Palliative and Supportive Care

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ISSN / EISSN : 1478-9515 / 1478-9523
Published by: Cambridge University Press (CUP) (10.1017)
Total articles ≅ 1,858
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, David Hui, Saverio Caini, Charles B. Simone, Elizabeth Prsic, Gabriel Boldt, Michael Lock
Palliative and Supportive Care pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1478951521001656

Abstract:
Introduction Cancer-related dyspnea is a common symptom in patients with cancer. It has also been reported to be a predictor of poorer prognosis, which can then change clinical treatment and advance care planning. Currently, no definitive recommendation for pharmacologic agents for cancer-related dyspnea exists. The aim of this systematic review and network meta-analysis is to compare pharmacologic agents for the prophylaxis and treatment of cancer-related dyspnea. Methods A search was conducted in the databases of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL through May 2021. Standardized mean differences (SMDs), as reported by studies or calculated from baseline and follow-up dyspnea scores, were amalgamated into a summary SMD and 95% confidence interval (CI) using a restricted maximum likelihood multivariate network meta-analysis. Results Twelve studies were included in this review; six reported on prophylaxis of exertional dyspnea, five on treatment of everyday dyspnea, and one on treatment of episodic dyspnea. Morphine sulfate was better at controlling everyday dyspnea than placebo (SMD 1.210; 95% CI: 0.415–2.005). Heterogeneity in study design and comparisons, however, led to some concerns with the underlying consistency assumption in network meta-analysis design. Conclusion Optimal pharmacologic interventions for cancer-related dyspnea could not be determined based on this analysis. Further trials are needed to report on the efficacy of pharmacologic interventions for the prophylaxis and treatment of cancer-related dyspnea.
, , Ellen Bolton, Melissa Spargo, Anny Byrne,
Palliative and Supportive Care pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1478951521001644

Abstract:
Objective This study examined rural community-based nurses' self-reported knowledge and skills in the provision of psychosocial care to rural residing palliative and end-of-life clients and carers. We further sought to determine correlates of knowledge gaps to inform workforce education and planning. Method Nurses from a rural area of Victoria, Australia, were invited to complete an electronic questionnaire rating their knowledge against 6 national palliative care standards and 10 screening and assessment tools. A 5-point scale of (1) No experience to (5) Can teach others was used to rate knowledge. Results were classified into three categories: practice gaps, areas of consolidation, and strengths. Descriptive and logistical regression was used to analyze data. Results A total of 122 of 165 nurses (response rate = 74%) completed the survey. Of these nurses, 87% were Registered Nurses, 43% had ≥10 years' experience in palliative care, and 40% had palliative care training. The majority of practices across the standards and screening and assessment tools were rated as knowledge strengths (N = 55/67, 82%). Gaps and areas of consolidation were in the use of client and carer assessment tools, the care of specific populations such as children, supporting carers with appropriate referrals, resources, and grief, and facilitating the processes of reporting a death to the coroner. Lack of formal training and lower years of experience were found to be associated with practice gaps. Significance of results Our study found rural nurses were confident in their knowledge and skills in the majority of psychosocial care. As generalist nurses make up the majority of the rural nursing workforce, further research should be undertaken on what educational strategies are needed to support and upskill rural community-based nurses to undertake formal training in palliative care.
Tricia O'Connor, , Jo Gibson,
Palliative and Supportive Care pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1478951521001541

Abstract:
Objectives The cognitive state of the dying in the last days of life may deteriorate, resulting in a reduced ability to communicate their care needs. Distressing symptoms, physical and existential, may go unrecognized and untreated. The objectives of this integrative review were to systematically interrogate the literature to determine the changing conscious state of dying adults and to identify changes in their care needs. Methods An integrative review protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020160475). The World Health Organization definition of palliative care informed the review. CINAHL, MEDLINE (OVID), Scopus, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and PubMed were searched from inception to October 2019 using search strategies for each database. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Methodological quality was appraised using the Joanna Briggs Institute Checklist for the Case Series appraisal tool. Extracted data were synthesized using a narrative approach. Results Of 5,136 papers identified, 11 quantitative case series studies were included. Six themes were identified: conscious state and change over time, awareness, pain, absence of holistic care, the voiceless patient, and signs and symptoms of dying. Significance of results In the last days of life, the physical and conscious state of the dying patient declines, resulting in an inability to express their care needs. Dignity in dying and freedom from pain and suffering are both an imperative and a human right; and unvoiced care needs can result in unnecessary suffering and distress. This review revealed that little is known about how healthcare professionals assess holistic care needs at this vulnerable time. Although much has been written about palliative and end-of-life care, the assessment of care needs when patients are no longer able to voice their own needs has largely been ignored, with little attention from clinical, educational, or research perspectives. This gap in evidence has important implications for the dying and their families.
, Daye Kim, , Sun-Hyun Kim, Seok-Joon Yoon, Su-Jin Koh, Shin Ae Park, Ji-Yeon Seo, Jung Hye Kwon, Jeanno Park, et al.
Palliative and Supportive Care pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1478951521001589

