International Journal of English Linguistics

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1923-869X / 1923-8703
Current Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (10.5539)
Total articles ≅ 1,373
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Latest articles in this journal

Michał Organ
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/ijel.v11n4p1

The study is focused on translation technology within the system of higher education in Poland, specifically English Studies offering translation specialization at BA and MA level, as well as postgraduate studies aimed at translators of English. The conducted analysis of translation curricula of Polish universities investigates the presence of courses devoted to the use of translation technology and seeks to determine whether such courses are offered at a given level of higher education, where in the system most of the courses are placed, and when they are mostly organized. First, however, a brief overview of different aspects determining the inclusion of translation technology in curricula are discussed. Here, the main stress is placed on its importance for the translation markets, the skills and knowledge obtained by students entering the market which are desired by translation agencies, elements affecting the selection of given translation software, the necessary infrastructure to run such courses, the costs of the programmes, ‘human resources’, the policies of universities, etc. The short discussion is followed by an analysis of the available courses, with each section devoted to one of the levels of the Polish higher education system, namely BA, MA and postgraduate studies. The courses within each level are briefly compared to provide some general tendencies for each type of studies. The final, concluding part of the study summarizes the results and stresses the need for further introduction of translation technology into translation curricula.
Bo Yang, Christo Moskovsky
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/ijel.v11n4p12

Most previous research examining the correlation between affect and achievement of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) has relied on questionnaire and/or interview data. The current study, conducted in a Chinese EFL context, chose to explore this relationship on the basis of quantitative and qualitative classroom observation data, with a special focus on learners’ classroom engagement and misbehaviours. The participant sample involved the EFL learners and teachers in six classes at a key and a non-key university in Northwest China. Data in relation to participants’ affect, engagement, and misbehaviours were collected via classroom observations, including some video-recording. The participating students’ College English Test-Band 4 (CET-4) scores were used as a measurement of EFL achievement. Participants’ affect, engagement, and achievement formed a reciprocal relationship; the latter was negatively connected with misbehavious. Rather than gender, type of school (key vs. non-key university) had significant effects on the variables being examined. Data revealed that teachers, peers, and classroom environment were also influential factors in explaining the differences in the relationship between the identified variables.
Mohammed A. Abuzaifah
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/ijel.v11n4p26

The present article aims to review the paradigm shift, a concept proposed by Thomas Kuhn (1962), and how its manifestation in the developments of language studies contributed to the advent of different structural schools of European linguistics. To further explore the topic, this article begins by identifying the actual meaning of Kuhn’s paradigm shift and how it influenced other disciplines of science. Second, the history of structuralism is discussed and reviewed from two different perspectives, pre stage and the post stage of structuralism. The revolutions throughout the history of structuralism, primarily in the European context, led to paradigmatic shifts and the emergence of several influential and prominent structural schools, namely European structuralism, the Prague Linguistic Circle, and the London school of linguistics.
Diana Xu
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/ijel.v11n3p121

Reviewer acknowledgements for International Journal of English Linguistics, Vol. 11, No. 3, 2021. 
Evelyn Eika
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/ijel.v11n3p96

This study explored students’ learning experiences in higher education during the Covid-19 pandemic. A journal writing methodology was used to extract learners’ reflective thoughts regarding their living and learning during the pandemic outbreak. The results were interpreted through the views of relevant student engagement frameworks. The students’ structural factors (family, support, and pressure) were impacted because of political and sociocultural factors (restrictive measures in response to the pandemic outbreak) within which the university factors were embedded (total closure with online education, subsequent reopening allowing physical attendance, and later principal distance education with approved exceptions), which collectively and psychosocially influenced students’ life and studies. The learners self-adapted via their individual efficacy to tackle the unfamiliar situations by digitally reaching out to family/friends and enhancing skills/self-learning; learner differences in learning style and preferences were noted. Online courses offered flexibility for learning independent of time and space while social presence in the learning community during online lessons remained less effective; traditional values of face-to-face physical classrooms were recognised among some learners. Learners’ perceived effective engaging measures underscored the importance of ensuring learner well-being (counselling and mask-wearing), learning independence (online lecture recordings and optional attendance), and strengthening online learning experiences (building the learning community, enhancing class dialogue, and demonstrating problem-solving techniques). Recommendations for engaging learning were discussed.
Bo Yang
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/ijel.v11n3p87

