Indonesian Journal of Cancer

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ISSN / EISSN : 1978-3744 / 2355-6811
Total articles ≅ 88
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Putu Erika Paskarani, Luh Ayu Widayanti, Anak Agung Ayu Ngurah Susraini, Herman Saputra, Ni Putu Sriwidyani
Indonesian Journal of Cancer, Volume 14; doi:10.33371/ijoc.v14i4.762

Abstract:
Introduction: Kimura’s disease (KD) in Indonesia is quite rare. It is a distinct benign reactive process; however, it is usually mimicking malignancy. It usually affects young adults with a peak incidence in three decades, and men are mostly affected compared to women with a 3:1 ratio. KD is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by lymphoid hyperplasia, eosinophilia, and associated with soft tissue swelling that usually arises in head and neck regions with regional lymphadenopathy.Case Presentation: Herein, we report a case in a 55-year-old man from East Indonesia who presented a huge lump on his left head and neck regions. The lump started about 8 years ago. Physical examination found a tumor mass of 20 x 10 cm with indistinct border and multiple lymphadenopathies left coli with the biggest size of 1.3 x 0.7 x 0.5 cm. Peripheral blood examination shows marked eosinophilia. Nasopharyngeal CT scan revealed soft tissue masses and multiple lymphadenopathies suspected of malignancy; however, thorax plain radiology did not show any sign of metastatic process. Histopathological examination shows reactive follicular proliferation, extensive eosinophilia, focal area Folliculolysis, and polykaryocytes of the WarthinFinkeldey type.Conclusion: Based on a complete history, laboratory findings, and histopathological examination, this case is concluded as Kimura’s disease. Although clinical findings and radiological examination suspected it as malignancy, those discrepancies were confirmed as a benign lesion by specific histopathological and laboratory findings. Commonly, most patients have a favorable prognosis and good response to therapy.
Samuel Jason Rolando Tua, Hendy Rachmat Primana, Agus Hadian Rahim, Ahmad Ramdan, Herry Herman
Indonesian Journal of Cancer, Volume 14; doi:10.33371/ijoc.v14i4.740

Abstract:
Introduction: Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary bone sarcoma and arising in the spine. It is estimated to be 2% to 12% in incidence from various series. The use of neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy for chondrosarcomas is controversial. Low- and intermediate-grade chondrosarcomas respond poorly to chemotherapy. Although not much data on the efficacy of chemotherapy in the treatment of high-grade chondrosarcomas, it should be considered in any young patient with a high-grade tumor. Radiation is recommended when anything other than wide excision is performed for chondrosarcoma of any grade.Case Presentation: A 24-year old female presented to the clinic with a chief complaint of persistent low back pain and a lump in her back. Initially, the lump was the size of a tennis ball three years ago. At the time of the examination, the lump was at the size of a volleyball about 65 x 63 x 58 centimeters. Systemic and general examinations were unremarkable. There were no comorbid conditions. From the results of the Clinicopathological Conference conducted by neurologists, pathologists, radiologists, orthopedic spine and oncology surgeons, it is advisable to conduct investigations such as x-rays, CT scans, MRI, biopsy, and surgery is recommended for evaluation of expansion of chondrosarcoma, evolving the spinal cord, and for resection of tumors.Conclusion: Early diagnosis and complete resection of tumor and treatment of relevant symptoms represent a viable treatment for this rare disorder to achieve increased life expectancy, low recurrence of tumor, and improvement of quality of life.
Sinta Prastiana Dewi
Indonesian Journal of Cancer, Volume 14; doi:10.33371/ijoc.v14i4.741

