Innovative Materials and Technologies in Metallurgy and Mechanical Engineering

Journal Information
ISSN : 1607-6885
Current Publisher: Zaporizhzhia National Technical University (10.15588)
Total articles ≅ 98
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G. Slynko, V. Slynko
Innovative Materials and Technologies in Metallurgy and Mechanical Engineering pp 6-12; doi:10.15588/1607-6885-2020-2-1

Abstract:
Purpose. Improving the mechanical and operational properties of details of internal combustion engines by managing the structure formation of phosphorous cast irons. Research methods. Graphitized and bleached phosphorous cast irons with lamellar and globular graphite of laboratory and industrial melts, melted in electric induction furnaces with alloying modification and fractional casting into dry sand molds were investigated. Chemical composition, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties were determined using standard methods. Non-destructive quality control of engine parts, statistical analysis of experimental data and deterministic factor analysis of the influence of structural components on the properties of the cast irons were carried out according to the methods developed with the participation of the authors. Bench and road motor tests of optimal composition cast irons details were carried out in engines according to standard and factory methods in accordance with state standards. Obtained results. The general laws and principles of the formation of the microstructure of cast irons with lamellar and nodular graphite are determined depending on the degree of their alloying with phosphorus and the influence of the scale factor. It has been established that phosphide eutectic in an amount of up to 5.8 % is a strengthening structural component and increases strength, hardness, wear resistance, heat resistance, and machin-ability of phosphorous cast irons with blade tools. The negative effect of phosphide eutectic on plastic properties and cyclic fracture toughness is less significant than the effect of increasing amounts of ferrite, its grain size and graphite. Optimal chemical compositions and microstructures of phosphorous cast irons for internal combustion engines details are recommended. Scientific novelty. For the first time, a comprehensive system for managing the properties of phosphorous cast irons has been developed, including the analytical determination of the required characteristics of structural components and the technology for their production. Practical value. Methods and technologies for melting, alloying, modifying, heat treatment and surface hardening of phosphorous cast irons have been developed. They make it possible to provide the required level of mechanical and operational properties of internal combustion engines details.
S. Homeniuk, S. Grebenyuk, D. Gristchak
Innovative Materials and Technologies in Metallurgy and Mechanical Engineering pp 66-70; doi:10.15588/1607-6885-2020-2-9

Abstract:
The relevance. The aerospace domain requires studies of mathematical models of nonlinear dynamic structures with time-varying parameters. The aim of the work. To obtain an approximate analytical solution of nonlinear forced oscillations of the designed models with time-dependent parameters. The research methods. A hybrid approach based on perturbation methods, phase integrals, Galorkin orthogonalization criterion is used to obtain solutions. Results. Nonlocal investigation of nonlinear systems behavior is done using results of analytical and numerical methods and developed software. Despite the existence of sufficiently powerful numerical software systems, qualitative analysis of nonlinear systems with variable parameters requires improved mathematical models based on effective analytical, including approximate, solutions, which using numerical methods allow to provide a reliable analysis of the studied structures at the stage designing. An approximate solution in analytical form is obtained with constant coefficients that depend on the initial conditions. Conclusions. The approximate analytical results and direct numerical solutions of the basic equation were compared which showed a sufficient correlation of the obtained analytical solution. The proposed algorithm and program for visualization of a nonlinear dynamic process could be implemented in nonlinear dynamics problems of systems with time-dependent parameters.
В.I. Мазур, П.I. Лобода, Т. Soloviova, M. Vterkovskyi, Д.о. Ремiзов, О. Kovryzhko, L. Smolinskyi
Innovative Materials and Technologies in Metallurgy and Mechanical Engineering pp 30-36; doi:10.15588/1607-6885-2020-2-4