Based on an in-depth semi-structured interview method, this study explored sources of nonnative university English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers’ professional anxiety and relevant emotion regulation strategies in a Chinese context. Participants mostly suffered from academic promotion anxiety, followed by research anxiety, teaching anxiety, and anxiety about English language proficiency and knowledge. To overcome this negative emotion, participants adopted two families of emotion modifications: response-focused regulation strategies including coping, expressive suppression, and communication, as well as antecedent-focused regulation strategies comprising cognitive reappraisal and distraction, with the former outweighing the latter. Findings revealed the complexity of nonnative university EFL teachers’ professional anxiety and cultural differences in emotion regulation strategies.
Muhammad Khan Abdul Malik
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/ijel.v11n3p74

There is a plethora of research on the multifarious dialogues on English Language as (EFL and ESL), its teaching-learning approaches, assessment patterns, the learners’ employ ability and their life skills. How all these aspects affect and influence one another, need further exploration. The most important and vital point is that English Language and Literature syllabus may be different in different colleges and universities but the assessment patterns are approximately the same. The alarming situation is that maximum questions are responded through cramming and rote learning where there is no reflection of creative skills and competency in English Language. However, exceptions are always there. The focus and significance of the present study is “how can the ELT approaches and assessment patterns be adapted and transformed specifically to meet the demand of the labor market, employability and life skills. (i) the researcher collected and analyzed 75 Question Papers of English from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, and (ii) developed questionnaires cum opinionnaires for the 50 ELT teachers and the students in Jazan University, Jazan (KSA), and administered online. To determine findings and conclusion, the collected data have been analyzed in the employability, life, and soft skills perspectives that confirmed the validity and reliability of the present research hypothesis.
Michela Giordano, Antonio Piga
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/ijel.v11n3p49

The ongoing Pan-European integration process has profoundly influenced the nature of European law and its development, demanding a review of “the ways of how language […] is materialized” (Gibová, 2009, p. 192). EU multilingualism is thus becoming an intricate concept since “EU translation is […] becoming the language of Europe” (Gibová, 2009, p. 192) encompassing a supranational view of the world conveyed in EU-wide legislation. Very much in line with this assumption, and taking into account the teaching experience in Specialised Translation Masters’ courses training would-be professional translators, this study examines a corpus of European Parliament Regulations on immigration. In order to understand whether dissimilarities and/or congruencies occur between the EU working language, i.e., English, and the Italian versions, the metadiscourse framework by Hyland (2005), comprising both interactive and interactional features, is used as the point of departure for the analysis of parallel texts. The Regulations produced by EU institutions and conveyed and transmitted both in English as a “procedural language” (Wagner, Bech, & Martίnez, 2012) as well as in Italian have been scrutinized both quantitatively and qualitatively, in order to draw precious pedagogical implications for translation studies and professional practice for future qualified and trained translators.
Claudio De Paiva Franco
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/ijel.v11n3p62

In this paper, I intend to examine the main English as a lingua franca (ELF) issues discussed in the National Common Curricular Base (Brasil, 2018) and compare them to the views put forward by mainstream scholars in the field (Baker, 2016, 2018; Dewey, 2007; Jenkins, 2006, 2012, 2015; Pennycook, 2006, 2009; Widdowson, 1994). In addition, as a researcher and creator of teaching materials, I intend to share some insights into materials writing by presenting the main strategies adopted in writing a series of English textbooks for pre-teens, evaluated and approved for distribution by the Brazilian Textbook Program, that I have written with Tavares (Franco & Tavares, 2018). Therefore, I hope this article may help shed light on developing and implementing materials that adopt an ELF-oriented approach in a scenario created by the legislation and the selection of textbooks that seems to be promising for the establishment of the ELF paradigm in Brazil.
Hong Zhang
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/ijel.v11n3p39

From a rhetorical point of view, reading is not an isolated process of absorbing the meaning of words in a text but a creative activity in which the reader constructs meaning through the symbolic exchange with the text in a particular situation. This study elaborates on the rhetorical features of literary texts through the lens of rhetorical situation, rhetorical purpose, and Aristotle’s three means of persuasion. It then illustrates how to approach a literary text rhetorically through the interpretation of Sandra Cisneros’ The House on Mango Street, shedding light on the development of critical reading in literary instruction. The study displays the literary text’s rhetoricity and demonstrates that the rhetorical approach enables the readers to explore the persuasive mechanism of a literary text, examine the sources the writer marshals to adapt to the audience and make their judgments based on the ethical, emotional, and logical proofs. Furthermore, the rhetorical approach to literary reading provides theoretical ground for a rhetorical mode of literary instruction, which directs our focus on the readers’ constructive role and creates more space for individual interpretation. In this way, a rhetorical approach to literary reading plays a significant role in developing student readers’ creativity, critical thinking, and rhetorical awareness both in reading and writing.
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