International Journal of English Linguistics
ISSN / EISSN : 1923-869X / 1923-8703
Current Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (10.5539)
Total articles ≅ 1,311
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 8 October 2020
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ijel.v10n6p322
This article presents a corpus-driven study of evaluative discourses surrounding asylum seekers in parliamentary debates. It explores how Australian political parties have expressed unfavorable attitudes toward asylum seekers. These attitudes are operationalized by implementing Martin and White’s appraisal framework, which comprises affectual (affect), ethical (judgment), and aesthetic (appreciation) values. The findings reveal that the subcategories of affect, judgment, and appreciation are strategically deployed by both right- and left-wing parties. The right-wing discourse, conveying ethical values, emphasizes the difference between “in” and “out” groups, whereas the left-wing discourse, engaged in affectual values, demonstrates their humanitarian side. The study has also a methodological focus, namely, testing the feasibility of the behavioral profile approach in critical discourse analysis to obtain more replicable and reliable quantitative results. The method consists of the manual annotation of the corpus and multivariate statistical analysis.
Published: 8 October 2020
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ijel.v10n6p307
Zero derivation is a word-formation process when from a word in a certain lexical (sub)category by adding a zero derivational affix, but with allowed inflectional interventions, another, new lexeme is created, with absolutely same form (from a derivational point of view); similar, expanded meaning; and, most importantly, belonging to a different lexical (sub)category. The analytical structure of English makes this a very frequent, productive, and economic process, across almost all categories, with the noun to verb and the verb to noun directions marking the most common process formations. Yet, regardless of the direction, the newly formed, zero derived lexeme belongs to a different lexical (sub)category not only based on the same form but on the similar semantics that the old and the new lexemes share, due to the meaning transfer through cognition. Having seen that the process of zero derivation is present and widespread in everyday life, this paper aims at researching its presence and productivity in online business articles, that is, in online texts which discuss business topics. Online media have been chosen since its quest for timely information requires fast expression and, in such a need, quick word-formation processes, like zero derivation, are in place, making the expression formally short but semantically expanded. Therefore, it is the cognitive transfer of meaning that drives the process. Similar to the reason for selecting online media, business articles have been used as a corpus, to show what language is used when discussing non-language-centred topics, that is, business.
Published: 30 September 2020
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ijel.v10n5p412
Reviewer acknowledgements for International Journal of English Linguistics, Vol. 10, No. 5, 2020.
Published: 29 September 2020
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ijel.v10n5p399
The purpose of the study is two-fold. First, a statistical analysis of the morphology of causative/inchoative verb alternation is carried out in Japanese and in 13 Altaic languages, i.e., Turkish, Turkmen, Nanai, Khakas, Udihe, Uzbek, Sakha, Manchu, Kyrgyz, Mongolian, Kazakh, Ewen, and Azerbaijani. The findings reveal that causative/inchoative verb alternation (a) can be realised via the insertion of an infix (‘-uul-’, ‘-e-’, ‘-g-’, etc.); (b) can be inchoative root-based, with transitive verbs derived via attaching a suffix to the inchoative verb roots (‘-dur-’, ‘-t-’, ‘-ir-’, ‘-dyr-’, ‘-wəən-’, ‘-buwəən-’, ‘-r-’, ‘-wənə-’, ‘-nar-’, ‘-ier-’, ‘-er-’, ‘-bu-’, ‘-ʊkan-’); (c) can be causative verb-based, with inchoative verbs being derived via attaching a suffix to the causative verb roots (‘-p-’, ‘-n-’, ‘-ul-’, ‘-il-’); and (d) can be realised via consonant alternation (‘-r-’ (transitive) / ‘-n-’ (intransitive); ‘-t-’ (transitive) / ‘-n-’ (intransitive)). This study further attempts to pin down the affiliation of these languages with the Japanese language. It compares the morphological findings with Japanese bound morphemes in causative/inchoative verb alternation and then delves into the phonological issues, i.e., consonant alternation and vowel harmony. A proposal is put forward: phonologically and morphologically, Japanese has a good deal of resemblance to the 13 Altaic languages.
Published: 27 September 2020
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ijel.v10n6p298
The article touches upon the issues of the nuclear energy terminology. It considers definitions of a term and the development of terminology, as a field of science. Taking Chinese nuclear energy terms as an example, the article traces the origin and contemporary challenges of the Chinese terminology as a branch of the Chinese linguistics. ISO/IEC standards in the field of nuclear energy are defined as the basis for processing first English nuclear energy terms and further for Chinese terms development. Analysis of the examples of terms and their translations confirm the importance of taking into account the criteria of standardization. The necessity of ISO/IEC standards is seen as a key factor in conducting linguistic translation analysis of terms and for creating Chinese corpus of terms and definitions for nuclear energy. Therefore, the terms’ translation is not only the work of the translation community, but also work which all relevant state departments should accomplish together and in cooperation.
Published: 26 September 2020
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ijel.v10n6p287
This present research is about how the linguistic landscape brings about the promotion of language and public awareness. The linguistic landscape is a sociolinguistic phenomenon that is used for the promotion of language and culture as well. Linguistic landscape can be seen everywhere in the society as in advertisement billboards, traffic signboards, public awareness messages on the signboards, buildings, shopping centers, airports, etc. This study covers the dimension of traffic signboards and how they are consciously or unconsciously are promoting the language in Pakistan, especially the Urdu, the National language of Pakistan, English, the international language, the Mandarin, the language of China, and the Sign language. Two hundred and ten traffic signboards are selected for the completion of this research. The data collected from the traffic signboards of the motorways, highways of all the provinces of Pakistan. The purposive sampling technique is used for this study. This study will disclose how traffic signboards are promoting the language written over them, whether written or sing language. The data was analyzed through observation with the pictures of traffic signboards. The present study is qualitative in nature, so the data is analyzed and interpreted in the description form.
