Journal of Stem Cell Research and Tissue Engineering

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 26141264 / 26141256
Current Publisher: universitas airlangga (10.20473)
Total articles ≅ 20
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Latest articles in this journal

Saiful Arifin
Journal of Stem Cell Research and Tissue Engineering, Volume 3; doi:10.20473/jscrte.v3i1.16325

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to develop a novel therapeutic method for improving immune system regulation in SLE using escalating dose self-antigen dsDNA immunotherapy. Methods: Female Balb/c mice were given a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml pristane.. Starting at 12 weeks after injection,. the mice were evaluated for clinical and serological manifestations. Mice with lupus signs (PIL mice) were divided into four groups; positive control group, PIL A (0.01 μg/ml, 0.1 μg/ml, 1 μg/ml ) EDI dsDNA, PIL B (0.1 μg/ml, 1 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml ) EDI dsDNA, and PIL C(1 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml). EDI dsDNA were administered once every week in consecutively. The doses would increase every week. dsDNA were complexed with the cationic polyethylenimine (PEI) before injection. Samples were analyzed for autoantibodies levels (dsDNA, ANA) and ,TGF-β cytokine from serum using ELISA and T-Reg, mature dendritic cells from spleen using flowcytometry.. Results: Escalating dose antigen spesific immunotherapy with self-antigen dsDNA significantly decreased ANA (p=0.02), anti-dsDNA (p=0.03), dendritic cell mature (p=0.02) compare to positive control, and not significantly decreases Th17 cells (p=0,18) but the result tend to get lower. Desensitization using self-antigen dsDNA was increased T-reg proliferation (p=0.00) and level of TGF-β (p=0.03) significantly compare to positive control. Conclusion: Desensitization using self-antigen dsDNA coupled to PEI was able to modulate T-Reg as a regulator immune respon and inhibit B and T cell functions in lupus mice model.
Silmi Mariya
Journal of Stem Cell Research and Tissue Engineering, Volume 3; doi:10.20473/jscrte.v3i1.16330

Abstract:
The mammary gland contains adult stem cells that are capable of self-renewal. This population plays an important role in the development of mammary gland and breast cancer pathogenesis. The studies of mammary stem cells are limited due to the difficulty to acquire and expand adult stem cell population in an undifferentiated state. In this study, we developed mammosphere cultures of nulliparous cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; Mf) as a culture system to enrich mammary stem cells. This species has similarity of mammary gland structure as humans including anatomy, developmental stages, and lobule profile of mammary gland. The use of stem cells from primate animals is essential to bridge the knowledge gaps resulting from stem cell research using rodents for clinical trials in human. Small samples of mammary tissues were collected by surgical biopsy; cells were cultured as monolayer and cryopreserved. Cryopreserved cells were cultured into mammospheres, and the expression of markers for mammary stem cells was evaluated using qPCR. Cells were further differentiated with 3D approaches to evaluate morphology and organoid budding. The study showed that mammosphere culture resulted in an increase in the expression of mammary stem cell markers with each passage. The 3D differentiation in matrigel allowed for organoid formation. Mammary gland stem cells have been successfully differentiated which characterized by CSN2 marker expression and differentiation regulators marker STAT5 and GATA3. The results indicate that mammospheres can be successfully developed derived from breast tissue of nulliparous Mf collected via surgical biopsy. As the mammosphere allows for enrichment of mammary stem cell population, the findings also suggest that a 3-dimensional system is efficient as in-vitro model to study mammary stem cells and a useful system to study mammary differentiation in regards to cancer prevention.
Alif Imam Fitrianto
Journal of Stem Cell Research and Tissue Engineering, Volume 3; doi:10.20473/jscrte.v3i1.16323

Abstract:
Recently, the most common therapy on men who suffered fertility decline due to aging was testosterone replacement, but now it is known that this therapy has a long-term risk of damage to the cardiovascular system and prostate. Stem cells are an alternative therapy that has a potency to improve the fertility of aging men that less causing side effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the injection of Human Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hWJ-MSC) in physiologic aging male rats on spermatogenic cells. This study used 3 young male rats (8-12 weeks) and 6 physiological aging rats (22-24 months) which divided into 3 groups, the young rat group did not give any treatment, physiological aging male rats received NaCl (0.9%) 0.4 mL, and physiological aging male rats received 1x106 cells/kg BW of hWJ-MSCs. The observations were performed on histological analysis. The results indicate that the hWJ-MSCs injections increased the number of spermatogonia and Leydig cells significantly (P
Sri Poeranto
Journal of Stem Cell Research and Tissue Engineering, Volume 3; doi:10.20473/jscrte.v3i1.16329

