Acta Biochimica Indonesiana

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ISSN / EISSN : 2654-6108 / 2654-3222
Total articles ≅ 33
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Subandrate, Raafqi Ranasasmita
Acta Biochimica Indonesiana pp 13-13; https://doi.org/10.32889/actabioina.13

Abstract:
Background: Increasing blood sugar level may increase free radical compounds in type 2 diabetes. Free radical compounds can cause oxidative stress, thereby decreasing endogenous antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH). Objective: This study aimed to determine whether random blood glucose levels affect GSH in type 2 diabetes patients within the Malay race. Methods: This study was observational with case-control, involving 25 patients with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes (receiving metformin and/or glimipiride) and 25 healthy controls. Random blood glucose levels were determined using ACCU-CHECK® Kit. Blood GSH levels were determined by Sigma GSH Assay Kit. Results: Results show that type 2 diabetes patients have a significantly lower random blood glucose level compared with those of age-matched normal subjects (p<0.0001). Type 2 diabetic patients had significantly lower levels of GSH (p=0.00) than those of age-matched normal subjects. We found a moderate negative correlation (r=-0.437 and p=0.02) between the level of random blood glucose and the level of GSH. Conclusion: The depletion of GSH during hyperglycemia may neutralize the free radicals indirectly generated by the abundant of glucose.
Hendi Wicaksono, Prasetyastuti Prasetyastuti, Pramudji Hastuti, Ahmad Hamim Sadewa
Acta Biochimica Indonesiana pp 11-11; https://doi.org/10.32889/actabioina.11

Abstract:
Background: Diabetes is a result of oxidative stress which causes the impaired function of pancreatic beta-cells. Fermented tempeh aerobic anaerobic (FETAA) containing gamma-aminobutyric acid and isoflavones can reduce oxidative stress in diabetes. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate FETAA in improving pancreatic β-cell function in diabetic mice. Methods: Twenty streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, divided into four groups (n = 5 each group): DM, DM + FETAA 10 mg/100 g BW, DM + FETAA 20 mg/100 g BW, DM + FETAA 40 mg/100 g BW as well as normal group (n = 5). DM mice were treated with FETAA for 21 days. Fasting glucose was determined using the GOD-PAP method, while insulin level was determined by ELISA. The homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) was calculated using the HOMA2 calculator, and the Pdx1 mRNA level was determined by Real Time-PCR. Results: The DM mice group treated with FETAA had lower glucose levels than the DM mice group. FETAA dosage of 40 mg/100 g BW was able to reduce the highest blood glucose levels (p<0.05). DM mice group treated with FETAA had higher levels of insulin and HOMA-β than the DM mice group (p 0.05). Conclusion: FETAA could improve HOMA-β, blood glucose levels, but did not affect Pdx1 mRNA expression.
Muhammad Ilham Fahri, Rabiah Musfira Alatiffa, Sania Isma Yanti, Indira Prakoso, Alysha Naomi Mashitah
Acta Biochimica Indonesiana pp 7-7; https://doi.org/10.32889/actabioina.7

Abstract:
Background: Ethidium bromide is a common reagent that is used in nucleic acid staining. However, ethidium bromide has toxic and carcinogenic properties that are harmful to the environment. Phenanthrene dioxygenase (encoded by phdA, phdB, phdC, and phdD genes) in Nocardioides sp. KP7 can oxidize the phenanthridine structure aim to eliminate carcinogenic properties. Objective: This study aims to visualize and predict the structure, active site, and characteristics of the phenanthrene dioxygenase using bioinformatics tools. Methods: Plasmid design were prepared by inserting genes of interest phdA, phdB, phdC, and phdD from the NCBI database. Furthermore, several protein analysis tools were used for structure visualization, active site enzyme improvement, and protein characteristic of phenanthrene dioxygenase. Results: The prediction results found that phenanthrene dioxygenase reacts with the ethidium bromide substrate through the interaction of Fe3+ ions with water. The solubility level of phenanthrene dioxygenase protein is 0.404, suggesting that the protein has low solubility. The protein isoelectric point (pI) is between 5.17 to 5.36, and the protein molecular weight is 121.143 kDa. Conclusion: In silico analysis has supported that recombinant plasmid met characteristics for the construct which consists of gene interest and protein library.
Dianandha Septiana Rubi, Abrory Agus Cahya Pramana, Sunarti Sunarti
Acta Biochimica Indonesiana, Volume 3, pp 62-71; https://doi.org/10.32889/actabioina.v3i2.53