Abstract:
Purpose of work. To investigate the features of microscopic kinetics of peritectoid transformation in Fe-Mo system alloys in an isothermal mode. Experimental part. Microscopic analysis of samples on light (Jenaphot 2000, K. Zeiss) and scanning electron (REM 106I, Selmi) microscopes, X-ray spectral microanalysis of the component’s concentrations distribution between the phases, X-ray phase analysis (Rigaku Ultima IV diffractometer). Results. Microstructure changes, phase composition and crystal lattices parameters of the phase constituents of the powder alloy during sintering at 920 °C were investigated. Variation in the phase constituents mass fraction during 7 hours of the isothermal exposure is analyzed. The formation of anomalous diffusion porosity at the beginning of the process, the nonmonotonic change in the phase constituents fraction and formation of intermediate phases with an unstable component’s concentration are the main features of the microscopic kinetics. The sintering mechanism is proposed. Scientific novelty. A local peritectoid transformation existence at the Fe/Mo interface was established by analyzing the local diffusion flows of components atoms. This transformation occurs upon isothermal supply of Mo atoms with the formation of a cooperative peritectoid structural constituents according to the α- Fe + Mo → α + μ scheme with residual Mo crystals. Formulation of the problem. This work aims to clarify the phenomenological theory of peritectoid transformation during isothermal α-Fe grains enrichment with molybdenum by studying the features of microscopic kinetics in the Fe-Mo system alloys. Practical value. Peritectoid (α + μ) with branched phase соnstituents of cooperative genesis forms a developed system of local diffusion flows of Mo atoms in α -Fe. This increases the molybdenum peritectoid transformation rate at a relatively low sintering temperature for these alloys and reduces the energy consumption in the technological process.
Yu. Kravchuk, T.в. Татарчук
Innovative Materials and Technologies in Metallurgy and Mechanical Engineering pp 57-65; doi:10.15588/1607-6885-2020-2-8

Abstract:
The purpose of the work. Statistical and experimental analysis of coating methods on the turbine nozzle apparatus to increase the temperature regime. Research methods. Calculation method of finite elements, experimental. The results obtained. Studies have shown that the use of thermally protective coatings TZP thickness of 250 мm with a thermal conductivity of 1 W / mK on the two steps of the turbine can implement one of two possibilities: - at constant operating temperature of the blade material to increase the temperature of the gas in front of the turbine by about 100 °C, which will increase efficiency and fuel savings by more than 13 %;- without changing the temperature of the gas in front of the turbine - to increase the durability of the blades by about 4 times, due to a decrease in their operating temperature. The analysis of two methods of drawing TZP was carried out, in the work the estimation of a temperature condition of the nozzle device (CA) of the turbine of a high pressure of the engine, decrease in its temperature due to drawing TZP and increase of its resource is carried out. The problem was solved by applying TZP on the blades of the nozzle apparatus. The analysis of two methods of drawing TZP was carried out, the estimation of a temperature condition of the nozzle device (CA) of the turbine of high pressure of the engine, decrease in its temperature due to drawing TZP and increase of its resource is carried out. Scientific novelty. The problem of creating efficient, economical and reliable gas turbines is the most difficult among the many problems that arise in the development of gas turbine construction. Important elements of turbines are working and nozzle blades, the material and design of which determine the allowable gas temperature in front of the turbine and thus directly affect the technical and economic performance of the gas turbine engine. Practical value. The obtained results are important for the further development of aircraft engine construction, due to the application of TZP achieved an increase in the resource of CA from 40,000 hours to 67,000 hours.
V. Klochikhin, С.м. Данилов, N. Lysenko, V. Naumyk
Innovative Materials and Technologies in Metallurgy and Mechanical Engineering pp 37-44; doi:10.15588/1607-6885-2020-2-5