Published: 26 September 2020
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ijel.v10n6p279
The previous research on euphemism is mainly conducted from the perspectives of traditional linguistics, sociolinguistics, pragmatics, cognitive linguistics, and the philosophy of mind, but few studies focus on the cognitive prominence of euphemism production from the perspective of the embodied-cognitive approach. This paper takes the euphemisms in English literary works as the corpora and explores the cognitive prominence of euphemism production from the perspective of the embodied-cognitive approach to reveal the production mechanism of euphemism. It is found that euphemism production highlights the linguistic subject’s embodied cognition of identity, causal implication, and supervenience with reality. The linguistic subject’s embodied cognition of identity with reality explains that euphemism is in place of the common expression to direct at an unpleasant or embarrassing thing or event in reality because euphemism is identical to common expression. The linguistic subject’s embodied cognition of causal implication with reality accounts for the fact that the interaction between the mental and the physical follows the principle of causal interaction. Common expression causally implicates euphemism and the causal implication between them is restricted by the specific context and the linguistic subject’s intentionality. The linguistic subject’s embodied cognition of supervenience with reality indicates that the consciousness of the linguistic subject towards the described thing or event supervenes globally on its physical property. Euphemism production is the result of the linguistic subject’s embodied cognition with reality. Cognitive prominence from the perspective of the embodied-cognitive approach has very strong explanatory power over the production mechanism of linguistic expressions.
Published: 23 September 2020
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ijel.v10n5p388
This study investigates the phonological and morphological adaptation of Turkish loanwords of Arabic origin to reveal aspects of native speakers’ knowledge that are not necessarily obvious. It accounts for numerous modification processes that these loanwords undergo when borrowed into Turkish. To achieve this, a corpus of 250 Turkish loanwords was collected and analyzed whereby these loanwords were compared to their Arabic counterparts to reveal phonological processes that Turkish followed to adapt them. Also, it tackles the treatment of morphological markings and compound forms in Turkish loanwords. The results show that adaptation processes are mostly phonological, albeit informed by phonetics and other linguistic factors. It is shown that the adaptation processes are geared towards unmarkedness in that faithfulness to the source input—Arabic—is violated, taking the burden to satisfy Turkish phonological constraints. Turkish loanwords of Arabic origin undergo a number of phonological processes, e.g., substitution, deletion, degemination, vowel harmony, and epenthesis for the purpose of repairing the ill-formedness. The Arabic feminine singular and plural morphemes are treated as part of the root, with fossilized functions of such markers. Also, compound forms are fused and word class is changed to fit the syntactic structure of Turkish. Such loanwords help pave the way to invoke latent native Turkish linguistic constraints.
Published: 23 September 2020
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ijel.v10n6p237
Writing is the most important genre of all four modules of language. In Pakistan, English is taught as a second language and developing English writing competence is essential for successful communication at all levels of the education system. However, students face challenges in mastering English essay writing skills. The main objective of this study is to investigate the challenges faced in English essay writing by Secondary school students in District Rahim Yar Khan. However, the specific objectives were to determine strategies employed by teachers for teaching essay writing skills, problems faced and strategies employed by students for learning these skills. Finally, methods were proposed for teachers and students for enhancing English essay writing skills among students. A descriptive survey research methodology was adopted. The target population was teachers and students of public secondary schools of District Rahim Yar Khan except for schools of Tehsil Liaquatpur. The sample consisted of 170 students and 27 teachers from 17 sampled schools. Questionnaire from teachers and students and an essay writing test from students were conducted to collect data. The descriptive statistical technique was used to analyze quantitative data in the form of percentages and frequencies. It was evaluated that most common teaching methods used are demonstrations, lectures and question and answers. However, effective teaching methods like oral presentations, peer teaching, group discussions, and role play are not widely used. Moreover, teachers do face problems like low salaries and high workload which effects teaching. Based on the study, recommendations were made for students, teachers, and government to address the challenges students face in English essay writing at secondary level.
Published: 23 September 2020
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ijel.v10n6p245
Political campaigns are dynamic struggles between candidates to define the informational context for voters. Early studies (Kaid, 1981, 1994a, 1994b) suggested that political advertising has cognitive and behavioral effects on voters. It communicates the brand promise of a candidate blending functional and emotional benefits that voters gain from their relationships with a candidate. This study, based on Lakoff’s Framing Model (LFM, 2004), proposes a pragmatic model for the analysis of a political election rhetoric. Within this pragmatic model, it is shown that in such a rhetoric the process of choosing variables of mental and psychological strategies is used. Such a process can be understood as the outcome of producers’ choice making, dynamic negotiation and linguistic adaptation. The analysis of a political discourse makes it possible to see how frames are powerful rhetorical entities that motivate audience to filter their perceptions of the world. It presents evidences to the claim that a candidate’s speech using ‘rhetoric of fear’ appeals to the audience. Contradicted reactions appear: some audience react feeling ‘fearful’ while others respond feeling ‘protected’ or ‘heard’ that a candidate is listening to their concerns and willing to fulfil them. It also shows how the institutionalized use of strategy language has implications: some of these emerge from the genre itself while others derive from situation; specific choices.