-concept had a significant effect on hope (r = .783, P = .000) and psychological well-being (r = .611, P = .000) Conclusions: Cancer survivors who had positive self-concepts are more likely to accept themselves, which triggers the formation of high hope for recovery and the achievement of positive psychological well-being.
Andy Zulfiqqar, Indrawarman Soerohardjo, Sumadi Lukman Anwar
Indonesian Journal of Cancer, Volume 14; doi:10.33371/ijoc.v14i2.709

Background: Current options for management of bladder cancer (BCa) still depend on traditional clinical determinants of stage and histological grade which often do not reflect the biological entity of the tumors. Therefore, new biomarkers are required to better determine suitable treatments for different types of bladder cancers. Recent research has shown osteopontin (OPN) expressions correlate with clinic-pathological variables and outcomes of bladder cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of OPN in the Indonesian population, and it’s potential role as an immune-targeting therapy of BCa. Methods: Total RNAs from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues were extracted from 49 patients with bladder cancer consisting of normal histopathology (n = 4), chronic cystitis (n = 15), non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC, n = 15), and muscle-invasive breast cancer (MIBC, n = 15). The expression of OPN was measured using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The baseline clinical and histo-pathological characteristics were not statistically different. The expression of OPN was statistically higher in bladder cancer compared to normal histology tissues (P < .001). The expression of OPN was statistically higher in MIBC compared to NMIBC (P < .001). Conclusions: The expression of OPN was significantly higher in bladder cancer and compared to NIMBC, the OPN expression in MIBC was significantly higher rendering the potential role of OPN expression as a surrogate biomarker marker to determine suitable treatment options for patients with bladder cancer.
Dila Junita, Edmond Rukmana Wikanta
Indonesian Journal of Cancer, Volume 14; doi:10.33371/ijoc.v14i2.700

Introduction: Juvenile hypertrophy of the breast (JHB) is a benign condition that can lead to gigantomastia in adolescence. The development of breast enlargement in adolescence can cause both physical and psychosocial problems. Therefore, appropriate investigation and proper management at an early stage of the disease are very important. One of the treatment modalities is breast reduction surgery which ideal and offers an improvement in the quality of life. Case Presentation: A 13-year-old female with massive bilateral breast enlargement for a period of 8 months. The patient also complained of severe back pain and neck discomfort since her breast progressively enlarged. Psychosocial problems were recorded. Right breast reduction was performed and closed with inverted-T mammoplasty. The post-operative period was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on day 5 after the operation. Conclusions: Reduction mammoplasty is well accepted by adolescents with juvenile breast hypertrophy and can improve physical and psychological outcomes.
Dini Rizkie Wijayanti, Jamal Zaini, Achmad Hudoyo, Aziza Ghanie, Westi Atw
Indonesian Journal of Cancer, Volume 14; doi:10.33371/ijoc.v14i2.701

Background : Radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity occurs in patients with lung cancer who received irradiation. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of radiation pneumonitis among lung cancer patients that were exposed to radiation treatment in Persahabatan Hospital. There is no data about proportion of radiation pneumonitis in Indonesia.Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted in Persahabatan Hospital during June 2013– July 2015 using the medical record of lung-cancer patients who received irradiation.Results: 33 lung-cancer patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Most of them were male (66.7%), in age ≥ 51 years (63.6%), had a smoking history (75.8%) with moderate Brinkman Index (60%), were given irradiation doses of 3,000–4,000 (60.6%) with irradiation fractions of 10–19 (60.6%), had no history of chemotherapy (54.5%), and were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma (66.7%) and stage-IV cancer (84.84%). The proportion of radiation pneumonitis based on chest X-ray (CXR) was 39.4%; which consisted of hazy ground-glass opacities, hazy ground-glass opacities, and fibrosis, and only fibrosis. There were significant differences in age, radiation doses, and history of chemotherapy with the proportion of radiation pneumonitis (p < .05).Conclusion: The proportion of radiation pneumonitis based on CXR was 39.4%. There were significant differences in age, radiation doses, and history of chemotherapy with the proportion of radiation pneumonitis.
Fifi Dwijayanti, Hendi Setiadi, Martya Rahmaniati Makful
Indonesian Journal of Cancer, Volume 14; doi:10.33371/ijoc.v14i2.747