Abstract:
Immunosuppressant and steroid therapy for SLE have not shown satisfactory results. Another method of therapy that is being developed is vaccines and escalating dose immunotherapy using self-antigen. The aim of this study was to assess the balance of immune cells through the ratio of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cells and cytokines in SLE using self-antigen dsDNA therapy. Methods: Female Balb/c mice 6-8 weeks old separated randomly to negative control group and pristane induced lupus (PIL) mice group. PIL mice groups were injected pristane intraperitoneally. Twelve weeks after the injection, the mice were evaluated for clinical and serological manifestations (anti-dsDNA levels). Mice with lupus signs were divided into four groups; positive control group: PIL mice without EDI dsDNA therapy, treatment A: PIL mice with EDI dsDNA therapy dose I (0.01μg/ml, 0.1μg/ml, 1μg/ml), treatment B: PIL mice with EDI dsDNA therapy dose II (0.1μg/ml, 1μg/ml, 10μg/ml), and treatment C: PIL mice with EDI dsDNA therapy dose III (1μg/ml, 10μg/ml, 100μg/ml). dsDNA were injected once a week and the dose was increased every week. Samples were analyzed for active/inactive dendritic cells ratio, Th1/Th2 cells ratio, Th17/Treg cells ratio and IL-17/TGF-β levels ratio. Results: Escalating dose antigen specific therapy with dsDNA injection of third dose reduced active/inactive dendritic cells ratio (p=0.000), Th1/Th2 cells ratio (p=0.010), Th17/Treg ratio (p=0.004) and decrease IL-17/TGF- β levels ratio (p=0.004) significantly compared to positive control. Conclusion: Escalating dose antigen specific therapy with dsDNA injection of dose III was able to regulate balance ratio of inflammatory cells and cytokines in PIL mice thus the immune tolerance may improve compared to control groups.
Wining Astini
Journal of Stem Cell Research and Tissue Engineering, Volume 3; doi:10.20473/jscrte.v3i1.16324

Abstract:
The increasing population of aged people will have the important role in the life, but the function of their bodies will decrease because of aging. Aging will increase the risk of degenerative disease, one of example is diabetes. The disease is related to the aging in the pancreatic organ which progressively declines by age. The aimed of the experiment was to determine the effect of human wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells by injecting intravenously in aging female rats. This study used 3 young female rats (3 months) and 6 aging female rats (24 months). The experiment consisted of three groups. The young control group (A), the aging control group (B) that received NaCl (0.9%) 0,4 mL, the aging treatment group (C) received 1 x 106 cells/kg of human wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells 0,4 mL. The aging control and the aging treatment group were injected 4 times with the interval in 3 months. The end of the experiment (12 months), the rats were anesthetized and sacrificed. The pancreatic tissues were collected to examine the pancreatic islets by histology studies. Changes of the pancreatic islet in control and treated groups were examined using hematoxylin and eosin staining. These findings conclude that injecting human wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cell increase the diameter and total pancreatic islet in the treatment group. In other side, the cell population of pancreatic islet also have significant differences (P
Ludita Indrio
Journal of Stem Cell Research and Tissue Engineering, Volume 2; doi:10.20473/jscrte.v2i2.11893

Abstract:
Bone defects due to trauma, tumors, congenital abnormalities, degeneration and other diseases are still major problems in the field of orthopedics and traumatology. Based on data in Asia, Indonesia is the country with the highest number of fracture sufferers, there are as many as 300-400 cases of bone surgery per month in hospitals. Dr. Soetomo Surabaya (Gunawarman et al, 2010). Repair of damaged bones can be overcome with material that can accelerate the process of bone healing (bone healing). This research was conducted to synthesize hydroxyaparite bacterial cellulose scaffold as a candidate for bone healing. Bacterial cellulose as a matrix was synthesized by culturing Acetobacter xylnum, while hydroxyapatite as filler was synthesized by immersion into a solution of CaCl2 and Na2HPO4, the scaffold formation process using freeze dried method. Composite formation was varied by immersion in Polyvynil pirrolidone (PVP) for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 days. Furthermore, samples were characterized using FTIR-Spectroscopy showing the presence of carbonates containing apatite crystals in all five samples.
Adisti Dwijayanti
Journal of Stem Cell Research and Tissue Engineering, Volume 2; doi:10.20473/jscrte.v2i2.11895

Abstract:
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels were affected by aging. Brain BDNF levels were known to decrease along with advanced age thus correlated with any diseases such as cognitive impairment and Alzheimer. Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) is one of the potential modalities actively investigated against age-related diseases. This study evaluated the effect of human MSC administration to brain BDNF levels in aged rats. Intravenous injection of 10 million per body weight human MSC were given four times in 3 months interval to 22-24 months old female and male Spraque–Dawley rats. As control group, aged rats were injected by normal saline at the same volume and frequencies. Moreover, young 3-6 months rats also examined as negative control. By the end of the experiment, we analyzed three rats from each group. Brain BDNF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and normalize to the protein levels. One-way ANOVA and LSD post hoc analysis was performed to compare the differences between groups. BDNF levels in male appeared similar between young, aged, and MSC treated groups. Meanwhile, control aged female groups had significantly lower BDNF levels compared to young (p = 0.019) and MSC-treated aged rats (p = 0.001). There was no difference of BDNF levels between young and MSC-treated aged in female rats (p = 0,068). Both sex had similar BDNF levels (p = 0.249) in control-aged groups. In contrast, female young and MSC-treated aged rats achieved significantly higher BDNF levels (p = 0.009 and p
Andi Yasmin Wijaya
Journal of Stem Cell Research and Tissue Engineering, Volume 2; doi:10.20473/jscrte.v2i2.11655

