Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1818-9172 / 2308-7269
Published by: Sergii Iermakov (10.15561)
Total articles ≅ 374
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S.H. Hosseinizarch, , S.F. Tabatabaei Ghomshe,
Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports, Volume 23, pp 267-281; https://doi.org/10.15561/18189172.2019.0601

Abstract:
Background: This study used the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) approach to study joint coordination underlying the control of task-related variables important for success at dart throwing skill. Success at a task can be achieved, in principle, by always adopting a particular joint combination. In contrast, we adopt a more selective control strategy: variations of the joint configuration that leave the values of essential task variables unchanged are predicted to be less controlled (i.e., stabilized to a lesser degree) than joint configuration changes that shift the values of the task variables. Objectives: How this abundance of motor solutions is managed by the nervous system and whether and how the throwing in different distances affects the solution to joint coordination was investigated in this study. Methods: Our experimental task involved dart throwing to a target under three conditions (standard, short and long distance) that it performed by fifteen dart professional and semiprofessional athletes. The four joint angles of the arm were obtained from the recorded positions of markers on the limb segments. The variability of joint configurations was decomposed into components lying parallel to those sets and components lying in their complement with respect to control of the path of the arm’s center of mass and spatial position of the hand. Results: When performing the task in all three different conditions, fluctuations of joint configuration that affected arm’s center of mass and spatial position variables were much reduced compared with fluctuations that did not affect these variables. The UCM principle applied to arm’s center of mass and spatial position thus captures the structure of the motor control system across different parts of joint configuration space as the movement evolves in time. Moreover, constraints representing an invariant arm’s center of mass or the spatial position structured joint configuration variability in the early and mid-portion of the movement trajectory, but not at the time of throwing. This specific control strategy indicate a target can be hit successfully also by controlling irrelevant directions in joint space equally to relevant ones. Conclusion: The results suggests a specific control strategy in which changes of joint configuration that are irrelevant to success at the task are selectively released from control. As a result, the method can be successfully used to determine the structure of coordination in joint space that underlies the control of the essential variables for a given task.
I.P. Zanevskyy, W. Chodinow,
Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports, Volume 23, pp 318-324; https://doi.org/10.15561/18189172.2019.0607

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The paper is dedicated to the problem of the strength testing and training using the ergometer rowing performance in the flat water kayak sport. The aim of the research was to create a model of validity based on the relationship between the ergometer and on-water performance competition rowing. Material and Methods. Nineteen 15-17 years old male kayak rowers during the off-season were randomly divided into two groups. An experimental group trained according the same program as the control group, but two times a week a part of the common strength training exercises was substituted with a high-intensity strength training using the ergometer rowing. A whole amount of strength loading on all the rowers of the two groups was equal. Validity of testing and training of the ergometer rowing in the kayak sport was evaluated using interclass correlation between competition performance on 500 m on-water kayak and ergometer rowing. Results. Strong significant correlation is revealed between competition performance of on-water kayak and ergometer rowing before and after the off-season (| r | = 0.892, 0.902, p
, Z. Milosevic,
Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports, Volume 23, pp 282-287; https://doi.org/10.15561/18189172.2019.0602

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe anthropometric characteristics and body composition of soccer players from different competitive levels, elite and sub-elite as well as to make comparison between them. Material and Methods: Seventy-seven subjects were enrolled in this study, divided into three groups: twenty-six elite soccer players, twenty sub-elite soccer players and thirty-one healthy sedentary subjects. All subjects were assessed for anthropometric measurements required for the calculation of body composition variables using standardized procedures which were recommended by previous studies. Data was analyzed by using SPSS and the descriptive statistics were expressed as a mean (SD) for each variable, while the ANOVA and the LSD Post Hoc tests were carried out to discover effects of each type of sport. Results: The results showed that a significant difference was found in weight, body mass index, bone content and body fat, while a significant difference was not found in two remaining variables, height and muscle mass. Conclusions: Therefore, these findings may give coaches from the region better working knowledge and thus provide knowledges for soccer experts which will help them to select talented players as best as possible.
, B. Adel, , A. Hocine, , S. Mohamed
Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports, Volume 23, pp 288-295; https://doi.org/10.15561/18189172.2019.0603