At the end of 2019, the novel coronavirus (CoV) of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), named SARS- CoV-2 was approved as a microbial agent that causes viral pneumonia in patients who are linked epidemiologically to the seafood market in Wuhan (Wuhan) Hubei province, China [1]. The World Health Organization (WHO) stated the coronavirus or COVID-19 as a pandemic because it has spread globally in the world since March 11, 2020 [2]. There have been more than 8 million cases reported with more than 450 thousand deaths around the world until June 19, 2020 [3]. Indonesia reported the first cases of COVID-19 in early March 2020 and currently 43,803 cases with 2,373 deaths [4]. Indonesia has the highest cases of COVID-19 in Southeast Asia [5]. WHO stated that according to the current evidence, coronavirus is transmitted among people through respiratory droplets and contact routes [6-8]. Droplet transmission is different from airborne disease. Droplet transmission occurs when a person closely contacted (within 1 m) with someone who has respiratory symptoms (e.g. coughing or sneezing,) and was therefore at risk of having his/her mucosae (mouth and nose) or conjunctiva (eyes) exposed to potentially infective respiratory droplets. Droplet transmission may also occur through fomites in the immediate environment around the infected person [9]. Increasing cases occur continuously become alert for our institution as health care providers.
Noorwati Sutandyo
Indonesian Journal of Cancer, Volume 14; doi:10.33371/ijoc.v14i2.703

Diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer are both global diseases whose numbers continue to grow. Higher risk of developing cancer in diabetic patients, especially in liver, endometrial, pancreatic, kidney, colorectal, bladder, and breast cancer, was already shown in several previous studies. This review will explain the possible DM pathogenesis that plays a role in carcinogenesis using the simple but thorough concept of insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and chronic inflammation. By knowing the link, it is hoped that this review can be useful in developing cancer prevention plans for those with diabetes.
Febri Hardiyanti, Johan Harlan, Ema Hermawati
Indonesian Journal of Cancer, Volume 14, pp 8-15; doi:10.33371/ijoc.v14i1.666

Background: Cervical cancer is the second most frequent malignant tumor among women in the world and the most common type of cancer found among women in developing countries, including Indonesia. It has been predicted that the number of people who have this cancer will increase in the future due to lifestyle changes. The study aims to determine the association between the knowledge and the preventive behavior of cervical cancer among woman employees in the companies in Jakarta. Methods: This research is a quantitative analytical study, with a cross-sectional design. The purposive sampling method was performed to choose the respondents, who are the employees of 3 companies in Jakarta. One hundred married women were selected as the research respondents, namely 32 ET employees, 37 BTI employees, and 31 AT employees. The data were collected using the questionnaires on the knowledge of cervical cancer as an independent variable and the preventive behavior of cervical cancer as a dependent variable. The data collection was conducted from March to April. The statistical trial analysis was performed with the Chi-Square test. Results: From the results of the research, it was found that 74% of the employees have enough preventive behavior of cervical cancer. A total of 73% of employees have good cervical cancer knowledge. The Chi-square test between the knowledge and preventive behavior of cervical cancer obtains P=.043 ; OR 3.68, 95% CI 1.005–13.474. It means there is an association between the knowledge and the preventive behavior of cervical cancer among woman employees in the companies in Jakarta. Conclusions: Good cervical cancer knowledge is significantly associated with good cervical cancer preventive behavior among woman employees in the companies in Jakarta.
Rama Firmanto, Agus Rizal A.H. Hamid, Chaidir Arif Mochtar, Rainy Umbas
Indonesian Journal of Cancer, Volume 14, pp 16-20; doi:10.33371/ijoc.v14i1.673

Background: Despite the high recurrence rate, radical prostatectomy (RP) remains as a preferable surgical treatment of localized prostate cancer. Adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) and salvage radiotherapy (SRT) are available approaches in preventing biochemical progression after RP. We aim to investigate the use of radiotherapy, both ART and SRT, in those who underwent RP.Methods: We used a retrospective cohort study design, with samples recruited from prostate cancer patients who underwent RP between January 2008 and December 2016. Patients who had undergone RP at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia were included in the present study. More in detail, three and five subjects were treated with ART and SRT, respectively. We only included those who had a minimum of one year of follow-up. Variables including age, preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA), clinical staging, pathological staging, Gleason score, and death were recorded. We analyzed the overall survival time using the Kaplan-Meier method.Results: From 34 patients included in the study, 26 underwent RP alone, while 5 patients underwent adjuvant radiotherapy and 3 patients underwent salvage radiotherapy after RP. The mean ages in the three groups were 61.46 ± 5.76, 58.2 ± 4.86 and 62.67 ± 7.5, respectively. The preoperative PSA value was above 10 mg/dL in 61.5% in patients without RT, 100% in patients with ART after RP, and none in SRT. 17 (51.5%) out of 33 subjects were ≥T2 clinical stage and 24/30 (80%) subjects were ≥pT2. Timing for ART and SRT ranged from 1.07 to 6.3 and 5.27 to 21.43 months after RP, respectively. The 10-year survival rates were 84.6% in patients with RP alone, 80% in patients with ART+RP, and 66.7% in patients with SRT+RP. The average survivals of those who had RP alone as well as ART and SRT were 44.56 ± 32.64, 46.79 ± 24.02, and 71.71 ± 38.74 months.Conclusions: The average survival of those who received SRT is better than those who underwent ART and RP alone. Prospective studies with larger samples are needed to evaluate the efficacy of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy.
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