Abstract:
Objective Accurate prognostication is important for patients and their families to prepare for the end of life. Objective Prognostic Score (OPS) is an easy-to-use tool that does not require the clinicians’ prediction of survival (CPS), whereas Palliative Prognostic Score (PaP) needs CPS. Thus, inexperienced clinicians may hesitate to use PaP. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of OPS compared with PaP in inpatients in palliative care units (PCUs) in three East Asian countries. Method This study was a secondary analysis of a cross-cultural, multicenter cohort study. We enrolled inpatients with far-advanced cancer in PCUs in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan from 2017 to 2018. We calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) curve to compare the accuracy of OPS and PaP. Results A total of 1,628 inpatients in 33 PCUs in Japan and Korea were analyzed. OPS and PaP were calculated in 71.7% of the Japanese patients and 80.0% of the Korean patients. In Taiwan, PaP was calculated for 81.6% of the patients. The AUROC for 3-week survival was 0.74 for OPS in Japan, 0.68 for OPS in Korea, 0.80 for PaP in Japan, and 0.73 for PaP in Korea. The AUROC for 30-day survival was 0.70 for OPS in Japan, 0.71 for OPS in Korea, 0.79 for PaP in Japan, and 0.74 for PaP in Korea. Significance of results Both OPS and PaP showed good performance in Japan and Korea. Compared with PaP, OPS could be more useful for inexperienced physicians who hesitate to estimate CPS.
, Annie J. Keeney, Doreen Higgins, Nayeli Gonzalez, Helen Palomino
Palliative and Supportive Care pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1478951521001498

Abstract:
Objective Hispanic/Latinos living in rural areas have limited healthcare resources, including palliative and hospice care. Moreover, little is known about advance care planning (ACP) among Hispanic/Latino cancer patients in rural areas. This study explores facilitators and barriers for ACP. It elicits suggestions to promote ACP among rural Hispanic/Latino cancer patients in a US/Mexico border region. Methods Hispanic/Latino cancer patients (n = 30) were recruited from a nonprofit cancer organization. Data were collected via in-person interviews. Interviews were transcribed and translated from Spanish to English. Data were uploaded into NVivo 12 and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results A common theme for facilitators and barriers for ACP was safeguarding family. Additional facilitators included (1) Desire for honoring end-of-life (EoL) care wishes and (2) experience with EoL care decision making. Additional barriers include (1) Family's reluctance to participate in EoL communication and (2) Patient–clinicians’ lack of EoL communication. Practice suggestions include (1) Death education and support for family, (2) ACP education, and (3) Dialogue vs. documentation. Significance of results ACP functions not only as a decisional tool; its utility reflects complex dynamics in personal, social, and cultural domains. ACP approaches with this underserved population must consider family relationships as well as cultural implications, including language barriers.
, Julia Corrêa Benfato, Ana M. Ullán, Fabio Scorsolini-Comin
Palliative and Supportive Care pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1478951521001590

Abstract:
This integrative literature review aimed to identify the religious and spiritual experiences of family members and caregivers of children and adolescents with cancer. Through systematized searches in the databases/libraries CINAHL, PsycINFO, Pubmed, SciELO, and Lilacs, 69 articles produced between 2010 and 2020 were retrieved. There was a predominance of studies with parents developed in hospital facilities. The caregivers’ religious and spiritual experiences helped them to cope with childhood cancer, especially in maintaining hope, reducing stress and anxiety symptoms, as well as in providing psychological and social support. Negative outcomes such as questioning faith, the feeling of punishment, and disruption with the religious and spiritual group were also perceived. It is recommended to include religiosity and spirituality for the provision of more humanized and comprehensive care, as well as further investigation of the negative experiences regarding religiosity and spirituality in this public.
Tomohiko Taniyama, Rie Tokutani,
Palliative and Supportive Care pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1478951521001632