Abstract:
Cellular plasticity is the concept of bidirectional dynamics change cells differentiation degree which involved in the regeneration, repair and tissue turnover along the organism livespan. Cellular plasticity and dedifferentiation process are well documented in the discovery of iPCSs by introducing several transcriptional factors known as Yamanaka factor to terminally differentiated somatic cells and reverted into pluripotent state as the ESCs. iPSCs are able to exhibit ESCs differentiation potential which could produce ectodermic, mesodermic, and endodermic cell lineage. In tumour biology, the tumour plasticity also have a similar regulation and play an imporant role for maintaining tumour integrity and survival, particularly in maintaining CSCs population. Various study of cellular plasticity regulation has shown that various factors are involved, in example hypoxia, cell injury, and inflammation. Cells respond to hypoxia, cell injury, and inflammation by chemoattractant which attract repair cells to homing towards injured sites. The homing mechanism of stem cells involved EMT to facilitates migration of stem cells towards injured sites, thus leading to tissue regeneration. On the other hand, cancer metastasis also showed a connection with EMT process. EMT which showed a change in cell properties are linked to dedifferentiation and hypoxia response. Hypoxia condition has been known to preserve and both normal stem cells and CSCs stemness. HIF which protected from degradation in hypoxia condition interact with DNA by binding to HRE. HRE activation trigger transcription of numerous signalling protein which involved in stemness, cell proliferation and survival. Therefore it is concluded that cell injury, hypoxia, and inflammation could programmed cells to undergo dedifferentiation process and involved in EMT regulations. CSCs which resides insides heterogeneous tumour cells population are though to be dynamicly regulate itself in the quietscent and active state through dedifferentiation like the normal stem cells. Understanding how CSCs regulates its active an quietscent state dynamics could provide an important information for novel CSCs targeted therapy development.
Yetty Ramli
Journal of Stem Cell Research and Tissue Engineering, Volume 2; doi:10.20473/jscrte.v2i2.11896

Abstract:
Ischemic stroke is one of major cause of mortality and disability in Indonesia. Stem Cells are considered as a promising therapy for ischemic stroke. In this study, we compared therapeutic potency of Stem cell from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) and Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell (cbMNC) using rat models of ischemic stroke. Following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), twenty male wistar rats were divided into four groups : normal rats (n=5), rats undergone permanent MCAO (n=5) as the control (stroke) group, rats undergone permanent MCAO and SHED transplantation (n=5) and rats undergone permanent MCAO and cbMNC transplantation (n=5) as the treatment group. SHED transplantation was performed at the acute phase after MCAO by intravenous injection. Histopathological evaluation of the neuron death ratio with hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed that there was no significant differences at comparative study of neuron death ratio in rats transplanted with SHED and rats transplanted with cbMNC (p=0,81). SHED and cbMNC transplantation at acute stroke showed reduction in the neuron death ratio in the brain of rat models with ischemic stroke, and may provide an opportunity for neuroprotection and neural regeneration after ischemic stroke.
Hendita Maulida
Journal of Stem Cell Research and Tissue Engineering, Volume 2; doi:10.20473/jscrte.v2i2.11892

Abstract:
Peripheral nerve injury with a gap of 5–30 mm can cause permanent paralysis because it causes an axon to break up. The distance between axons of more than 1-2 cm requires a graft in the form of a nerve connector to fix it. Synthesis of chitosan coated polyurethane-collagen hollowfiber has been carried out as an accelerator for healing peripheral nerve injury. The results of Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) analysis showed a cross link between chitosan and glutaraldehyde seen in the shift of wave numbers from 1080-1100 cm-1 to 1002 cm-1. The degradation test results showed that the sample experienced a decrease in mass after being immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for 7 days. Polyurethane can be degraded in the body after 30 days. This is in accordance with the mechanism of the nerve which regenerates 1 mm per day or 1 inch per month. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis showed that the diameter of the hollowfiber was 2.021-2.032 mm which corresponds to the peripheral nerve diameter of 1.5-3 mm and the pore size of the wall is 31.33-39.65 μm. The results of this study are expected to provide the theoretical basis for the use of chitosan polyurethane-collagen coating composites as nerve grafts for the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries that have biocompatible properties, can regenerate and are easily degraded and provide alternative solutions for nerve graft needs that are more economical and easier to manufacture so widely produced in Indonesia.
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