Abstract:
Purpose. To study the effect of modification by the titanium carbonitride Ti(C, N) ultrafine particles additives in the form of powder and briquettes on the structure and physical-mechanical properties of the ЖС3ДК-ВІ alloy used for the manufacture of aircraft engine turbines cast rotor blades. Research methods. Preliminary high-temperature treatment of the melt was carried out on a VIP-10 installation. On the UPPF-3M installation with the alkaline melting pot, the ЖС3ДК-ВІ alloy was modified with ultrafine particles of titanium carbonitride Ti(C,N) in an amount of 60...80 g in the form of briquettes or powder wrapped in nickel foil. The samples were subjected to homogenization at a temperature of 1210 °C with a holding time of 3.5 hours and air cooling. The chemical composition of investigated alloys was determined. The macrostructure was studied on plates ~ 4 mm thick after chemical etching. The microstructure was evaluated on microsections before and after etching in the Marble reagent. Microhardness, ultimate strength, elongation and contraction, impact strength were determined at room temperature. Long-term strength tests were carried out at 850 °C under a load of 350 MPa. The bending test of the blades was carried out on a manual screw press in accordance with GOST 14019-80. Results. The microstructure of Ti+TiCN briquettes has been studied by optical and electron microscopy. X-ray microanalysis of specimen fractures confirmed a fairly uniform distribution of titanium carbonitride in the volume of briquettes. The chemical composition, macro- and microstructure of the experimental alloy have been studied. A fracto-graphic study of the samples fracture structure was carried out. The modifying effect of titanium carbonitride ultrafine particles on the dendritic structure, distribution and change in the morphology of primary carbides, the number and distribution of carbonitride particles has been established. A comparative analysis of the mechanical and heat-resistant properties of the ЖС3ДК-ВІ alloy of standard composition and modified with ultradispersed Ti(C,N) particles has been carried out. Bending tests of turbine rotor blades were carried out. Scientific novelty. It is shown that the use of ultrafine titanium carbonitride powders for bulk modification of the heat-resistant nickel alloy ЖС3ДК-ВІ makes it possible to increase the mechanical and heat-resistant properties of the material. Increasing the amount of modifier promotes grain refinement. More stable properties and favorable structure are provided by melt modification with ultrafine Ti(C,N) particles in the form of briquettes. It was found that modification with powdered Ti(C,N) leads to a decrease in the impact toughness values due to the formation of boundary microporosity. Practical value. The technology of the heat-resistant nickel alloy ЖС3ДК-ВІ, used for the manufacture of cast rotor blades of gas turbine engines, modification with additives of titanium carbonitride Ti(C,N) ultrafine particles, providing an increased level of performance properties of finished products, has been developed.
I. Zolotarevskii
Innovative Materials and Technologies in Metallurgy and Mechanical Engineering pp 22-29; doi:10.15588/1607-6885-2020-2-3

Abstract:
Purpose of work. To ascertain the causes of the abnormally large displacement of the martensitic point in steels and iron alloys in strong pulsed magnetic fields at low temperatures. Research methods. Generalization of experimental and theoretical investigations of the strong magnetic field influence on the martensitic transformation in steels and iron alloys, taking into account the magnetic state of austenite. The obtained results. The distributions of the martensitic point displacement ΔMS from the content of the main component - iron and the temperature of the martensitic γ → α- transformation beginning (martensitic point MS) in different experiments are obtained. It is shown that the obtained temperature dependence ΔMS(MS) in a strong magnetic field at low temperatures decomposes into two components, one of which correlates with the generalized Clapeyron-Clausius equations, and the other is opposite to it. In addition, it was found that steels and alloys with intense γ → α- transformation in a magnetic field contain at least 72.5% iron (wt), which at low temperatures in the fcc structure is antiferromagnetic. Scientific novelty. The anomalous temperature dependence of the distribution ΔMS(MS) in a strong magnetic field is explained on the basis of quantum representations of the magnetic interaction of atoms in the Fe-Ni system. This effect is associated with a number of other invar effects, in particular, with an abnormally large spontaneous and forced magnetostriction, a strong dependence of the resulting exchange integral on the interatomic distance. The point of view according to which in these alloys in a magnetic field γ → α- transformation occurs by the type of “magnetic first kind phase transformation” is substantiated. It is assumed that the nucleation of the martensitic phase in a magnetic field occurs in (at) local regions of γ- phase with disoriented atomic magnetic moments (with high compression and increased forced magnetostriction). Practical value. The information obtained in this work provides grounds for explaining the kinetic features of the transformation of austenite into martensite in steels and iron alloys.
L. Gulyaeva, T.в. Татарчук
Innovative Materials and Technologies in Metallurgy and Mechanical Engineering pp 93-95; doi:10.15588/1607-6885-2020-2-14

Abstract:
Роль фізики у фаховій підготовці майбутніх інженерів
С.м. Попов, S. Shumykin, Н. Laptieva
Innovative Materials and Technologies in Metallurgy and Mechanical Engineering pp 82-87; doi:10.15588/1607-6885-2020-2-11

