Agro Productividad

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2448-7546 / 2594-0252
Published by: Colegio de Postgraduados (10.32854)
Total articles ≅ 611
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Esthefania Bonilla-Gutiérrez, Fernando Carlos Gómez-Merino, Libia Iris I. Trejo-Téllez, J. Cruz García-Albarado, Juan Valente Hidalgo-Contreras
Published: 14 October 2021
Abstract:
Objective: To analyze the processes and alternative uses that plantain cultivation may have, in addition toplaces with tourist potential in the town Monte Salas, municipality of Fortín de las Flores, Veracruz, Mexico.Design/Methodology/Approach: A review of the space of the study area was performed, as well as ananthropological analysis, description of the process of the plantain leaf used to prepare local food, commercialanalysis, development of a sustainable product, and a research stay in Colombia.Results: In Monte Salas, Fortín de las Flores, Veracruz, Mexico, plantain cultivation is regarded as anoutstanding element of the landscape, together with the process of leaf roast production as a value-addingstrategy to generate biodegradable co-products. Through the dissemination of audiovisual capsules on socialnetworks, places with tourist potential were made known and together with the implementation of the offer ofbiodegradable co-products, it was demonstrated that plantain leaf can be used alternately.Study Limitations/Implications: Due to the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) coronavirus pandemic, the dissemination of our findings and products were restricted.Conclusions: Novel biodegradable products can be manufactured from plantain leaves, which created aspecial interest of local tourists to visit Monte Salas and enjoy the agrosystemic landscape.
Veronica Resendiz-Cruz, J. Efrén Ramírez-Bribiesca, María Magdalena Crosby-Galván, Adolfo Armando Rayas-Amor, Erika Berenice León-Espinosa, Rosy Gabriela Cruz-Monterrosa
Published: 14 October 2021
Abstract:
Objective: Lipid oxidation of meat is one of the most important factors affecting shelf life and is one of the decisive factors in the consumer's purchase decision of the product. Therefore, information related to lipid oxidation using rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus (L.) Schleid.) as a natural antioxidant is described and analyzed. Design/methodology/approach: Mechanisms of oxidation were explored and described, as well as the alternatives to stop this process and different methodologies to measure antioxidant activity and innovative alternatives that are currently being investigated. Results: Appling antioxidants is one of the most widely used methods to counteract the oxidation process in meat. Currently, using herbs and spices has gained great acceptance, as in the case of rosemary. Its usage obtained satisfactory results for inhibiting and delaying lipid oxidation. Limitations of the study/implications: Using rosemary may have some drawbacks such as incorporating a strong flavor to the meat and the effects that its active compounds may have when exposed to oxygen, heat and humidity. Therefore, it is necessary to research for alternatives that will allow better preservation and availability of its compounds. Findings/conclusions: Nanoencapsulation of rosemary may be an alternative to the drawbacks of its use, working as a protective barrier for improved performance and improving food safety. However, this innovation is just being explored and is therefore not possible to have a certainty of success when using these new technological alternatives.
José M. Hernández-Hernández, Jaime Gallegos-Sánchez, Carlos M. Becerril-Pérez, Arturo Pro-Martínez, Ponciano Pérez-Hernández
Published: 14 October 2021
Abstract:
Objective: To describe the management strategies of controlled suckling and the male effect to reduce postpartum anestrus, and to show the participation of kisspeptin to regulate the effect of both factors. Design/Methodology/Approach: A review of scientific publications was conducted, in order to show the importance of suckling and the male effect as strategies to reduce postpartum anestrus in the ewe, as well as the relation of kisspeptin with both factors. Results: Seasonal anestrus can be avoided with the use of breeds adapted to the local environment, such as Pelibuey. Postpartum anestrus occurs mainly as a result of suckling, since the latter inhibits the pulsating secretion of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the luteinizing hormone (LH). The exact path of this inhibition is unknown, although it seems that endogenous opioid peptides and kisspeptin are intermediaries. Controlled suckling and the male effect are management strategies that improve the reproductive behavior of postpartum ewes. Kisspeptin regulates the influence of the male effect through the secretion of GnRH/LH. Study Limitations/Implications: To understand the impacts of suckling and the male effect on the duration of postpartum anestrus, as well as the participation of kisspeptin in the regulation of both effects, will allow designing management strategies to improve the reproductive efficiency of the ewes. Findings/Conclusions: Controlled suckling and the male effect reduce postpartum anestrus and improve the reproductive behavior of the ewes; advancing knowledge of the kisspeptin effect could improve the effectiveness of both techniques.
