International Journal of English Linguistics

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ISSN / EISSN : 1923-869X / 1923-8703
Total articles ≅ 1,440
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Weiwei Zhang, Hao-Zhang Xiao
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v12n4p1

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to find the correlation between linguistic features and social engagement so that we can employ proper language to solve the ecological problem in the new media context. It collected all 2647 video messages of CCTV.com (account name, not website), the official media, on Douyin (China’s domestic version of Tik Tok) from January 1, 2020, to December 28, 2020, which were analyzed and studied by SPSS 22.0 and Corpus Online. It is found that public concern for a topic was significantly influenced by public opinion (r=0.483, p=0.000) and public dissemination (r=0.590, p=0.000). Declarative (n=1858, f=0.57) and Exclamative (n=1132, f=0.35) were used most frequently by CCTV. com, while the former one (p=0.02) was the key point to influence public opinion, while the latter one (p=0.001) had a significant bearing on public concern through regression analysis. On the contrary, Imperative (n=0) is not favored. Interrogative (p>0.05), Punctuation (p>0.05) and Emoji (p>0.05) had no effect on social engagement. The results of this paper indicated that language could significantly guide users’ ecological behavior and value orientation across space-time in the new media context.
Haytham Bakri
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v12n3p99

Abstract:
Testing English Language skills cannot be ignored in English Language classrooms all over the world. Most importantly, it is pertinent to describe how students view their own achievements. Reports have repeatedly shown that students’ grades often differ from their expectations. Standardized English tests are an important requirement for international students. TOEFL and IELTS are two set of tests that are widely used worldwide. Hence, this study aimed to test the validity of placement tests (TOEFL and IELTS). To achieve the objective of the study, data was gathered on the face validity and construct validity of TOEFL and IELTS exams from respondents who were taking the exams in Riyadh area of Saudi Arabia. A total of 60 students participated in the study by filling the questionnaire. Data gathered was analyzed using SPSS. The results of the study were presented in tables and figures. The tests’ reliability was determined using the Rasch model. The analysis showed that both tests were valid at r-score = (.477; .288; .183; .012) for reading, listening, speaking, and writing skills, respectively. The data analysis revealed that the placement tests chosen by students at the center (TOEFL and IELTS) were valid and reliable. The analyses conducted showed that Reading (0.291266), Speaking (0.343007), Listening (0.567623) and Writing (0.35101) skills constructed against face validity were valid, (between -1.0 to 1.0). This was proven by the Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The author concluded that the assessment of the tests’ validity and reliability showed that the placement test instruments were dependable as well as valid, and the test takers face validity assessment provided evidence of the tests’ effectiveness.
Raneem Bosli, Lynne Cahill
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v12n3p89

Abstract:
This paper explains how native speakers of Jizani Arabic (henceforth, JA) treat final consonant clusters in superheavy syllables (CVCC) using a parallel Optimality Theory (Prince & Smolensky, 1993, 2004) to show how the theory can account for the cross-linguistic variations of coda clusters through the ranking of different constraints. JA is a Saudi dialect spoken in the southwestern part of Saudi Arabia in Jizan city. It is common among many Saudi Arabic dialects like Najdi, Hijazi, Taifi and Qassimi that rising sonority in coda clusters is avoided by using vowel epenthesis to comply with the Sonority Sequencing Principle (henceforth, SSP), where there is no difference between nasals and liquids. However, in JA, we observe that vowel epenthesis occurs only if the last segment in CVCC is a liquid (/l/ or /ɾ/); for instance, /tʕifl/à [tʕifil] ‘child’ and /ħibɾ/à [ħibiɾ] ‘ink’. The vowel has been epenthesized because the last consonant in both examples is more sonorous than the preceding obstruents. However, the vowel will not be inserted if the final consonant is a nasal preceded by an obstruent; for instance, /laħm/à[laħm] ‘meat’ and /ɡutʕn/à[ɡutʕn] ‘cotton’. Although the universal sonority scale ranks nasals as more sonorous than obstruents, nasals in JA behave as they are equally sonorous as obstruents. In other words, nasals in this dialect group with stops and fricatives in the sonority scale.
Ahdab Saaty
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v12n3p76

Abstract:
There are a variety of factors that affect the English language learning process such as motivation and gender. The present study highlights the importance of motivation and gender in the English language learning process. This study follows a mixed-method approach; qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analyzed. Qualitative data were collected through a self-determined motivation questionnaire and a self-assessment chart from fifteen male and fifteen female Saudi students. The participants were all studying English in the United States to continue their university-level education. Data were analyzed co-relationally, using statistics and descriptions, quantitatively. The results have revealed interesting findings, as the female participants tend to demonstrate more motivation towards learning the English language, further highlighting that participants of different genders had different perspectives about learning the English language. The conclusions, implications, and recommendations of this study provide a foundation for future investigations into the English language learners’ motivation in Saudi Arabia and other similar settings, with the goal of identifying variances in students’ orientations.
Diana Xu
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v12n2p103

Abstract:
Reviewer acknowledgements for International Journal of English Linguistics, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2022.
Francesco Pierini
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v12n3p65

