International Journal of Anatomy and Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2321-8967 / 2321-4287
Published by: I MED Research Publications (10.16965)
Total articles ≅ 1,508
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, Verma S, Hussain Saheb S, Ambrose M, Shishir S, Ramdas A M
International Journal of Anatomy and Research, Volume 10, pp 8439-8444; https://doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2022.183

Abstract:
Introduction: Kyphosis is a sharp posterior angulation due to localized collapse or wedging of one or more vertebrae and scoliosis is the lateral curvature of the spine. These may occur due to a congenital defect, fracture, and sometimes pathological or spinal tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: During routine cadaver dissection, four cases of kyphoscoliosis were identified. In the first case, a protrusion on the posterior surface of the trunk of the cadaver at L1 level was observed in a 60-year-old male. The lungs were collapsed and adherent with the pleura and thoracic wall. The posterior wall of the stomach was adherent to the pancreas and a depression was noted on the anterior surface of abdominal aorta. The T12 and L1 vertebrae were fused, and the spine was deviated to the left side. The anterior aspect of the body of L1 vertebrae was marginally eroded. The second case of kyphoscoliosis was from 80-year-old female cadaver. The descending and abdominal aorta had an abnormal course along the vertebral column, third and fourth cases were observed with slight protrusion and scoliosis but not much changes in the vertebral column. Results: The cause of the deformity was confirmed by pathological examination of the tissues showed inter vertebral disc degeneration with calcification and ossification and osteopenia. The underlying etiology can be tuberculosis, injuries, or infections. Conclusion: Severe kyphoscoliosis can affect wide range of systems in the body. It will affect not only the respiratory system also pressure on great vessels as a consequence of bony deformity. KEY WORDS: Kyphosis, Cadaver Dissection, Kyphoscoliosis, Deformity, Calcification, Ossification.
Darlington Nnamdi Onyejike, Darlington Cyprain Akukwu, Odinakachi Ijike, Ifeoma Miracle Onyejike, Ugochukwu Samuel Aguwa, Emeka Ambrose Okubike, Emmanuel Nzube Ezenwatu, Gloria Chinenye Ojemeni, Somadina Nnamdi Okeke, Ambrose Echefulachi Agulanna
International Journal of Anatomy and Research, Volume 10, pp 8430-8438; https://doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2022.178

Abstract:
Background: Stabbing with kitchen knife is a common method of homicide in Nigeria; and embalming of decomposing stabbed cadavers has been a challenge for morticians in Nigeria, because of the impairment of embalming fluid through the damaged arteries. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of an embalming mixture containing formalin, methanol and water on stabbed early decomposing carcasses using porcine analogues. Methods: Two infant pigs were used for this study. Animals were sacrificed and allowed to reach the early stage of decomposition before embalming. Cervical arterial and hypodermic embalming techniques were employed. Post-embalming changes were observed and scored. A Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between the outcome of embalmment and the embalming mixture. Results: There was a statistically significant moderate positive correlation (r = .576, n = 42, p = .001) between outcome of embalming, and duration of embalming; a statistically significant strong negative correlation (r = -.623, n = 42, p = .001) with volume of embalming fluid; and a statistically significant moderate negative correlation (r = -.528, n = 42, p = .001) with room temperature. There was a statistically insignificant very weak positive correlation (r = .186, n = 42, p = .239) between outcome of embalming and humidity; and a statistically insignificant very weak negative correlation (r = -.141, n = 42, p = .375) with atmospheric temperature. Conclusions: This study validated the embalming methodology and fluid suitable for arresting early decomposition process of stabbed infant carcasses in Nigeria. More so, an embalming mixture containing formalin, methanol and water in equal proportion is suitable for arresting early decomposition of stabbed cadavers. KEYWORDS: Embalming of decomposing bodies, Embalming of stabbed bodies, Funeral services, Modern embalming science, Commercial embalming, Stab wounds, Specialist embalming.
Darlington Nnamdi Onyejike, Victor Adolf Fischer, Ugochukwu Godfrey Esomonu, Ugochukwu Samuel Aguwa, Emmanuel Nzube Ezenwatu, Darlington Cyprain Akukwu, Somadina Nnamdi Okeke, Ifechukwu Justicia Obiesie, Emeka Ambrose Okubike, Gloria Chinenye Ojemeni, et al.
International Journal of Anatomy and Research, Volume 10, pp 8398-8407; https://doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2022.169

