ISSN / EISSN : 2448-7546 / 2594-0252
Published by: Colegio de Postgraduados (10.32854)
Total articles ≅ 754
Latest articles in this journal
Agro Productividad; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i6.2252
Objective: To evaluate the effect of different stocking densities:12 (D12), 18 (D18) and 24 (D24) individuals m-2 (ind m-2) on growth (weight and length) and survival in juvenile river crocodiles (Crocodylus acutus). Design/methodology/approach: The crocodiles were cultured in each treatment by triplicate for 43-d in nine plastic tanks and fed a diet based on a mix of beef liver, fish and commercial dog food. Results: At the end of the experiment, there were not significant differences among treatments in the growth variables, recording a low increment in weight and total length (38.99 ± 8.96 g and 4.19 ± 1.36 cm; mean ± SD) in all densities as well as overall survival of 62.02 ± 7.67% (mean ± SD). The stocking density of 24 ind m-2 was significantly higher in biomass production by m2 for the stocking densities of 18 and 12 individuals (p < 0.05). Limitations on study/implications: The development of culture techniques is a tool to assess the potential of this ecologically important species for its conservation and eventual commercialization. Findings/conclusions: It can be recommended a stocking density of 24 ind m-2 (D24) to optimize the use of space and infrastructure profitability
Agro Productividad; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i6.2225
Objective: To estimate the composition and winter abundance of waterfowl for hunting in a Wildlife Conservation Management Unit (UMA), within the Malaga wetlands complex, Durango, Mexico. Design/Methodology/Approach: In the winter of 2019, waterfowl for hunting were identified and quantified in an UMA of the Malaga wetlands complex, Durango, Mexico. The birds were counted with the point count methodology in five repetitions, in order to estimate their specific richness and abundance in each one. These variables were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.05). Results: A total of 21,620 birds from 18 species were registered. The most frequent families were the Anatidae, Rallidae, and Gruidae. Anser albifrons, A. caerulescens, and Anas crecca were the most abundant species. This abundance increased according to the number of tests. Therefore, the highest proportion of birds was recorded in the last sampling (p < 0.05). Study Limitations/Implications: This study provides baseline demographic information for this group of birds that inhabits the Durango wetlands. However, long-term monitoring is necessary to determine the demographic dynamics of these species. Findings/Conclusions: The study site is diverse and important for the waterfowl for hunting that spend the winter in Durango, Mexico
Agro Productividad; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i6.2120
Objective: To characterize the goat producers according to the industrial destinations of the milk, in order to analyze the coordination mechanisms established in the agri-food chain. Design/Methodology/Approach: A survey was applied to 122 randomly selected goat producers. Taking into account two industrial destinations, a socioeconomic, productive, and commercial comparison was carried out, through T-tests for independent means. In order to analyze the coordination mechanisms, the data were complemented interviewing owners of collection centers and businessmen who processed milk. Results: The producers had small herds and a basic level of education. They used family workforce. The lack of organization in the sale limited their participation in the agri-food chain coordination. Milk processing companies coordinate their efforts, organizing the collection, reaching trade agreements, setting prices, and establishing quality rules, usually through informal agreements. Limitations/Implications: State intervention is necessary to regulate relations between the actors of the agri-food chain. Findings/Conclusions: The informality of coordination mechanisms favors agribusiness and turns them into forms of domination that ensure their profitability
Agro Productividad; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i6.2206
The objective of this research was to determine the controversial situations in the production of Creole pork in the cooperative sector in Cuba, through the application of a participatory diagnostic system. Interviews were conducted with 50 Creole pig producers belonging to the Cuban Cooperative Organizations of the Holguín municipality. The Vester matrix was used to classify the problems according to their degree of causality, and a SWOT matrix exercise, which was determined through the development of meetings, the application of participatory techniques and group discussions as rural extension work. The 10 main controversial situations were identified, of which four were active problems, four passive, one critical problem and one indifferent. In the evaluated Creole pig breeding systems, the treatment of residuals is null, manure and urine remain in the pens all the time. Reproduction controls are not carried out, affecting the genetic and productive potential. In all cases, the type of reproduction is direct mounting without control. Vaccination and deworming schemes are scarce. One of the demands of the Creole pig breeders surveyed was training in technical, productive and reproductive aspects of animal management.