Abstract:
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare two cold water immersion (CWI) protocols, continuous and fractionated, to optimize the recovery of Handball players after on recovery from exercise resulting in exercise-induced muscle damage. Material: Ten male Handball players (age: 15 ± 1.4 years, mass index: 67.2 ± 5.1 kg, height: 176.6 ± 7.30) voluntarily participated in the study. After three 90-minute training sessions (average heart rate 160 ± 15.81, 156 ± 5.53 and 156 ± 12.24 bpm) per week, participants were divided into 03 groups. The first experimental group (GE1) in continuous immersion (CWIC) of (12 minutes, 12± 0.4° C), a second experimental group (GE2) in fractional immersion (CWIF) of (4 x 2 min at 12 ± 0.4° C + 1 min out of water) and a control group (GC) in passive recovery. Body mass indices (BMI), countermovement (Countermovement jump) and muscle pain (Intensity of pain in the thighs) were measured. Results : The results concerning the percentage differences in the variation of the CMJ occurred respectively at 24h (Z = 12.62, p = 0.004) and 48h (Z = 16.22, p
Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports, Volume 23, pp 313-317; https://doi.org/10.15561/18189172.2019.0606

Abstract:
Purpose: Determination of mental status of the rifle shooters during the shooting performance is critical for the development of mental training programs according to their skill levels. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychophysiological differences of expert and novice rifle shooters. Material: Fourteen expert (age: 28.08±9.12 years, height: 176.12±4.24 cm, weight: 73.56±5.28 kg) and twenty novice shooters (age: 21.08±3.12 years, height: 177.42±3.74 cm, and weight: 71.56±3.57 kg) participated in the current study. The participants performed five shootings from a distance of 10m. The averages of each shooter’s five shooting scores, values of attention and meditation, and heart rate between 5-sec before shooting and shooting moment were obtained. Results: It was determined that shooting scores (10.02 ±0.49 vs. 7.6±2.86, p
A. Yapıcı, H.B. Yalçın
Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports, Volume 23, pp 306-312; https://doi.org/10.15561/18189172.2019.0605

Abstract:
Purpose: This research aimed to examine the effects of supramaximal eccentric contractions on the damage of muscle and recovery between the dominant and non-dominant arm. The study was participated by ten male volunteer students who do not have any musculoskeletal and metabolic compliant. This research designed as a cross-over type research. Material: Venous blood samples were drawn before the bout, immediately after the bout one min., moreover, at the 6th, 24th, 48th, and 72nd hours after training. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 21.0 statistical software package. After exercise, the non-parametric Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test was used to decide the dominant and non-dominant arm influence. Statistical significance for all analyses was accepted at p< 0,05. Results: There was a significant statistical difference in the right, and left arm Creatine Kinase (CK) values at the time when exercise start, 48th and 72nd hours (p0,05). Conclusions: There was an increase in muscle damage at 24th and 48th hours after supramaximal eccentric exercise, and it was turned back the start level at 72nd hours. While the arm which is non-dominant recovery is faster than the dominant arm.
Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports, Volume 23, pp 296-305; https://doi.org/10.15561/18189172.2019.0604