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Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common female malignancy worldwide. Breastconserving surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy is a preferable treatment option. Hypofractionated radiotherapy is an attractive fractionation scheme because of its shorter treatment duration. This paper aims to report the short-term and long-term toxicity of hypofractionated radiotherapy in breast cancer patients at our institution. Case Presentation: A 58-year-old woman with right breast cancer T2N1M0 had undergone breast-conserving surgery with axilla lymph node dissection. This patient underwent adjuvant whole breast radiotherapy with a dose of 42.56 Gy in 16 fractions followed by tumor bed boost with a dose of 16 Gy in 8 fractions. After undergoing the fourth fraction of boost, she had hyperpigmentation on her radiation area (RTOG skin toxicity grade 1). At the 6-month follow-up, the hyperpigmentation still appeared. Until the 24-month follow-up, after she completed radiotherapy, there was no sign of tumor recurrence and toxicity.Conclusion: Hypofractionated radiotherapy could be an option for breast cancer treatment that provides equivalent local control, survival, and side effects to conventional fractionation radiotherapy.
Ryan Yudistiro, Ivana Dewi Mulyanto, Febby Hutomo, Daniel Chung, Andree Kurniawan, Fajar L. Gultom, Ralph Girson Gunarsa
Indonesian Journal of Cancer, Volume 14; doi:10.33371/ijoc.v14i4.711

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Introduction: Lymphoma and tuberculosis in several cases share similar clinical features that are difficult to differentiate. Lymphadenopathy, fever, malaise, weight loss, and respiratory symptoms are clinical features that could be found in both lymphoma and tuberculosis. Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG PET) is a pivotal modality for imaging patients with cancer. Several non-malignant diseases like tuberculosis infection show high FDG uptake and lead to low specificity of F-18 FDG PET.Case Presentation: This case report describes a 55-year-old male patient with a history of Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) who was suspected of having a recurrent disease. The patient has had a 6-month remission period after 6 cycles of R-CHOP regimen chemotherapy. He denied any known history of tuberculosis infection and HIV. F-18 FDG PET was performed to assess the extent of suspected lymphoma recurrent disease. F-18 FDG PET demonstrated multiple hypermetabolic bilateral neck region, mediastinum, and bilateral axilla lymphadenopathies. There were also multiple high FDG uptakes in the liver, mesocolon, and bones. The patient was suspected of having a lymphoma recurrent disease based on these findings. He underwent an excisional biopsy in the neck and was found to have lymphadenitis granulomatous disease from tuberculosis. Based on the histopathology finding, the patient received anti-tuberculosis drugs for 12 months and showed relief of signs and symptoms. F-18 FDG PET for anti-tuberculosis treatment evaluation revealed a complete metabolic response.Conclusion: Tuberculosis should be one of the differential diagnoses when a lymphoma recurrent disease is suspected. Clinical features, laboratory results, and imaging findings sometimes show similarities between lymphoma and tuberculosis. Histopathology evaluation is mandatory to confirm the diagnosis.
Mururul Aisyi, Fifi Dwijayanti, Reni Wigati, Haridini Intan Mahdi, Laswita Yunus, Chainurridha Chainurridha, Tri Aprilliana Wulandari
Indonesian Journal of Cancer, Volume 14; doi:10.33371/ijoc.v14i4.738

