Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry
EISSN : 2581-7418
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 173
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 21 October 2022
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry pp 147-154; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i4173
With the rapid development of China's dairy industry and the continuous increase in the number of dairy cows, mechanized dairy farming equipment has been widely used. Therefore, mechanized dairy farming equipment in China has entered a new stage of development. From the current development of the dairy farming industry, mechanized farming has made outstanding contributions to improving the output of a single cow, ensuring the production safety of milk products, and improving the level of feeding management technology. Therefore, the implementation of mechanized dairy farming is the key to the development of China's dairy industry, and the R & D of standardization, finalization, serialization, and the complete set is also its future development direction. Dairy equipment is the basis of large-scale dairy farming, this paper briefly analyzes the development of feeding equipment, milking equipment, feed processing equipment, manure collection equipment, etc., and outlines the advanced and applicable characteristics of some products. The research in this paper provides a reference for the improvement and application of related products, effectively promoting the mechanized development of China's cattle industry and meeting the increasing consumer demand of residents.
Published: 10 October 2022
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry pp 135-146; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i4172
Rice falls under the grass family Graminae. Paddy cultivation is the principal activity and source of income for millions of people worldwide. The purpose of this research was to better understand the paddy production economics, socioeconomic position, potential, and challenges in Kanchanrup municipality, Saptari District. Using a basic random sampling procedure, 60 rice growers were sampled. A pre-tested interview approach was used to obtain primary data, and a study of relevant literature was used to acquire secondary data. Further, descriptive statistics, SPSS, and MX Excel were used to analyze the data. Among 60 rice-growing farmers, the percentage of the male was 98.3% and females were 1.7% respectively. The average land under paddy cultivation per household was found to be 0.98 hectares. Production costs are estimated by adding variable and fixed costs, however, because rice is a short-lived crop, total fixed costs are not taken into account. Kanchanrup’s average variable cost of rice production is NRs. 114758.18. (Per hectare). Similarly, the total profit was NR 20979.32 and the total yield was NR 135737.5 (Per ha). Kanchanrup has a B: C ratio of 1.18, indicating that the paddy is growing economically viable in the Municipality. The business can provide returns of NPR 1.18 for every rupee invested, and the gross margin is positive, indicating that the investment is financially sustainable and the operation may proceed without any problems.
Published: 1 October 2022
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry pp 109-122; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i4170
Current status of species diversity, composition and abundance provides guidance for their management and assessment of their ecological usefulness. In this study trees species diversity, abundance and soil properties of Ukpon River Forest Reserve was assessed. Line transect method was using to establish 4 sample plots of 50 x 50 m. Data on vegetation were collected using the appropriate tool and soil samples from the plot were collected with the aid of soil auger. Tree species composition, abundance and diversity indices were estimated using the appropriate formulae and soil samples analyzed following standard methods. A total of 194 individuals in 60 species belonging to 26 families were encountered in the study area. The dominant families are Leguminaceae, Moraceae, Fabaceae, Burseraceae, Apocynaceae, Calsalpinaceace and Euphorbiaceae. The total basal area estimated for tree species was 147.615m2 with Bombaxbounpozen having the highest of 11.09m2 and relative dominance (RDo) of 7.51% while Piptadeniastrumafricana has the highest relative density (RD) of 7.73% and importance value index (IMI) of 15.63%. Based on their relative density, 68.34% of the trees were Rare, 18.33% Threatened or Endangered, 5% Abundant/ Occasional and 3.33% Frequent. The study had a high Shannon – Weiner index value of 3.04 and Margalef richness of 20.67 and low dominance index of 0.06. The soil properties such as Clay, Organic matter, Phosphorus, Calcium, Cation Exchangeable capacity and Base Saturation were high. The pH value of 5.77 shows the soil were moderately acidic. These properties have been shown to improve soil fertility status and moisture content needed plant growth. Although the tree species diversity in the study area was high, some species appears to have been threatened while majority were rare, sustainable conservation effort should be geared towards ensuring their continuous existence.
Published: 15 September 2022
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry pp 97-108; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i430168
This study was carried out to assess diversity, biomass and carbon storage potential of some tree species in a Nigerian forest. All trees with Dbh >10cm were enumerated. Tree growth variables, namely the Diameter at the base (Db), Diameter at breast height (Dbh), Diameter at the middle (Dm), Diameter at the top (Dt) and height, were measured for basal area and volume estimation and their frequency of occurrence was ascertained for tree diversity assessment. Fifty-six (56) trees distributed among 21 species and 11 families were enumerated in this study area. Some of these species were Acacia ataxacantha, Blighia sapida, Alstonia bonnie, Ceiba pentandra, Celtis zenkeri, Khaya ivorensis, etc. Funtumia elastica had the highest frequency of occurrence (11 stems) with a Relative Density of 19.64%. Therefore, it could be regarded as the most abundant tree species in the forest. Shannon Wiener index of 2.62 was recorded for this study with an evenness value of 0.86. Khaya senegalensis stored the highest carbon of 4.86 tonnes, and total Above Ground Biomass (ABG) of 53.64 g/m2, equivalent to 26.82 tonnes of Carbon was obtained for all the tree species. The results from this study showed that there is high level of forest degradation in the study area. Though, the forest could only store small amount of carbon but it has been able to reduce the amount of carbon escaping into the atmosphere. Conservative measures must be put in place to protect the forest from further degradation and this will go a long way in mitigating climate change by serving as carbon sinks.
