International Journal of English Linguistics

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1923869X / 19238703
Current Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (10.5539)
Total articles ≅ 1,228
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Latest articles in this journal

Juanjuan Wang, Yi Sun
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ijel.v10n4p115

Even though transfer from L1 to L2 has been repeatedly tested and confirmed, there is little literature and consensus on how and to what extent the L1 metaphoric competence could be related to that of L2. Based on the metaphor acceptability and response time of E-Prime experiments and two written tests of comprehension and production of metaphors on 94 intermediate Chinese-speaking university students of English, this study compares Chinese English learners’ similarities and differences in four dimensions (metaphor acceptability, identification speed, metaphor comprehension, and metaphor production) of metaphoric competence between L1 and L2 (here is Chinese and English). The results demonstrate that: Chinese English learners’ L1 metaphoric competence is significantly better than that of L2; their L2 metaphoric competence is significantly correlated to that of L1, and the regression analysis shows that L1 metaphoric competence has a significant prediction of that of L2. These findings enlighten us to greatly cultivate metaphoric competence in foreign language teaching and help students create connection between L1 and L2 metaphoric competence. This study also provides statistical support for the claim that metaphoric competence is a general trans-language cognitive ability for Chinese English learners.
Wenhui Yang, Linyan Cheng, Kaiyue Zhen
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ijel.v10n4p145

This analysis contrasts on Chinese smog news (CSN) with American smog news (ASN), probing into the complicated discourse stances and their represented cognitive mechanism. Having been assisted by “glossary extraction”, the authors uncover the correlation between varied stance glossaries and the hidden cognitive mechanisms. The research provides hints on social cognition in news encryption and decryption, based on the database of thirty pieces of news reports from Chinese news agencies and thirty from American sources respectively. The analytical results reveal that Chinese news frequently quotes the comments of officials and is largely dominated by official and political stances of government, whilst American news frequently features occupational and public stances with pervasive individual and personal tones, attitudes, and dictations. This cognitive research on English weather news reports casts light on the discrepancies and commonalities in the adoption of stance glossaries in media discourse, drawing respective cognition construction of media writers from different cultures, which further illustrates how public cognition being framed on social issues in discourses.
Sayana Movsum Baghirova
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ijel.v10n4p132

During the last decades, the social development of a person through bilingualism has drawn consideration attention from the researchers. The present study reviewers the influence of the bilingualism on the social development of a person. According to the classification of the linguists such as F. Veysalli the four types of the social development of a person are mentioned to be important each of which has an impact on the social development of a person. The article highlights the social sides of the language. The various social activities are said to be realized by means of the language. The article underlines the possibilities of people’s speaking various languages not mixing them. The bilingualism is explained to be understood in many various meanings such as the control of a person on two languages, the ability of using two languages in the same way, the ability of saying meaningful phrases in both languages, the proficiency of code switching, etc.
Ahmed Mousa
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ijel.v10n3p247

This study investigates the production of English initial consonant clusters by Arabic L1 learners of English and speakers of the Broad Jamaican Creole. The clusters Stop + /r/, /S/ + nasal, /S/ + stop, in addition to the production of vowel-initial words are focused on. It was found out that whereas Arab learners produced initial Stop + /r/ and /S/ + nasal words with epenthesis and /S/ + stop words with prosthesis as well as epenthesis, speakers of the Broad Jamaican Creole produced Stop + /r/ and /S/ + stop clusters according to the RP norm and /S/ + nasal with epenthesis. As for vowel-initial words, both groups resorted to the strategy of onset filling (Itô, 1989). Specifically, Arab learners produced these words with glottal stop /ʔ/ before the initial vowel, whereas the Jamaican informants inserted glottal fricative /h/ in the same position. Furthermore, the performance of the two groups was additionally analyzed in light of Optimality Theory.
Nadia Saeed, Muhammad Ali Shaikh, Stephen John, Mahboob Dehraj, Zahid Ali Sahito
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ijel.v10n4p105

The purpose of this research study was to investigate the role of so-called English Medium schools in the teaching of English. In Pakistan, English is considered a gateway to success, a person having command on the language is offered a job while the other one having command on the subject matter is rejected, therefore it is a common trend in Pakistan that people belonging to all walks of life prefer to send their children to privately managed English medium schools. To measure the role schools in teaching English, both quantitative and qualitative approaches were adopted, and by using a purposive random sampling procedure one hundred and twenty heads of so-called English medium schools were selected. A questionnaire having close-ended and open-ended items were used to getting the opinions of schools’ heads regarding the role of school in teaching English. The quantitative responses were analyzed using SPSS while qualitative responses were sorted, labeled, and quantified. The data analysis reveals that privately managed schools are so-called English medium schools. They have neither qualified staff nor facilities which are required for the teaching of English.
Abdullah Abdulrahman Bin Towairesh
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ijel.v10n4p90