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Background: Sepsis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide, with around 75,000 inpatients each year and nearly 50% dying in pediatric hospitals. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in childhood is a malignancy originating from lymphoid progenitor cells, usually at the age of 2–6 years. Children with ALL contribute 30% to childhood cancer cases under 15 years old. Sepsis in pediatric patients increases mortality significantly. A previous study showed that the prevalence of sepsis in pediatrics is still high. Thus, this study aims to report ALL patients with sepsis in our institution.Methods: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study at the National Cancer Center (NCC) - Dharmais Cancer Hospital. We recruited acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients aged 2-18 years with suspected or documented sepsis based on Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) by The International Consensus Conference on Pediatric Sepsis. The data were collected by medical records from January 2014 to December 2018.Results: A total of 94 pediatric patients in the study included 57 males and 37 females with an average age of 5 years. The age range was 1–18 years with a median age of 5 years. The prevalence of sepsis in pediatric with ALL was 11 patients (11.7%) and 45.5% of deaths. The clinical conditions were as follows: abnormal temperature (8 [72.7%]), abnormal blood pressure, systolic (7 [63.6%]) and diastolic (7 [63.6%]), abnormal pulse rate (9 [81.8%]), abnormal respiratory rate (8 [72.7%]), and normal saturation (6 [54.5%]). We also did a laboratory check followed by all sepsis patients who had abnormal leukocytes (11 [100%]), and abnormal lymphocytes count (8 [72.7%]).Conclusions: The mortality rate and prevalence of sepsis in children with ALL in our institution are still high. Further prospective studies are required to explore the risk factors and predictors of sepsis based on its severity and adherence of health workers to implement guidelines on patients with sepsis in the hospital.
Tonny Loho, Agus Rizal A. H. Hamid, Rainy Umbas, Na'Imatul Mahanani
Indonesian Journal of Cancer, Volume 14; doi:10.33371/ijoc.v14i4.759

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Background: Fluoroquinolone has been routinely given as a prophylactic antibiotic to patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy. Currently, there is no data on the profile of fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria, its association with post-biopsy sepsis, and alternative prophylactic antibiotics.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients undergoing TRUS-guided prostate biopsy at Urology Clinic, Cipto Mangunkusumo National Central General Hospital between August and December 2015. Specimens were taken from rectal swabs prior to biopsy. Gramnegative bacilli and Gram-positive cocci were characterized on the Vitek®2 using GN and GP cards (BioMérieux, USA). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Post-biopsy infection was monitored within one week after biopsy by telephone call and diagnosed by clinical examination.Results: A total of 52 patients aged 52-80 years were enrolled. Sixty-six isolates grew from 52 swabs; 14 swabs among them grew 2 isolates. The commonest pathogen was Escherichia coli (78.8%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.6%), Enterococcus faecium (3.0%), Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Morganella morganii subsp. morganii, and Enterococcus faecalis (1.5%), respectively. Ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria were found in 33 (50.0%) isolates which were predominated by E. coli. Meanwhile, 90.4% and 96.2% of isolates were sensitive to amoxicillinclavulanate and ampicillin-sulbactam, respectively. Post-biopsy infection was established in 7 patients requiring no hospitalization.Conclusions: The proportion of ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria in the rectum among patients undergoing prostate biopsy was 50.0%. Escherichia coli is the commonest resistant pathogen to fluoroquinolone. The recommended alternatives for prophylactic antibiotics are amoxicillinclavulanate and ampicillin-sulbactam. Routine pre-biopsy rectal swab cultures should also be encouraged.
I Nyoman Gede Budiana, Ida Bagus Rendra Kurniawan Artha
Indonesian Journal of Cancer, Volume 14; doi:10.33371/ijoc.v14i4.731

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Background: Cervical cancer is one of the biggest women’s health issues in developing countries including Indonesia. This study is aimed to describe the characteristics of cervical precancerous lesions at a tertiary hospital in Bali, Indonesia.Methods: This is a descriptive study using data from the medical records of patients with precancerous cervical lesions who attended the Gynecologic Oncology Outpatient Clinic Sanglah Hospital Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, from January to December 2017. Results: There were 276 cases (2.88%) of the cervical precancerous lesion during the study period. The majority of cases were diagnosed within the age group of 36-45 years (37.7%), had low education levels (42.7%), obese (53.5%), multiparous (73.9%), had first sexual intercourse at the age of 16-20 years (41.3%), had used IUD as a contraceptive method (41.4%), and had a cytologic diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) that preceded the histologic diagnosis (43.2%). The most common histologic diagnosis was CIN I (43.1%) and the most common treatment was cryotherapy (56.2%).Conclusions: The majority of cervical precancerous lesion cases were diagnosed among women who were between her third and fourth decade of life, had low education level, were obese, multiparous, had a sexual debut at a younger age, and were IUD users. The majority of cases were low-grade lesions.
Adhitya Bayu Perdana, Fahreza Saputra, Mururul Aisyi
Indonesian Journal of Cancer, Volume 14; doi:10.33371/ijoc.v14i4.818