J. González-Maldonado, Erika A. Martínez-Moreno, Javier F. Domínguez-Caballero, C.A. Herrera-Corredor, J. Gallegos-Sánchez
Published: 14 October 2021
Abstract:
Objective: To share technical aspects with specialists in animal reproduction and producers that could help to improve the reproductive capacity of caprine livestock. Design/Methodology/Approach: Scientific evidence and experience in the reproductive management of goats are the basis that sustains the information presented in this article. Results: The goat is widely distributed in Mexico; it is a species with seasonal reproductive activity, but of easy manipulation with hormonal and natural means. Presently there is a large variety of biotechnologies that can be applied in the production units, to potentiate the reproductive activity of the goat. Study Limitations/Implications: The lack of knowledge and the lack of consulting and technical training limit the productive and reproductive potential of goat breeding in Mexico. Findings/Conclusions: Knowledge of the reproductive physiology of the goat and understanding of the means available to manipulate it guarantees its reproduction at the time and in the conditions desired by the producer and the market
Humberto Osorio Espinoza, Juan F. Aguirre-Cadena, Nidia Bélgica Pérez de la O, Alfredo I. Brindis-Santos, Francisco J. Marroquín-Agreda
Published: 14 October 2021
Abstract:
Objective: To evaluate the influence of living and dead covers on the yield and quality of rambutan fruits (Nephelium lappaceum L.) in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico. Design / methodology / approach: Five treatments were evaluated, two live covers, two dead covers and an always clean control without covers. The following were evaluated: plant height, crown volume, fruit quality, fruit yield (t ha-1). The data were analyzed under a randomized block experimental design. Results: All the agroecological modalities of hedging evaluated produced fruits with the quality required for national and international commercialization. Study limitations / implications: The morphological and physiological response of the crop can change with the age of the tree. Findings / conclusions: An agroecological management strategy is presented to develop rambutan cultivation in Soconusco region.
Francisco Cruz-Espinoza, Jaime Gallegos-Sánchez, Tamara Alejandra Mendieta-Galán, Christofer I. Márquez- Hernández, Juan Salazar-Ortiz
Published: 14 October 2021
Abstract:
Objective: To describe briefly the physiology, the anatomy and the reproductive management of the ram. Design/Methodology/Approach: Review of the anatomy, physiology and general considerations for an adequate reproductive management of the ram. Results: The ram presents a less seasonal reproductive activity than the female and its reproductive behavior is easier to observe. However, it is in the fall, the reproductive season of seasonal sheep, when their behavior is much more complex and complete. It begins with smelling the external genitals of the female, goes through the flehmen response and ends with mating, intromission and ejaculation. It is necessary to consider the anatomical and physiological aspects of the ram and its meticulous management to avoid reproductive failures in the flock. Frequently, the rams are less important for the flock’s handler during the season of reproductive rest. Monitoring their diet and parasite and disease control is necessary to keep them apt for reproduction. The evaluation of the reproductive aptitude of the ram before mating is convenient and can be planned as part of its management; and once mating begins, considering the adequate proportion of rams/females, in addition to monitoring their performance during this event. Study Limitations/Implications: To consider that the ram shows a good capacity for mating, capacity for service, libido, quality of semen, since it is responsible for a proportion of lamb production. Findings/Conclusions: Reproduction in sheep is regulated by the photoperiod, genetic potential, nutritional status, health status and other factors, which are important both in the ram and in the female. Some sheep breeds have potential of prolificacy; a good reproductive management of the ram can influence these factors and increase the reproduction rate in the flocks.