Abstract:
The study of inaugural speeches is fairly consolidated, especially if we refer to the analysis of the speeches of American presidents. Much less is available on the subject when we delve into lesser-known presidential figures, such as the presidents of European institutions. The analysis of the speeches of American presidents through the methodology of discourse analysis has helped to reveal their political intentions, their way of persuading listeners, building trust and empathy with the public, but also reaffirming their policies and measures relating to the economy, foreign affairs and social issues. In this paper I will focus on the new President of the European Parliament Roberta Metsola, elected on January 18, 2022. We are therefore in a completely different context, since the two forms of presidency are different in terms of roles, tasks and powers granted. Metsola’s inaugural speech will be analysed from a Discourse Analysis perspective, with a focus on lexical choice, personal pronouns and rhetorical figures to show how she plans to construct the image of the new presidency of the EU parliament and her intended objectives. The paper analyses how those who work in institutions such as the EU try to convey political messages, maintain or change the point of view of their public on certain issues, and understand whether they tend to conform to the consolidated structural and linguistic protocols that characterize their role or whether they (may) lapse into discursive practices that sometimes seem trite and worn-out.
Mishal H. Al Shammari
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v12n3p58

Abstract:
Frequently, the roles of teachers of English are thought to be limited to the transmission of content knowledge. The methodologies of teaching language have been classified into strategies such as direct methods and audio-visual methods. Many previous studies have left out motivation which is a strong teaching and learning strategy. This qualitative research depends largely on the critical analysis of acknowledged and established research works pertaining to the importance of teaching methodology and its relationship with the personality of a language teacher. Based on a pragmatic examination of the subject of the research, this study analyzed how teaching methodologies and personality traits help to produce more competent teachers of the English Language. More recently, in the last two decades, more researchers have studied pedagogies with the aim to understand how they help to achieve better motivation in students. This study also concentrated on the personality characteristics of teachers. In particular, it analyzed how teachers can make use of such nuances as personality traits in order to develop an efficient learner-centered approach to language teaching. The present research is an attempt to ascertain and elaborate that teaching methodology must correspond to the teacher’s personality to ensure a successful language learning atmosphere. Conclusively, this study has found out that the significant personality traits which impact language teaching strategies are: being polite with students, equal and fair treatment of all students, giving positive feedback, avoiding sarcasm, and developing engaging and interesting class tasks.
Youness Boussaid
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v12n3p1

Abstract:
This paper analyzes how conceptual metaphor is used as a persuasive tool in Joseph Biden’s and George Washington’s inaugural speeches. The speeches are analyzed using Conceptual Metaphor Theory. A source-based approach to metaphor analysis is adopted in this paper. Statistical findings are used to examine how metaphor is utilized to frame certain political topics. The study demonstrates that metaphor is a vital persuasive tool in political discourse. The use of conceptual metaphors persuades and appeals to people’s emotions. The paper shows that Biden utilized more conceptual metaphors than Washington. This indicates the need and importance Biden attaches to persuasive rhetoric of which the use of metaphor successfully provides and attains. The nature of conceptual metaphor in both speeches reveals the existence of diachronic differences in how metaphors were used. This metaphor variation which reflects changes in society is ascribed to the differences in ideologies and the zeitgeist of the two eras in which the speeches took place.
Wenchao Li
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v12n3p18

Abstract:
This study explores how Japanese transitive/unaccusative verb pairs have transformed from being a substantive verb to the various forms they fulfil in Modern Japanese (i.e., an aspectual verb, a noun, an adjective, an adverb, a quantifier and a suffix) and how grammaticalisation and lexicalisation play an essential role during the processes. A working definition of ‘grammaticalisation’ and ‘lexicalisation’ that applies to Japanese is put forward, followed by a corpus-based investigation as well as a case study. The finding reveals that (a) the process by which a lexeme develops into a noun is a case of lexicalisation; the process by which a lexeme develops into an aspectual verb, an adverb, an adjective, a suffix or a quantifier is a case of grammaticalisation; (b) transitive verbs are more likely to convey aspect than unaccusatives are. The shift into a quantifier is limited to unaccusative verbs. Grammaticalisation (affixation) and lexicalisation in Japanese both require syntactic reduction and morphological alternation. The two differ in that lexicalisation does not require an alternation in writing, i.e., a lexicalised item can remain being written in Chinese characters (Note 1) whilst a grammaticalised item can only appear in kana script. Phonological alternation is obligatory in grammaticalisation but not required by lexicalisation. Lexicalisation appears to occur before grammaticalisation.
Yasir Hameed Alotaibi
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v12n3p46

Abstract:
This study aims to describe the causative constructions in modern standard Arabic (MSA) and discuss their analyses. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to discuss the causative constructions in MSA. This study shows that there are three different types of causatives in MSA: the lexical causative, the periphrastic causative, and the morphological causative. We discuss the three types of causatives in MSA and the associated thematic roles of arguments, especially the morphological causatives, where the number of arguments and their thematic roles are changed after the derivation. The role of the causee is always patient, and the role of the causer is always an agent of the event even if the basic verb requires a subject with a different role. The last section of this study presents a syntactic analysis of the three structures of causatives in MSA within the lexical functional grammar framework.
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