Agro Productividad; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i6.1778
Objective: To generate a proposal for regional categorization (regionalization) of fishing villages in Baja California Sur, Mexico, following social and economic fishing criteria. Design/Methodology/Approach: Socioeconomic data on fishing in Mexico are analyzed. This regionalization uses data collected in the field on the conditions of artisanal fishing cooperatives in Baja California Sur, Mexico (BCS). Subsequently a geo-referential methodology linked to a database was applied. Database was re-categorized by nominal or ordinal statistical values, as it was the case for each. ArcView 3.2 Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to obtain the geo-referenced classification. Then, a geostatistical analysis derived from the Kriging tool was applied. Results: We obtained a regional classification of fishing in Mexico, displayed in maps with vector data. The regionalization is of a social nature, it shows a classification of cooperation level at artisanal fishing cooperatives in the fishing towns of northern Baja California Sur (BCS). Limitations/Implications: The lack of socioeconomic data on fisheries in Mexico has been an important limitation to generate a more accurate regionalization of the Mexican coasts. Findings/Conclusions: Analyzing the social and organizational factors of fishing is necessary for the understanding of marine socio-ecosystems in Mexico. These criteria joined to the use of computer tools allowed the regional geo-located categorization of areas with similar characteristics. Whit the use of this methodology the efficiency of the use of Kriging as a multi-specific analysis tool can be verified
Agro Productividad; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i6.2275
Objective: To identify the exploitation and generation of economic income derived from the harvest ofescamol (Liometopum apiculatum Mayr), white worm (Aegiale hesperiaris W) and red worm (Comadiaredtenbacheri H), during an annual season.Design/Methodology: Surveys were applied to n=593 edible insect harvesters in n= 18 ruralcommunities, local authorities (ejido commissaries, auxiliary judges), buyers (intermediaries), andrepresentatives of the stockpiling company DELIZAC. The interviews were conducted in harvesting zones(field), at the time of the delivery of the product (stockpiling), and in the homes of harvesters selected assample in Pinos, Zacatecas, Mexico.Results: The prices per kilogram of escamol and white worm, during the 2020 seasons, was US$15.00,and for the red worm, US$25.00. The harvest of edible insects was 34.6 tons with an economic spill ofUS$572,800.00 showing a per capita average income of US$965.90.Study Limitations/Implications: The results of this study can be used to propose techniques that favorthe conservation, management, and sustainable exploitation of the three species of edible insects forinhabitants of the rural zones in central-northern Mexico.Conclusions: The harvest of edible insects in Pinos, Zacatecas, generates important economic income. Ofthe harvesters, 78.9 % were men, 13.7 % adult women, and 7.4 % children. Most of the harvestinglocalities lack permits to carry out the exploitation.
Agro Productividad; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i6.2186
Objective: To analyze the international commercialization competitiveness of the main flowers grown in Mexico compared to United States of America (USA). Design/methodology/approach: The cumulative growth rate of the production variables of the main flowers cultivated in Mexico from 2000 to 2020 was calculated. The country’s flower trade balance was evaluated. The revealed comparative advantage index (IVCR) of the Mexican floricultural sector was compared with the American IVCR. Results: Mexican floriculture has expanded in the last two decades; therefore, the 2000-2020 cumulative growth rates of the production variables in most of the flowers studied were positive. It is also a high-income activity. Although only 10.11 thousand ha are used by this sector, the four species of flowers analyzed had a 5.51-billion Mexican pesos production value (2020). Likewise, its trade balance has been in surplus and, in most of the years analyzed, its balance was greater than 90% of the value of exports. In addition, it is competitive in the international market: in 2020, the IVCR of Mexican flowers in the US market was 0.96 and, in the overall period of this study, it has been greater than 0.8. Study Limitations/Implications: Changes to the Harmonized System Codes hinder the evolutionary analysis of the tariff codes. The IVCR determines if the national market is competitive or not in the international market, but it does not establish which factors would provide competitiveness to the country. Findings/Conclusions: Floriculture in Mexico has increased in the last two decades. The production value of all the flowers studied increased during the period analyzed. In general terms, the Mexican floricultural market is competitive in the international market; additionally, the different Mexican flowers included in this research have a competitive advantage in the US market.