Abstract:
Purpose: Thanks to the positive health effects of physical exercise, physical education is an integral part of the education system, with two hours per week, which is insufficient to achieve an optimal effect in transforming the anthropological status of children. The aim of the research was to determine the effects of regular and modified physical education with the application of contents from sports games (basketball, volleyball and handball) in the duration of one semester to changes in basic motor skills in pupils of the fifth grade of elementary school. Material: The study included N = 106 students of the V class, aged 10 to 11 years, clinically and mentally healthy, and with no pronounced morphological and locomotor impairments. The sample of examinees was divided into two subgroups. The first was an experimental group of 53 students, who carried out physical education classes according to the modified plan and program of sports games (basketball, volleyball and handball) for a semester. The other was a control group of 53 students who attended regular classes from physical education according to the current curriculum. Results: The results of the research at the descriptive level showed noticeable differences between the same groups in the final versus the initial measurements. Based on the results of the t-test for the control and experimental group, it can be concluded that there have been statistically significant changes in values on all variables of basic motor in the final compared to the initial measurement. By analyzing the results of the t-tests, it can be seen that the groups differ in the initial measurement only in one basic motor variable, MTAPN, and this difference is statistically significant in favor of the control group. In the final measurement, there are no significant differences between the control and the experimental group in the average values of all variables of basic motoring. Conclusions: Improving basic motor skills depends on the teacher's ability, the ability to transform the age with which he is working, and the success of certain training processes. The modified program of the experimental group has led to changes and thus proves the significant effect of the group's work program.
Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports, Volume 23, pp 325-329; https://doi.org/10.15561/18189172.2019.0608

Abstract:
Purpose: Judo is a combat sport requiring physical qualities that include speed and coordination. They are essential for brief and intense attacks. Study the impact of a training based on coordination adapted to the age group (10 to 12 years) on the development of speediness among young’s judokas. Materials: The study was conducted at Svelty Club, sports association in Kenitra, city in north-western Morocco, from March 2nd, 2019 to May 5th, 2019, on a sample of 12 young judoka aged from 10 to 12 years divided into two groups, control group and experimental group. At first both groups received two tests, 10m speed test and Uchi Komi test, which we considered initial tests. The experimental group had a training program spread over 12 weeks that focused on the development of speed through coordination. For the control group, we followed the regular training of the club. Both tests were re-administered after the end of the training program (final tests). Results : The initial test value for the experimental group for Uchi Komi test was 7 ± 0.9, and the final test was 8.7 ± 1.03, which shows a significant difference according to the T test, (p = 0.001≤ 0.05) in contrast to the control group (p = 0.23≥0.05). For the 10m speed test, the experimental group showed a significant difference between the value of the initial test and the final test (p = 0.003≤0.05), unlike the control group (p = 0.93≥0.05). Conclusion: The development of physical qualities is still the primary goal of coaches; however this development is more decisive for young athletes. Our study has shown that a coordination training adapted to each athlete’s age can help coaches better develop other qualities namely speed.
Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports, Volume 23, pp 231-238; https://doi.org/10.15561/18189172.2019.0504

Abstract:
Purpose : The researches about the relationship between self-efficacy and athlete' burnout of elite volleyball players who playing in high level leagues is not available in the literature. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between self-efficacy and athletes’ burnout in elite volleyball players. Material : The study group is consisted 173 [n=61 female, n=112 male] elite volleyball players. The mean of the age of participants was 25.6 year [± 6.3]. Data was collected by personal information form, General Self-Efficacy Scale [GSE] and Athlete Burnout Questionnaire [ABQ]. SPSS 22 program was used in the analysis of the obtained data. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied to determine whether the data showed normal distribution and the significance level was accepted as 0.05 in the analyses. Parametric tests were used in the analysis of the data. Results : As a result of the research, high level negative correlation was found between effort and resistance sub-dimension [GSE] and the reduced sense of accomplishment sub-dimension [ABQ] [p
Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports, Volume 23, pp 224-230; https://doi.org/10.15561/18189172.2019.0503

Abstract:
Background: Football is a game in which anthropometric characteristics are important factors for specific player positions, where morphological characteristics differ in relation to the competitive level and the position in the game. Body composition is an important indicator of the physical fitness and general health of athletes so today its often discussed in scientific literature. The aim of the research was to determine the differences in the anthropometric characteristics of the professional football players in relation to the player's position and to determine their importance in the game. Material: Twenty-nine male football players of the national team of Serbia participated in the research, in which the body height, weight and Body mass index were measured. Results: The results of the study indicate that statistically significant differences in body height and body weight were recorded between goalkeepers and midfielders (p
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