Abstract:
Purpose. To establish mathematical models for the adaptation of materials under conditions of activation of a metastable structural-phase state of quasi-dissipative tribosystems. Determination and substantiation of factors for planning an active experiment due to which it is possible to create mathematical models of stable forecasts for increasing the wear resistance of materials. Research methods. When conducting the experiments, a priori data were used in combination with our own scientific developments of mathematical models of the dependences of the influence of the chemical composition of alloys during manual and automatic electric arc surfacing on the physical and mechanical properties of the surface layer of the material, which is destroyed under tribosystem conditions. It was decided to use mathematical planning of research on the basis of an active experiment with the creation of models for the numerical description of the mathematical expectation in the form of regression equations. Obtained results. On the basis of theoretical and practical scientific research with planning a passive and active experiment, a set of relevant knowledge has been obtained, which makes it possible to determine the main criterion requirements for the sensitivity of deposited steels and alloys to adaptation under the action of external mechanical and energy influences and allows to mathematically describe the characteristics of the alloy and provide a numeri­cal estimate of the correlation parameters among themselves. On the basis of the theory of scientific mathematical planning of the experiment, a set of corresponding experiments was carried out, which made it possible to build spatial graphic models. Scientific novelty. For the first time, theoretical and practical scientific research is presented with the reproduction of a systemic multivariate analysis of the parameters of mathematical models and processes leading to the martensitic ( γ → α ) transformation and determines the substantiation of the chemical composition of the deposited materials to increase fracture resistance under conditions of quasi-dissipative and dissipative tribosystems. Practical meaning. The obtained results of the above studies allow, within the framework of technical and technological accuracy, which is necessary within the framework of practical engineering forecasts, to determine the physical and mechanical properties of wear-resistant deposited alloys under conditions of quasi-dissipative and dissipative tribosystems.
S. Kiyko
Innovative Materials and Technologies in Metallurgy and Mechanical Engineering pp 71-81; doi:10.15588/1607-6885-2020-2-10

Abstract:
Purpose. To build a model of project selection for the portfolio in accordance with the energy strategy of the metallurgical enterprise. The urgency of solving these issues for the metallurgical industry of Ukraine is caused by the need to improve the economic stability of enterprises, increase the competitiveness of products and reduce dependence on energy suppliers. Methods. Methods of program and portfolio management, system approach, models and methods of strategic management in the field of project management and mathematical apparatus of set theory are used in formalizing the model of forming a portfolio of energy saving projects at a metallurgical enterprise. Results. The analysis of the general problem of portfolio management of energy saving projects at metallurgical enterprises is performed. The main stages of formation and implementation of the portfolio of energy saving projects of the metallurgical enterprise are considered in detail. A formalized mathematical model for the selection of energy saving projects at a metallurgical enterprise for the portfolio has been developed. With the help of the proposed approach and models, a portfolio of projects of the metallurgical enterprise PJSC “Dniprospetsstal” was formed, which included promising projects for implementation in accordance with the energy strategy. Scientific novelty. A model of project portfolio formation in accordance with the energy efficiency strategy of a metallurgical enterprise has been developed, which comprehensively takes into account the current state of the enterprise and its future strategic directions, resource and financial support of energy saving projects and risks of adverse events. Practical meaning. The use of this model allows consistent analysis of portfolio projects in order to identify opportunities for their implementation at the metallurgical enterprise, to coordinate project implementation plans and plans at different levels of planning, to select the most promising projects for implementation in accordance with the energy strategy.
В.м. Плескач, V. Ol’Shanetskii
Innovative Materials and Technologies in Metallurgy and Mechanical Engineering pp 45-49; doi:10.15588/1607-6885-2020-2-6

Abstract:
Purpose. Optimization of methods of design, calculation and use of slip bearings; elaboration of recommendations on the use of powder materials and lubricants for the production of slip bearings. Research methods. Analysis of existing calculations of slip bearings, of efficiency of the bearing under conditions of self-lubrication and features of using hydrodynamic lubrication theory for calculations of slip bearings in the presence of liquid lubrication. Results. The area of predominant application of slip bearings, their main elements are clarified and described; recommendations on the sizes of structural elements of bearings are given. The main types of slipping friction and their relationship with the bearing design and operating conditions are analyzed. The possible composition of powder materials for slip bearings, the interdependence of bearing porosity and the viscosity of the oil used to ensure the of its longevity is analyzed. Recommendations for the design of bearings in conditions of liquid friction are given. Generalized methodology for calculating the efficiency of slip bearings is proposed. Based on the theory of hydrodynamic lubrication, a method for calculating slip bearings for liquid lubrication conditions, which provides optimal operating conditions is proposed. Scientific novelty. Optimized selection of powder material and structure to improve lubrication conditions is proposed. The analysis of the influence of the chemical composition of the oil to ensure maximum adhesion of this oil with a bearing surface is resulted; the analysis of the influence of the chemical composition of the oil to ensure maximum adhesion of this oil with a bearing surface, as well as mathematical dependencies that make it possible to adjust the composition of the oil by adding specially selected microadditives is resulted. Generalized approaches to the method of calculation of powder slip bearings, which operating under different friction conditions are proposed. Practical value. Practical methods of designing and calculating slip bearings from powder materials are offered.
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