Agro Productividad; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i6.2188
Objective: To determine the protein nutritional requirements in juvenile axolotls, for this purpose, four isocaloric diets (8 % lipids) with 30, 35, 30 and 45 % protein were prepared. Design / methodology / approach: Six axolotls were used per test, during a period of 81 days. The diets were prepared using fishmeal as a protein source and fish oil as a lipid source. The feed was supplied every 48 hours with 4% of the weight of the biomass of organisms per experimental reservoir. Four biometries were performed throughout the experiment and growth parameters were determined: height, weight gained per day, specific growth rate, survival, Fulton's K, and protein efficiency rate. The digestibility of each of the diets was also determined. Results: There were significant differences (p> 0.05) in the growth and survival of the axolotls, the diet with 45% protein showed the best growth results. Limitations / Implications: No more protein levels could be tested, due to the number of organisms available for bioassays. Findings / conclusions: Diets for A. mexicanum containing 45% protein level promote good development and survival. This allows for improved cultivation and management plans for the species.
Agro Productividad; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v15i5.2267
Objective: To describe the agribusiness potential of the castor oil plant in Mexico through the collection and analysis of agricultural, industrial and commercial information that allows decision making for the formulation of future productive projects to generate economic, social and technological impacts. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study is descriptive with a transactional design. The information was collected on national and international agrifood statistical and documentary information platforms. Results: Different attempts have been made in Mexico in commercial and research projects related to the cultivation, production and transformation of castor oil, with results that are not very encouraging due to the lack of knowledge about productive, technological and commercial processes. However, on the other hand, the need for the industrial sector to import oil to produce high-value products is evident. Study Limitations/Implications: Isolated efforts have been made by each of the actors in the castor oil agribusiness, which has prevented the sector’s consolidation. Findings/Conclusions: An intelligent management of agricultural production must be implemented through the establishment of commercial crops with the adoption of basic technological packages applied to each region in particular, with great attention to the availability of planting seed, which should have agronomic potential, use of nutrition and management of pests and diseases, as well as to foresee all the cultural tasks of maintenance of the crop and harvesting modality that guarantee yield in the field and quality raw material. Currently, there is a deficit in the castor oil market in the country, which leads to high business prospects and business opportunities.
Agro Productividad; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v15i5.2235
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional content of palm kernel meal (PM) produced in the state of Chiapas, Mexico, as feed for ruminants. Design/Methodology/Approach: The following were determined: content of dry matter (DM), total protein (TP), ethereal extract (EE), ash, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), amino acids, long chain fatty acids (LCFA), minerals, polyphenols, and the in vitro degradability of DM (IDDM), of the NDF (IDNDF), and of the ADF (IDADF). Results: The contents were: DM 92.23%, TP 10.56%, EE 7.2%, ash 3,09%, NDF 76,56% and ADF 57,20%. The PM had low concentration of lysine (0.3%), methionine (0.228%) and tryptophan (0.095%), and high contents of lauric acid (50.49%), palmitic acid (10.92%), stearic acid (19.725%), oleic acid (13.56%), copper (23.3 mg kg-1), iron (230.5 mg kg-1), zinc (78.47 mg kg-1) and total phenols (7.8 mg g-1), although the IDDM (46.02%), IDNDF (29.91%) and IDADF (27.61%) were low.Findings/Conclusions: The PM, as byproduct of the oil agroindustry, has some important nutritional characteristics to be used as feed for ruminants. It is recommended to conduct a chemical analysis of this byproduct before including it in balanced meals to have an adequate balance of nutrients