International Journal of English Linguistics
ISSN / EISSN : 1923-869X / 1923-8703
Published by: Canadian Center of Science and Education (10.5539)
Total articles ≅ 1,388
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 19 September 2021
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v11n5p91
This paper describes the vowels of the Qassimi dialect and explores the characteristic features of those vowels. To achieve this goal, the researcher has compiled a list of Qassimi words. Each word represents a major allophone of each vowel phoneme. These words were then repeated by Qassimi female speakers from Buraidah and recorded by the researcher. The data was subjected to acoustic analysis, and the results were compared to the acoustic results of English vowels. The analysis showed many similarities in the characteristics of both Qassimi and English vowels. However, it also showed some significant differences that distinguish the vowel system of Qassimi from the English vowel system as well as other Saudi dialects. This study sheds light on those differences, however it is left to future studies to investigate further and possibly compare other aspects of these dialects. This study contributes to the theoretical description of Saudi dialects, an area that needs many more contributions. In addition, this paper could be a part of the contrastive studies of Arabic and English, second language acquisition studies, or various other applied studies.
Published: 19 September 2021
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v11n6p1
Aiming to develop a sociocultural understanding of learner agency as defined by Ahearn (2001), this study asks the questions: How do English majors under the Program for Interdisciplinary English Talents in Chinese universities with international or regional orientations experience their English learning and exert learner agency differently? Which factors influence learners’ agentive activities and what differences exist in the influencing strength of those factors? Interview data were collected from 14 student participants from two representative universities in the eastern part of China. Analyzing the data using the framework proposed by Dang and Marginson (2013) revealed that learners’ agentive activities are mediated by the sociocultural context, in which the global, national and local factors exert great influences and their influencing strength varies. Among all the factors, the influence of the microgenetic domain, to be specific, the institutional context is the greatest. Implications and suggestions are provided based on the results.
Published: 7 September 2021
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v11n5p77
The language of literary texts is adorned with proverbs, a cultural element which to some extent has become significant in the growth and development of African literature and in the portrayal of meaning assigned by the writer. This paper explores the relationship between linguistic structures and culturally constructed meaning in Chinua Achebe’s novel A Man of the people by critically examining the transitivity of proverbs used in the work. This study is anchored on Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar. The analysis reveals that Achebe uses more material processes, followed by mental processes and then relational and verbal processes. Furthermore, the types of transitivity process, participants, circumstatials contribute towards the construction of themes reflected in the novel. Based on the results, the paper concludes that Achebe uses a variety of transitivity processes as proposed by M.A.K. Halliday with the exception of existential and behaviour. He uses actors, sensers, carriers, identifiers, to convey message of his novel. Achebe mostly uses circumstances of extent, location, and manner to show that the actions take place in a certain place, time, and at a certain frequency. The paper concludes that Achebe’s use of varieties of processes, participants and circumstances has made his novel interesting and readable.
Published: 30 August 2021
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v11n5p62
The recursive computational mechanism generates an infinite range of expressions. However, little is known about how different concepts interact with each other within recursive structures. The current study investigated how Mandarin-speaking children dealt with possessives and generics in recursive structures. The picture-matching task showed that Mandarin-speaking children 4 to 6 had a bias for generics in ambiguous possessive constructions in Mandarin, where the genitive maker was covert (e.g., Yuehan de baobao chuang John’s kid bed, where baobao chuang kid bed has both a generic interpretation and a referential interpretation). It was found that that Mandarin-speaking children below 6 had a non-recursive interpretation of the possessive John’s kid(’s) bed, and instead understand kid’s bed to refer generically to a type of bed. This finding suggests that semantics does not parallel syntax in the acquisition of indirect recursion, in line with the prediction of the generic-as-default hypothesis which claims that generics are the default mode of representation of ambiguous statements when the statement can be either generic or non-generic. The delayed recursive possessive interpretation suggests that the full determiner phrase is acquired later than a noun phrase modification, which is universal in all languages. We also discuss the role of the overt functional category in the acquisition of indirect recursion.
Published: 19 August 2021
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v11n5p44
A close examination of the underlying pedagogical and related factors that shape and direct English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers’ instructional approaches and behaviors highlights the impossibility of teaching the core and language skills and language-related areas effectively when using the current outdated techniques. The purpose of this article is to orient the reader and succinctly identify the key factors underlying current Saudi EFL teachers’ approaches to teaching the four macro and micro language skills. It delineates the various factors that influence the current EFL teaching process in the Saudi English education system, along with briefly sketching Saudi EFL teachers’ approaches to teaching each language skill. To this end, this discussion contributes to increasing consciousness of factors that affect the actual pedagogy of EFL teachers in Saudi EFL classrooms and perhaps to encouraging Saudi EFL teachers to exert their effectiveness in Saudi EFL classrooms and strive for better performance.