Published: 13 September 2022
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry pp 88-96; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i430167
A study was conducted to find out the impact of rice mill pollution on the surrounding environment, agricultural production and human health status at Dinajpur Sadar Upazila through a semi-structured questionnaire during the period from October 2018 to October 2019. Nine rice mills were randomly selected and data were collected from a number of 104 respondents. Data were collected from the respondents at four distant places away from a rice mill viz. 0 meter (in and around mill area), 100, 500, and 1000 meter away. Appropriate scales were developed to measure both the independent and dependent variables by using Microsoft excel and SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) program. Results showed maximum respondents attitude (>50%) towards the impact of rice mill pollution on envielnment, agricultute and their health status were not positive (score was 8-15 out of 32) i.e. they were suffering from the rice mill pollutions. Study on four different distances showed that the closest surroundings were highly affected category (impact score >40 out of 60) by the rice mill pollution. The pollution effect on agricultural productivity and human health was in the highest category up to 500 meter away from the mill site and it was found in decreasing trend (impact score <20) at the distance of 1000 away from the rice mill. The overall findings of the study suggested that rice mill should be established more than half a kilometer away from the human settlement and arable land to minimize the rice mill pollution hazards.
Published: 7 September 2022
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry pp 71-87; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i430166
In order to prevent microbial spoilage and degradation responses during storage, agricultural products are typically dried to eliminate moisture from them. The removal of moisture is required for the preservation of this substance (drying). Under- or over-drying a product might result in loss through product damage. This work therefore focuses on the drying of two major crops grown by local farmers and agricultural companies; Musa paradisiaca and Theobroma cacao, obtained from a local farmer within Auchi, Edo state. The drying characteristics, including moisture content, moisture loss, and drying rates, were examined experimentally in this study at the university laboratory and Pax Herbal Clinic & Research Laboratories Ltd. This was obtained with the use of a locally fabricated cross and through circulation dryer for drying and a moisture analyzer to obtain moisture contents while taking into account temperature ranges between 40 and 80°C and time intervals from 5 to 40 minutes. The result of the experiment showed that, the crops' moisture loss and drying rate depend on the time and temperature they are exposed to. The Musa paradisiaca crop has more natural moisture than Theobroma cacao and hence, it takes a longer time to dry with a rapid moisture loss in the early 40 minutes of drying time and at temperatures within 40 and 70°C. Theobroma cacao dries more rapidly with a 72% moisture lost at temperatures between 40 and 60 C. A temperature range of 60 to 70°C at any drying time would therefore be sufficient to dry Theobroma cacao and Musa paradisiaca for their drying preservation.
Published: 27 August 2022
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry pp 61-70; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i430165
The chemical and functional properties of selected rice varieties commercially cultivated in Ebonyi and Anambra States of Nigeria were evaluated. Four rice varieties each (IR-8, 1416, Faro 44 and 306) from these States were analyzed for the mineral, vitamin, functional and phytochemical properties. The mineral contents of the rice samples were a range of copper (0.01-0.06mg/100g); Calcium (0.31-0.55mg/100g); lead (0.04 to 0.12 µg/g); Iron (0.54-1.26mg/100g); Zinc (0.92-1.76mg/100g), Phosphorus (12.25-28.68mg/100g). Potassium (58.01-74.02mg/100g); Manganese (0.05-0.23mg/100g) and Magnesium (0.19-0.58mg/100g). Vitamin contents of the rice samples had a range of thiamine B1(0.02-0.08mg/100g); Riboflavin B2 (0.10-0.28mg/100g) and niacin B3 (2.35-3.48mg/100g). The functional properties were in range of bulk density (0.71-0.83g/cm3); water absorption capacity (2.60-4.00g/ml); swelling index (1.20-1.82); gelation temperature (82.00-90.000C); amylose (17.88-27.50%) and amylopectin (73.54-81.85%). The phytochemical contents of the rice samples were in a range of tannin (0.01-02mg/100g); Phytate (4.27-9.28mg/kg); Oxalate (0.02-0.40mg/100g); flavonoid (1.14-5.58%) and carotenoid (473.59-4542.97mg/100g). The results of the mineral contents showed that the selected varieties were generally low in Copper, Iron, Zinc, Phosphorus, Manganese, Magnesium; high in calcium and potassium but low in lead content. The results of the vitamin contents showed that the selected varieties had low level of Thiamine (B1), Riboflavin (B2) and good level of Niacin (B3). The result of the functional properties showed that the selected rice varieties were showed lowest in bulk density and water absorption capacity; moderate in swelling index and gelatinization temperature; however. 306 and1416 had good level of amylose whereas IR-8 and Faro 44 had good levels of amylopectin. Results also showed that the selected varieties were generally low in phytochemical contents and wouldn’t pose nutritional risk when consumed. The result of this study can go a long way to an effective utilization of our indigenous varieties thus adding value to the crop.