Abstract:
Background: One of consequence high-fat and fructose diet is oxidative stress. Consumption of antioxidants from red beetroot may increase antioxidant defense.Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate red beetroot administration on improving antioxidant defense in rats induced high fat and fructose diet.Methods: A total 20 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: 1) normal control group (N), received standard diet; 2) High fat and fructose diet (HF), received high fat and fructose diet (HFFD); 8 weeks induction with HFFD and received 9g red beetroot (BA); and combination of HFFD and 9g of red beetroot from beginning of the study (HFBA). At the end of the study the levels of circulatory oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase (CAT) gene expressions were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method.Results: Induction HFFD increased the levels of circulatory ox-LDL levels compared to normal control (10.00±0.29 vs 12.69±0.57). Administration of red beetroot for 6 weeks and combination HFFD with red beetroot during the study significantly decreased ox-LDL levels compared to high fat and fructose group (12.69±0.57 vs 9.66±0.46) and (12.69±0.57 vs 8.59±0.18), respectively. The decreased circulatory ox-LDL levels were found negatively correlated with upregulation SOD2 (r=-0.548; P=0.012) and CAT (r=-0.460; P=0.041) gene expression in the liver tissues.Conclusion: Administration of red beetroot may ameliorate oxidative stress in rats induced high-fat and fructose diet through increasing antioxidant defense.
Deviyanthi Nur Afifah, Yessy Yessy, Farida Nur Rahmani, Ayu Lia Ningsih, Citra Dewi Puspita Sari, Resna Reformasi Yudapraja, Praptiwi Praptiwi, Rahmawati Ridwan
Acta Biochimica Indonesiana, Volume 3, pp 81-88; https://doi.org/10.32889/actabioina.v3i2.56

Abstract:
Background: Background: Antioxidants are compounds that can neutralize free radical reactions. The red rose leaves (Rosa chinensis Jacq.), usually disposed of as waste, have been shown to have antioxidant activity. Objective: This study aims to determine the antioxidant activity of red rose leaves extracts. Methods: The red rose leaves were extracted by the maceration method in ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane. The antioxidant activity was measured by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and was expressed as IC50 and an antioxidant activity index (AAI).Results: The results showed that the red rose leaves ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts had an antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 1.8, 8.7, 210.3, 48.7 µg/mL, respectively, and an AAI value of 17.3, 3.5, 0.1, 0.6, respectively. The main content of ethanol and methanol extracts are flavonoid, saponin, and tannin.Conclusion: The ethanol and methanol extract showed the most potent antioxidant activity.
Syazili Mustofa, Isnamurti Ciptaningrum, Caesaria Sinta Zuya
Acta Biochimica Indonesiana, Volume 3, pp 89-97; https://doi.org/10.32889/actabioina.v3i2.52