Published: 18 August 2021
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v11n5p28
The influence of association measures has been little examined in research on L2 collocation processing. For this reason, the present study replicated Öksüz et al. (2020) experiment on intermediate L2 learners of English to determine whether the association measure mutual information (MI) is a stronger predictor of L2 performance than the Log Dice measure. Twenty-two intermediate Arab learners of English completed a timed acceptability judgment task on the online Gorilla platform. The task included (1) high-frequent collocations (e.g., bad news), (2) low-frequent collocations (e.g., only friend), and (3) non-collocates (e.g., true news, wrong friend) which had differing MI and Log Dice scores. Mixed-effects models were built to analyze the participants’ reaction times to the three conditions. The results showed that the frequency of the collocation (operationalized as item type) and its length significantly influenced reaction times, while both MI and Log Dice scores did not surface as significant predictors. This suggests that intermediate English L2 learners are not sensitive to corpus-based association measures. The results have important implications for L2 teaching and testing and may indicate that it is not worthwhile to determine which collocations to include in the materials based mainly on the strength of the association.
Published: 18 August 2021
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v11n5p19
Language attitudes studies are integral to our understanding of language-society dynamics, specifically in regions where linguistic diversity can create issues connected to social structure and social cohesion. The field of language attitudes studies heavily impacts research in areas such as language planning and policy, education and workplace inequality, and cultural discrimination. Thus, it is important to have a work that presents an overview of the most important notions and concepts in this field, with a specific focus on topics such as defining language attitudes, the components of an attitude, and the different methods of measuring it. This paper aims at providing this overview in addition to assessing the current status of language attitudes studies in the Arab world and outlining the challenges and opportunities for researchers in this field. One of the significant characteristics of language attitudes research in this region is the lack of studies that focus on the inequality dimension. Many studies in this region have opted to investigate the Standard-Spoken dichotomy and the attitudes of speakers toward foreign languages such as French and English. Researching issues such as the attitudes toward other Arabic varieties and toward migrant guest workers’ use of pidgins remains limited in the Arab context. Factors such as cultural rivalry and national pride may represent some of the obstacles in the path of conducting broader studies in the field of language attitudes in this region.
Published: 18 July 2021
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v11n4p105
This study proposes an adaptive methodology to overcome localization translation challenges. The objective of the study is to generate a theoretical framework for identifying localization translation problems and ultimately propose a user-centred and agile-based methodology to minimize translation errors. The main research question that this paper attempts to answer is the question of “What would be the best theoretical framework for identifying current translation problems and addressing the convergence of translation and localization according to the new developments in informatics and communication technologies?” To answer this question, it was important to dismantle the notions of translation, translation theory, and localization. Based on the revised new definitions adapted to the new socio-technological context of the present digital era, the challenges can be identified and addressed through the formulation of a new methodology. The new methodology involves several steps, including the selection of recognized techniques like the “rich points” model to identify the localization translation challenges, a set of quality criteria to evaluate the projects, and adopting a user-centred approach and agile methodology for the project management of localization translation projects in order to assure the satisfaction of the stakeholders and a rapid adaptation to changes in the requirements. The proposed methodology must be validated in the future by applying it to concrete cases of localization translation projects and assessing its utility and performance. Thus, it would be useful in the future for improving localization translation projects.
Published: 14 July 2021
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v11n5p1
Metadiscourse has been defined as the discourse used by writers to help their readers connect, interpret and evaluate their attitudes towards the referential material presented (Vande Kopple, 2002). In his study on CEO’s letters, Hyland (1998b) examined metadiscourse as the manifestation of a writer’s linguistic and rhetorical presence in the text and looked at the persuasive nature of business communication. An awareness of the rhetorical power of metadiscourse in this text genre is vital for professional development, particularly in the teaching of business English. This study was designed to examine the use of interactive and interactional metadiscourse in Business English writing through an analysis of the Enron Email Dataset and the Business Letter Corpus. The data analysis was conducted following Hyland (2005, 2019), in order to understand how content and discourse are set up to orient and persuade the reader. Although this study focuses specifically on interactional metadiscourse, the results are expected to be relevant for the ESP classroom, particularly in English for Business Communication (EBC) classes (Bhatia & Bremner, 2012). Acquiring conscious awareness of the rules and conventions to master formal writing can be of great help to business students in order for them to become successful writers in both academic and professional environments.
Published: 13 July 2021
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v11n4p83
Over time, multiple semiotic modes have contributed in different ways to the construction and exchange of cultural meanings in Tourism Discourse. This has required the analysis and understanding of the modes employed and the recontextualization and adaptation of texts and images, especially to the new web genres. Nowadays, the tourist experience is mediated by personal, digital, and mobile technologies, which redirect the tourist gaze and become the mediator between the traveler and the tourist destination. Consequently, the tourism text must be considered as a single unit, where different semiotic resources intermingle to enhance its communicative strength. The present study will attempt to propose a methodology to read and write tourism texts in a comprehensive and effective way. It will start by focusing on the relationship between text and image to see how they co-exist in the page and in the way the page is arranged. Then, it will apply a functional approach to the analysis of such semiotic units. The result will show how the boundaries between image and text have become blurred, and textuality is built less through verbal syntax and more through rhetorical visual design.