Discussing the role of Spoken varieties within Saudi society exposes a point of tension between those who view these varieties as a threat to Fus‛ħa Arabic and those who value them for their close association with local traditions and culture. The absence of a clear understanding of the concept of diglossia among the general public is at the core of this issue. Thus, one can see that although the use of Spoken varieties is expanding rapidly through new mediums such as “Shilat” (folkloric singing) and “Alqanawat Ash-Shaʕbeyah” (TV channels focusing on folklore), the linguistic campaigns that criticize these varieties remain as strong as ever. In this context, this paper aims to explore the discrepancy between linguistic ideologies within society and the reality of language use on the ground. The data used in this study were collected from questionnaires disseminated among Saudi speakers from both sexes and different age groups. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of the data reveal a number of directions and views that are prevalent within Saudi society regarding the H/L dichotomy. There seems to be a wide consensus about accepting Spoken varieties as a normal component of the linguistic repertoire of speakers, provided that such varieties are used in their predetermined domains. In contrast, any signs of infringement on the functions reserved for Fus‛ħa Arabic are always condemned and denounced. These infringements include the nonstandard use of language in any written form, such as the use of local varieties on internet forums, newspapers, and magazines or on information websites, like Wikipedia. This paper also examines the participants’ views on using Spoken Arabic on social media platforms, and their attitudes towards the influx of recent English borrowings into Spoken Arabic.
Gehad M. Amin
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ijel.v10n4p75

The hypothesis upon which this paper is based is that in both Arabic and English the notion of tense underdetermines the notion of time, and some pragmatic enrichment is needed to the get at the correct temporal interpretation. In both languages, beside the normal unmarked tense usages, some marked usages of tense are available wherein the tense constructions do not refer to their equivalent temporal intervals; this is done for the sake of rhetorical purposes as illustrated and exemplified. Even the unmarked cases to tense are proven to require, for sound interpretation, the inclusion of pragmatic givens. Many examples are given in both languages showing the pragmatic nature of the temporal interpretive process of tense in terms of the SRE theory where the interrelationship of the three-time intervals speech, event, and reference times (S/TU, E/TSit, R/TT) is based primarily on rather pragmatic parameters within the process of temporal interpretation. Some new treatment is given concerning the theory of tense interpretation which is related to a pragmatic conception of the speaker’s temporal projection or “virtuality” via which tenses’ inherent three-time points are pragmatically interrelated and arranged in terms of the potential existence of multiple virtual and non-virtual speakers.
Maheen Tufail Dahraj, Hina Manzoor, Mahnoor Tufail
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ijel.v10n4p61

Technology has become an important source for enhancing the knowledge of the students. Apart from the non-academic purposes, the use of technology for the academic purposes also has greater impact on the process of learning specifically on tertiary education. Therefore, it has become essential for higher education institutions to focus on the available opportunities for integrating technology in the academic setting. The developing countries like Pakistan, however; are facing some major challenges in technology integration due to the unavailability of sufficient financial resources. Hence, this study explores the use of digital technological tools at undergraduate level in one of the public sector universities of Pakistan. The study also examines the impact of the medium of instruction and respective discipline of the tertiary level students on the use of technology. For this purpose, an online survey was conducted from 200 undergraduate students studying in four different disciplines in the university. The findings revealed that the majority of the students at the undergraduate level have accessibility to smartphones, laptops or desktop computers in the university but only a few students use these available technological tools for learning purposes. Smartphones were determined to be the most easily available technological tool while the students generally do not prefer carrying their laptops to the university. Besides this, the students also reported having limited technological knowledge and skills for the digital tools to be used for educational and learning purposes. However, a greater percentage of the students were willing to participate in training sessions for learning.
Linda Alkhawaja, Hanan Ibrahim, Fida’ Ghnaim, Sirine Awwad
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ijel.v10n4p43

The neural machine translation (NMT) revolution is upon us. Since 2016, an increasing number of scientific publications have examined the improvements in the quality of machine translation (MT) systems. However, much remains to be done for specific language pairs, such as Arabic and English. This raises the question whether NMT is a useful tool for translating text from English to Arabic. For this purpose, 100 English passages were obtained from different broadcasting websites and translated using NMT in Google Translate. The NMT outputs were reviewed by three professional bilingual evaluators specializing in linguistics and translation, who scored the translations based on the translation quality assessment (QA) model. First, the evaluators identified the most common errors that appeared in the translated text. Next, they evaluated adequacy and fluency of MT using a 5-point scale. Our results indicate that mistranslation is the most common type of error, followed by corruption of the overall meaning of the sentence and orthographic errors. Nevertheless, adequacy and fluency of the translated text are of acceptable quality. The results of our research can be used to improve the quality of Google NMT output.
Qian Liu
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ijel.v10n3p241

According to the hypothesis of semantic determination, meaning is a key to verb behavior; verb fall into classes on the basis of shared components of meaning, and members in the same semantic class may share patterns of behavior. This paper aims to verify the validity of component analysis in predicting syntactic behavior. It first makes a brief introduction to causative alternation, then compares the meaning components and usage of three verbs, i.e., break, cut and bake. Finally, two contradictions are found in the alternation analysis of these verbs. Therefore, the component analysis cannot completely predict their alternation type. Consequently, the explanatory power of this hypothesis is very limited as far as causative alternation is concerned.
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