Abstract:
Background: Rhizophora apiculata, one of the mangrove plant widely spread in Indonesia, can be developed as a medicinal plant. The extract of the bark has been found to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. However, the toxicity of Rhizophora apiculata has not been established yet.Objective: This research aims to evaluate the toxicity of ethanolic extract of Rhizophora apiculata bark on histopathological changes in rat’s liver and pancreas.Methods: Subacute toxicity study of the ethanol extract of Rhizophora apiculata bark was performed in healthy male rats by administering the extract at doses of 57, 114, 228, 456, and 918 mg/kg of body weight daily for 28 days. The subacute toxicity in rats was determined by histological analyses.Results: No significant adverse effect of the extract at dose 57 mg/kg was found. However at and over 114 mg/kg dose of the extract exhibited toxicities to the rats’ liver. In addition, the toxic effect appeared in rats’ pancreas at and over 228 mg/kg dose.Conclusions: Rhizophora apiculata bark extract showed no toxicity at or below 57 mg/kg. The ethanol extract from bark of Rhizophora apiculata showed toxicity at 114 mg/kg by subchronic toxicity.
Dita Sozianty, Rifki Febriansah
Acta Biochimica Indonesiana, Volume 3, pp 72-80; https://doi.org/10.32889/actabioina.v3i2.57

Abstract:
Background: Breast cancers occur because of an impaired balance between proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of breast glands. Natural products have potency as cytotoxic agents with less side effects than chemotherapy. One of the potential plants is Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Stennis (binahong), which contains flavonoid 8-glucopyranosyl- 4’,5,7-trihydroxy flavone compounds.Objective: This study aims to determine the potency of binahong leaves extract as an anticancer for breast cancer in vitro and in silico.Methods: Preliminary tests using molecular docking of 8-glucopyranosyl-4’,5,7-trihydroxyflavone compounds on Bcl-2 and HER-2 proteins. The extraction and fractionation were to obtain binahong extract. Thin layer chromatography to identify flavonoid compounds in the extract. DPPH assay was performed to evaluate the antioxidant activity. MTT assay was performed to evaluate cytotoxic activity on MCF-7 breast cancer cells and Vero cells.Results: In silico test showed a stable bond between 8-glucopyranosyl- 4’,5,7-trihydroxylflavone, and Bcl-2 and HER-2 with a docking score of -7.5 kcal/mol and -8.0 kcal/mol, respectively. The binahong extract contain flavonoid compounds that had the retention factor value 0.78; 0.49; 0.35. Antioxidant test resulted IC50 value of 4940 μg/mL. Cytotoxic test resulted in IC50 value of 1073 μg/mL and 486 μg/mL for Vero cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells, respectively. The comparison between IC50 produced a selectivity index value of 2.149, which shows that binahong extract was selective against MCF-7 breast cancers.Conclusion: This study concluded that binahong extract has weak potency as anticancer agent on MCF-7 cells.
Angga Crystal Loasana Yami, Irmanida Batubara, Kholis Abdurachim Audah
Acta Biochimica Indonesiana, Volume 3, pp 53-61; https://doi.org/10.32889/actabioina.v3i2.51

Abstract:
Background : The treatment of some diseases caused by free radicals and pathogenic bacteria usually by using antioxidants and antibiotics. Due to excessive use of antibiotics and other environmental cues, some bacteria are now resistant to certain antibiotics or even to multiple antibiotics. Some Vibrio cholerae bacterial strains are multiresistant to many antibiotics.Objective : The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Brugueira gymnorrhiza stem extracts against pathogenic bacteria V. cholerae.Method : The B. gymnorrhiza stem was extracted by gradient maceration method. The DPPH method was used to determine the antioxidant activity and the disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activities. The column chromatography method was used to fractionate the selective extract with the best activity. The LC-MS/MS method was used to identify the compound obtained from the fraction with the best antioxidant and antibacterial activity.Result : Ethyl acetate extract of B. gymnorrhiza stem had the best antibacterial activity with MIC and MBC values of 62.50 mg/L. Ethyl acetate extract also showed the best value of antioxidant activity as indicated by an IC50 value of 255.03 mg/L. The results of fractions test showed that fraction 3 had the best antibacterial and the best antioxidant activities with both the MIC and MBC values of 7.90 mg/L and IC50 value of 348.91 mg/L, respectively.Conclusion : Ethyl acetate extract of B. gymnorrhiza stem has good potential as antioxidant and antibacterial. The compound which is thought as antioxidant and antibacterial from Ethyl acetate extract is 2-Ethyl-4-methyl-1H-imidazole.
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