Abstract:
Background The definition of sudden unexpected death (SUD) in patients with advanced cancer near the end of life (EOL) was unclear. Methods This study was conducted as a single-center retrospective analysis. We analyzed 1,282 patients who died of advanced cancer from August 2011 to August 2019 retrospectively. We divided into patients who died within 24 h after the acute change of general condition or others and analyzed risk factors by a multiple logistics method. The reason for SUD was found, the reason is detected by using an electronic medical record retrospectively. The risk factors in SUD were analyzed using age, sex, EOL symptom and treatment, the primary site of cancer, metastatic site of cancer, comorbidly, chemotherapy, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status. The primary endpoint was to identify the frequency and risk factors of SUD in patients with advanced cancer near the EOL. Results As a background, the median age is 73 years old, 690 males, 592 females, 227 gastroesophageal cancers, 250 biliary pancreatic cancers, 54 hepatocellular carcinomas, 189 colorectal cancer, 251 lung cancers, 71 breast cancers, 58 urological malignancies, 60 gynecological malignancies, 47 head and neck cancer, 31 hematological malignancies, and 22 sarcomas. The number of patients who died suddenly was 93 (7.2%) at EOL. In a multivariate analysis, Age (ORs 0.619), sex (ORs 1.700), patients with EOL delirium (ORs 0.483), nausea and vomiting (ORs 2.263), 1L or more infusion (ORs 3.479), EOL opioids (ORs 0.465), EOL sedations (ORs 0.339), and with cardiac comorbidity (ORs 0.345) were independent risk factors. Conclusions The frequency of patients who died suddenly was 7.2% (n = 93) at EOL. Age, sex, EOL symptom, EOL treatment, and cardiac comorbidity were independent risk factors in patients with advanced cancer near the EOL. Information on these risk factors is useful to explaining their EOL in advance.
, Reiko Ando Makihara, Naoko Matsunaga, Rieko Shimizu, Sayaka Tominaga, Saki Hoshino, Yukiko Nishibuchi, Yuta Maruki, Akihiro Ohba, Ken Shimizu, et al.
Palliative and Supportive Care pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1478951521001474

Abstract:
Objectives The purpose of this feasibility study was to examine the impacts of a peer discussion group intervention called “the pancreatobiliary cancer salon” on psychological distress among patients with pancreatobiliary cancer and their caregivers. Methods We recruited patients with pancreatic or biliary tract cancer and their caregivers. We conducted a within-group pre–post comparison study. Participants were grouped by the type of cancer and treatment. Each group consisted of four to five patients or caregivers. Hospital staff members facilitated group discussions where participants freely talked for 1 h. We evaluated participants’ psychological condition using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and their impressions of the pancreatobiliary cancer salon. Results We analyzed data from 42 patients and 27 caregivers who joined the salon for the first time. Thirty-five patients (83.3%) had pancreatic cancer. Thirty-one patients (71.4%) had unresectable pancreatobiliary cancer and 14 patients (33.3%) were being treated with second-line or third-line chemotherapy at the time of the survey. Twenty-two patients (52.4%) participated in the salon within 6 months after diagnosis. Most participating caregivers were the patient's spouse/partner (51.9%) or child (34.6%). Both patients and caregivers experienced high levels of satisfaction with the pancreatobiliary cancer salon. Both patients and caregivers had significantly lower psychological distress as assessed by POMS after the salon. Significance of results A peer discussion group intervention might be well-received and has potential to benefit for patients with pancreatobiliary cancer and their caregivers.
Ken Kurisu, Shuji Inada, Isseki Maeda, Asao Ogawa, Satoru Iwase, Tatsuo Akechi, Tatsuya Morita, Shunsuke Oyamada, Takuhiro Yamaguchi, Kengo Imai, et al.
Palliative and Supportive Care pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1478951521001565

Abstract:
Objective There is no widely used prognostic model for delirium in patients with advanced cancer. The present study aimed to develop a decision tree prediction model for a short-term outcome. Method This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter and prospective observational study conducted at 9 psycho-oncology consultation services and 14 inpatient palliative care units in Japan. We used records of patients with advanced cancer receiving pharmacological interventions with a baseline Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 (DRS-R98) severity score of ≥10. A DRS-R98 severity score of <10 on day 3 was defined as the study outcome. The dataset was randomly split into the training and test dataset. A decision tree model was developed using the training dataset and potential predictors. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic curve was measured both in 5-fold cross-validation and in the independent test dataset. Finally, the model was visualized using the whole dataset. Results Altogether, 668 records were included, of which 141 had a DRS-R98 severity score of <10 on day 3. The model achieved an average AUC of 0.698 in 5-fold cross-validation and 0.718 (95% confidence interval, 0.627–0.810) in the test dataset. The baseline DRS-R98 severity score (cutoff of 15), hypoxia, and dehydration were the important predictors, in this order. Significance of results We developed an easy-to-use prediction model for the short-term outcome of delirium in patients with advanced cancer receiving pharmacological interventions. The baseline severity of delirium and precipitating factors of delirium were important for prediction.
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