D.S. Ramírez-Reyes, Y. Marín-Osorio, M.P. Arzola-Hernández, X. Santiago Pérez, J. Gallegos-Sánchez, S. Fraire-Cordero
Published: 12 October 2021
Abstract:
Objective: To describe some reproductive management programs that allow increasing the productive efficiency of ewes. Design/methodology/approach: Description of the main hormones and their application in sheep reproductive management protocols. The subjects are reviewed based on academic references as well as on their use in sheep reproductive protocols at the Sheep and Goat Reproduction Laboratory of the Colegio de Postgraduados, Mexico. Results: Hormones, socio-sexual strategies, reproductive protocols and techniques are tools that improve the reproductive efficiency of ewes during the reproductive season and seasonal anestrus. Study limitations/implications: The basic techniques of reproductive management and protocols in sheep are mostly available, however, they still have room for improvement, therefore, multiple efforts involving all participants, such as the primary sector, public and private institutions, are required. Findings/conclusions: Reproductive management is an important pillar for animal production; thus its implementation is fundamental to improve the reproductive and productive efficiency of a herd
L.L. Valera- Montero, L. González-Delgadillo, K. A. Amador-Rodríguez, C. Perales-Segovia, Silvia Flores Benítez
Published: 12 October 2021
Abstract:
Objective. To optimize a nutrient medium based on fertilizers for the cultivation of Bacillus subtilis in an Airlift-type handcrafted bioreactor. Design/Methodology/Approach. Twenty-seven nutrient media, fixed by combining five factors with three levels, including sucrose, ammonium sulfate, triple superphosphate, UltraK® formula, and B. subtilis inoculum (Serenade® Max) were tested in a 50L handcrafted by the authors. The variables monitored in the media were absorbance, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature. The first was the one that was considered for optimization as it is the indirect indicator of bacterial growth. On the statistical analysis, the option "Larger is better" was chosen for Signal/Noise for the ANOVA of the main effects according to the Taguchi method. Results. The highest level of sucrose, together with the lowest level of triple superphosphate were determinants for maximum growth of Bacillus in the time studied. On the other hand, the components such as ammonium sulfate, UltraK® formula, or the amount of inoculum were not significant, which means that they can be added from the mid to low levels. Study limitations/Implications. This new information can be scaled to bioreactors of 2500 L for B. subtilis that we have previously developed. Finding/Conclusions. Maximum bacterial growth depends on a good supply of sucrose, limiting triple superphosphate. Additionally, it is prudent to decrease additions of ammonium sulfate because it reduces dissolved oxygen in the nutrient medium.
E.B. León-Espinosa, G. Calderón-Domínguez, M. García-Garibay, M. Díaz-Ramírez, R.G. Cruz-Monterrosa, R. Ruiz-Hernández, R.V. Pérez-Ruiz, J. Jiménez-Guzmán
Published: 12 October 2021
Abstract:
Objective: Evaluate the antioxidant activity of protein fractions obtained from (bovine serum albumin) BSA protein hydrolysates. Design / methodology / approach: Bioinformatics tools, such as the NCBI database, were used to search for primary sequences of BSA proteins. The methodology included a prediction of peptides with antioxidant activity through various bioinformatics servers. The antioxidant activity was determined by different methods. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate possible significant differences using the Student Newman Keulls test for group comparison. Results: Through in silica hydrolysis the following peptides were found: valine-alanine-phenylalanine (VAF), lysine-tryptophan (KW), phenylalanine-tyrosine (FY), alanine-proline (AP), among others that may have antioxidant activity. The results showed that the fraction <1 kDa hydrolyzed with chymotrypsin, this fraction showed 84% copper chelation, 61% iron chelation, while 75% inhibition of the DPPH radical. In the case of the fraction <1 kDa hydrolyzed with pepsin, it only showed 16% iron chelation, while in the other methods no value was detected. Study limitations / implications: The enzyme used for enzymatic hydrolysis generates low degrees of hydrolysis and generates oligopeptide dipeptides that may not be as like some of the tested methods, in addition to the protein concentration in the fraction <1 kDa with pepsin it had very low values that could not be detected by some antioxidant methods. Findings / conclusions: The antioxidant activity of the <1 kDa fraction obtained with chymotrypsin showed greater antioxidant and chelating activity, compared to the <1 kDa fraction obtained with pepsin. However, at the concentration of 2% and 5% fluctuations are observed in both fractions, because probably the composition of amino acids that is present in both fractions determines the activity in each of the tested methods
Ana Bethsi Hernández-Rivera, Rosy Gabriela Cruz Monterrosa, Judith Jiménez-Guzmán, Erika Berenice León-Espinosa, Mariano García-Garibay, Miriam Fabela Fabela-Morón, Mayra Díaz-Ramírez, Rafael Ruiz-Hernández, Rigoberto Vicencio Pérez-Ruiz
Published: 12 October 2021
Abstract:
Objective: To study and understand the population's perception in a region of the Estado de Mexico about the role of certified organic food in health and the environment, as well as the economic impact generated by its consumption. Desing/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted among a population sample of 10 municipalities in the Estado de Mexico, which consisted of seven questions related to certified organic food. Results: The population has an idea about what certified organic food is, although they confuse it with other types of food. Study limitations/ implications: Results were obtained from an e-mail survey because this study was conducted during the current 2020-2021 pandemic. Findings/conclusion: The information obtained suggests that the population has a great perception about the intake of certified organic food, but there is confusion about other types of food. However, the population is willing to consume them because of their potential health and environment benefits.
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