Published: 25 August 2022
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry pp 51-60; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i430164
Maize (Zea mays L.) is an important source of staple food in Kenya. Research innovations and physical inputs, and the capacity of farmers to use them are major ingredients for crop productivity enhancement. This study evaluated agricultural extension training and formal education as elements of farmers’ capacity to use innovations and inputs. The study was conducted in a rural setup of North Rift in Kenya. Data were gathered by use of interview schedules through cross-sectional survey from 502 households sampled purposively and by simple random sampling. Welch’s t-test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to test for differences between means. 42.8% of the participants reported that they had not received agricultural extension training, 57.2% had. 65.2% had up to primary level education, 34.8% had secondary and above. Formal education up to primary was regarded as basic. Results indicated that fertilizer-use rates and maize yields differed significantly between groups ‘who had received Extension training’ and those who ‘had not been trained’; t (482.785) = -9.228, P = .000 and t (496.513) = -7.095, P = .000, respectively. Regarding formal education, fertilizer-use rates and maize yields differed significantly between ‘basic education’ category and ‘higher than basic’; t (332.28) = -5.699, P = .000 and t (290.29) = -5.438, P = .000 respectively. The alternative Mann-Whitney U test showed similar results. Effect sizes as measured by Eta-squared (ƞ2) ranged from .06 (medium) to .1445 (large). It is concluded that Agricultural extension training had a highly significant influence on maize productivity. Formal education showed a positive impact on fertilizer-use adoption and maize productivity. This study has significance in the formulation of policy on agricultural extension training and investments to ensure all segments of society are equipped with relevant information for crop yield enhancement and food security.
Published: 12 August 2022
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry pp 38-50; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i430163
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different rates of liquid Trichoderma harsianum on the growth enhancement of tissue-cultured Abaca seedlings. There are six treatments replicated four (4) times with 5 samples per replication. The following were the treatment: T0-control, T1- 50 ml of L.T, T2- 40 ml of L.T, T3-30 ml of L.T, T4- 20 ml of L.T, and T5-10ml of L.T/liter of water. Based on the results, it did not successfully reject the null hypothesis on plant height, pseudostem girth, leaf count per plant, leaf area per plant, and the number of primary roots of Abaca seedlings treated with liquid Trichoderma harsianum. While the two parameters successfully rejected the null hypothesis, there is highly significant that developed greater lengths for their shoot and root lengths treated with liquid Trichoderma harsianum. When compared to the control, the use of Liquid Trichoderma harsianum can significantly increase abaca growth. Treatment 3 of Abaca seedlings with 30 ml of liquid Trichoderma harsianum was the most effective of the five treatments with this substance. The correlation between treatments and parameters is also favorable.
Published: 21 July 2022
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry pp 30-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i430162
Soil supplies most of the mineral nutrients for plant growth through the plant’s root system. The need to determine the soil nutrient supplying capacity of the soil at Idi-Apa, Oke-Oyi area of Kwara State, Nigeria for groundnut cultivation is of major concern before embarking on large-scale cultivation of groundnut to avoid great loss. The project was therefore conducted to analyse the soil at Idi-Apa, Oke-Oyi area based on the fertility for the cultivation of groundnut. Soil samples were taken at depths 0–30 cm and 30–60 cm (which is the maximum rooting depth for groundnut) from the land. The samples which were collected through the random method were sent to the laboratory and analysed for chemical parameters: pH; organic carbon (OC); organic matter (OM); calcium (Ca); magnesium (Mg); sodium (Na); potassium (K); and nitrogen (N). Physical properties (textural class) and other properties such as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR); exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP); base saturation (BS) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were determined. The result of the analysis showed that the pH (7.1-7.8), OM (2.36-6.93%), OC (1.37-4.98%), Na (0.04-0.15%), ESP (1.04 – 1.28%) and BS (95.37-95.85%) were found to be in the range of the requirements for groundnut production, while the other analyses parameters were outside the required range. Generally, some of the major nutrients like and potassium needed by the crop have deteriorated while some others like calcium are available in sufficient quantities. This calls for the application of fertilizer to the soil to provide the lost nutrients and proper monitoring of the soil before the cultivation of groundnut. An integrated approach that involves the cultivation of nutrient-efficient varieties of groundnut on nutrient-deficient soils is suggested. In the absence of magnesium-efficient varieties, the application of magnesium as fertilizer is recommended. There were no significant differences (p >.05) in the results between the two soil layers for all chemical properties considered except for organic where OM was significantly higher in the subsoil than in the topsoil.