Abstract:
Childhood cancer has been a global public health scourge with considerably escalating incidence each year [1]. Although the incidence is relatively lower compared to adult malignancies, it remains the leading cause of disease-related death in children. The most frequent childhood cancer is acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with an annual incidence of 3.5 per 100,000 children in the United States [2]. Similarly, in Indonesia, ALL has the highest number of cancer cases in children [3]. The total incidence of ALL in Indonesia reaches 2.5-4.0 per 100,000 children with an estimated 2,000-3,200 annually [4]. Because of its high incidence and curability, ALL is a logical initial objective for childhood cancer program developments in Indonesia. As an indicator of successful treatment of childhood ALL, the 5-year survival rate shows contrasting figures between high-income (HIC) and lower-middle-income countries (LMIC). In the United States and most European countries, the survival rates are approximately 90% and 85% respectively. However, in Southeast Asian countries, the highest 5-year survival rate for children aged 0 to 14 was reported in Malaysia (69.4%), followed by Thailand (55.1%) [5]. Furthermore, more unfavorable results were reported in Indonesia. Studies from Dharmais Cancer Hospital and Dr. Sardjito Hospital reported the 5-year survival rate of 28.9% and 31.8% respectively [6,7]. The outcome difference between Indonesia and other countries is probably due to the high rate of relapse occurrence and toxic death during the treatment. Some studies revealed the factors that affecting the worst outcome of childhood ALL in LMIC include inadequate and delayed diagnosis, limited healthcare access, treatment abandonment, and suboptimal supportive care [8]. As pediatric oncologists in HIC have become more effective at treating childhood ALL, much of the research attempts concentrated on the risk stratification of the patients. The term “risk stratification” is used to allocate the patients into various risk groups based on the notable prognostic features for specific treatment administration. Patients with a high-risk assessment could be targeted for more aggressive treatments, while patients with lower risk could be treated less intensively to avoid the side effects and toxicities [9]. In Indonesia, risk stratification strategy encompasses clinical-hematologic parameters (age, leukocyte count, extramedullary involvement), and conventional morphological examination. These assessments represent the first step in the diagnostic pathway of ALL. Though helpful, in certain cases, the residual leukemic cells might be undetectable under bone marrow morphology examination. This led to more underdiagnosed cases, thus more patients were subjected to inadequate treatment. Fortunately, immunophenotyping is currently applied to improve the diagnosis of childhood ALL by grouping the patients based on the aberrant expression of leukemic cell antigen, even though its application is only available in several centers including Dharmais Cancer Hospital. The BCR-ABL1 fusion gene examination by PCR-based techniques has also routinely been implemented to predict the poor outcome since it was detected in 12% of childhood ALL patients [10]. However, the current above-mentioned strategy is insufficient to solve the accuracy of risk stratification of childhood ALL. In HIC, childhood ALL are classified by more comprehensive examination involving morphology, immunophenotyping, cytogenetics, and molecular techniques. The approach to classifying prognosis and to personalize treatment based on the underlying genetic biology has already implemented for understanding the pathogenesis of childhood ALL. According to studies, the molecular features of childhood ALL have been shown to have a significant prognostic value [11], and the survival rate was improved when genetic examinations are applied [12]. In recent years, high-resolution array-based genomic technologies have revolutionized the understanding of the genetic basis of childhood ALL. Several biomarkers have successfully been identified that are provenly associated with poor prognosis in childhood ALL, including the deletion/mutation of IKZF1 (IKAROS), CDKN2A, ETV6, EBF1, JAK2, and many more [13]. The majority of these genetic changes were originally identified by sophisticated methods such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays, gene expression profiling (GEP), array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), and more recently next-generation sequencing (NGS) [14]. Despite being highly sensitive for detection of multiple copy number changes, these approaches are not feasible for routine diagnostic use in LMIC which requires significant EDITORIAL Indonesian Journal of Cancer, Vol 14(4), 115–116, December 2020 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33371/ijoc.v14i4.818 www.indonesianjournalofcancer.or.id P-ISSN: 1978-3744 E-ISSN: 2355-6811 116 | financial investment. Therefore, molecular techniques that suit available resources and infrastructure should be developed in LMIC, and most importantly the cost should be affordable for patients. One feasible method is Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA). MLPA is a rapid multiplex PCR-based technique that enables the comparative analysis of multiple mutation spots [15]. MLPA provides a low-cost, simple alternative to array-based techniques for much routine clinical practice, even though it is unsuitable for whole-genome analysis. Furthermore, one benefit compared to other quantitative PCR-based techniques is that MLPA allows 50 or more different genomic DNA to be analyzed in a single tube reaction. Several studies have demonstrated the implementation of specific MLPA probe mixes for hematological malignancies, including ALL, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). These studies have also shown the sensitive and accurate identification of clinically...
Indah Jamtani, Adianto Nugroho, Syamsu Hudaya, Rofi Y. Saunar, Aditomo Widarso, Taslim Poniman
Indonesian Journal of Cancer, Volume 14; doi:10.33371/ijoc.v14i4.770

Abstract:
Introduction: Resection of renal cell carcinoma liver metastases (RCCLM) is known to provide a good survival outcome. Simultaneous RCCLM resection with the primary tumor is commonly done in cases with direct extension of locally advanced RCC to liver parenchyma. Cases of safe simultaneous resection of liver and kidney in malignancy have not been reported before in Indonesia. Case Presentation: We aim to describe two cases of left-sided RCC with right-sided RCCLM who underwent simultaneous kidney and liver resection. Both patients had good short-term survival with no intra-operative and post-operative complications.Conclusion: Although simultaneous kidney and liver resection poses challenges of substantial morbidity, a safe surgical and multidisciplinary approach could be implemented in selected cases with a good surgical outcome.
Wilson Matthew Raffaello, Andree Kurniawan
Indonesian Journal of Cancer, Volume 14; doi:10.33371/ijoc.v14i3.720

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Introduction: Sarcopenic obesity is an emerging problem in cancer patients. However, this is often difficult to diagnose without the measurement of body composition. Sarcopenic obesity is associated with increased mortality, chemo-toxicity, and other complications in cancer patients. Until now, there is scarce information about sarcopenic obesity in the cancer population.Method: We identified 1955 articles related to sarcopenic obesity in adult cancer patients using PubMed, PubMed Central, and Cochrane Library databases from January 1, 1989, until January 1, 2020. Firstly, we screened the titles and abstracts which mentioned sarcopenic and obesity, especially in pathogenesis. 29 articles could proceed to the next step; then, they were screened for the full text. All steps were reviewed by two authors.Results: At last, they were 9 articles included. Sarcopenic obesity is defined as the coexistence of sarcopenia and obesity, an increase in fat mass in the body. Sarcopenic obesity carried cumulative risks from each of the two individual body compositions. CT-scan offers the highest available precision in determining body composition parameters, especially in the cancer population. Multiple causes and interactions between hormonal changes, aging, disuse, neuronal, poor nutrition, physical inactivity, and low-grade inflammation played roles. Sarcopenic obesity is associated with chemotherapy toxicity. High protein intake should be initiated to ensure adequate protein intake. Resistance training is beneficial in improving muscle mass and strength by focusing on strength training, flexibility, and balance.Conclusions: Sarcopenic obesity is an emerging problem but is often neglected. Further research needs to be conducted especially in explaining the pathogenesis of sarcopenic obesity. The combination of physical exercise and diet modification is the best management to improve sarcopenia obesity in cancer patients.
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