Abstract:
Background: Forensic taphonomy is the use of decomposition timeline estimation to unravel mystery behind time of death confirmation in homicide cases involving the law court. The Guinea forest-savannah vegetation is one of the vegetations in Nigeria characterized by short trees, grassland, very hot temperatures almost round the year, speedy wind, etc. It has two distinct seasons – rainy and dry seasons. This study aimed at investigating the visible post mortem changes of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) in a Guinea forest-savannah vegetation of Nigeria so that it can be used to estimate time since death of bodies on the soil surface. Methods: A stratified random sampling technique was used to select two male and two female matured domestic pigs from a private pig farm located close to the research facility. The visible post mortem changes were observed daily (morning, afternoon and evening) for 49 days. Results: Four stages of decomposition were identified namely fresh, bloat, active decay, and advanced decay stages. Mummification process started at the sixth day post mortem which slowed the rate of decomposition, and prevented the animals to completely skeletonize within the study period. Extreme atmospheric temperature was the major factor that aided the mummification of the animals. Conclusions: Decomposition of domestic pigs in this region accelerates at the early hours of post mortem, and subsequently slows down due to extreme climatic conditions. In addition, it takes carcasses on the soil surface more than 49 days to completely skeletonize due to its vegetative factors. This implies that most crime investigations carried out in this region must take into account the climatic conditions before estimating the time of death. KEYWORDS: Crime investigation, Decomposition timeline estimation, Forensic taphonomy, Mummification, Stages of decomposition, Visible post mortem changes.
Nagaswami Vasan, Elizabeth Hilt, Pallavi Patil, Olivia Schreiber, Ahmed Shahzad, Tanner Gill, Cheryl Melovitz-Vasan
International Journal of Anatomy and Research, Volume 10, pp 8425-8429; https://doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2022.176

Abstract:
Aortic arch (AA) anomalies occur in approximately 3-5% of cadavers, but these atypical branches remain a point of discussion in cervical region surgery. This case report describes a 73-year-old Caucasian female who died of renal failure following a complicated urinary tract infection whose left vertebral artery (LVA) originated from the AA between the left common carotid and subclavian arteries. The preforaminal part of the LVA was 5 mm in diameter and entered the C6 transverse foramen while the right vertebral artery (RVA) arose from the right subclavian was 6.5 mm in diameter and entered the C5. Embryologically, VAs are formed during weeks four through eight by development of longitudinal anastomoses linking the cervical intersegmental arteries (ISA). The ISA regress except the seventh, which becomes the proximal subclavian artery, the point of origin of the adult VA. Persons with LVA that arises from the AA may be asymptomatic; however, secondary dilatation of the RVA may be implicated in the development of cerebrovascular disorders and atherosclerotic changes due to increased blood flow. Additionally, the anatomical positioning of a left vertebral artery is important when considering an anterior approach for cervical spine surgery and other head-neck procedures when soft structures arteries, veins and muscles are retracted to reach the cervical spine. KEY WORDS: Vertebral artery anomaly, Developmental error, Cervical region surgery, Cerebral circulation, Clinical correlation.
Santhanalakshmi Ramapandian, , Karthick Selvaraj
International Journal of Anatomy and Research, Volume 10, pp 8386-8390; https://doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2022.124

Abstract:
Introduction: The increase in the number of undergraduate medical seats in India, suggests the need for faculties trained in specialist fields to ensure adequate education at the university level. Career selection is considered an important aspect of medical course admission and some career options are often overlooked by students. An insight into factors affecting the decision making could aid preparing workforce to prevent the over or under supply of doctors in various specialties. Aim: To determine the career preferences among final year medical students and interns in a private medical college in Tamilnadu, India. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among final year part two MBBS students and CRRI’s who were going to complete their internship in three months, by a pre validated questionnaire consisting of two sections, the first section consisting of demographic details and the second section consisting of fixed response questions about their career choices. A sample of 100 final year students and 140 CRRI’s participated in this study. The primary data is analysed with SPSS software, and chi square test was done. Results: Female students mostly preferred General medicine, Obstetrics & gynaecology and Paediatrics, while male students preferred General medicine, Paediatrics, General Surgery and Radiology. Among the students who participated in the study, 20.4% have not decided which speciality to pursue. Conclusion: The medical students career options in our medical college was in favour of a few departments. KEY WORDS: Career preferences, Medical students, CRRI’s.
Thaer M. Farhan, Aiman Al-Maathidy
International Journal of Anatomy and Research, Volume 10, pp 8463-8467; https://doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2022.203

Abstract:
Background: Among new therapies emerging in the medical field, the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in human reproduction has not yet been explored. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has a potential effect on tissue repair through proliferation and differentiation of tissue progenitor cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PRP on the testis structure and function in the rabbit model. Material and methods: A total of 30 male rabbits were recruited in this study. They were allocated into two groups (15 in each group) to receive an injection of PRP (PRP Group), or normal saline (Control Group) Results: there were statistically significant differences in Means of germinal layer width, Leydig cell number, and Sertoli cell number was significantly higher in the PRP group compared to that in the control group ( P ≤ 0.05). The PRP group had a higher means of sperm concentration and normal morphology compared with the control groups (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: the platelet-rich plasma is found to have a good potential effect on the testicular tissue that improved the histological and functional aspects and could be considered a promising future treatment for hypogonadism status in many disorders. Keywords: PRP, reproductive function, testis, Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, the height of the germinal layer KEY WORDS: Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP), Tissue Progenitor Cells, Testis.
, Prabath Wijesooriya, Susantha Vithanage, Eranda Cabral, Ragama Colombo North Teaching Hospital, Negombo District General Hospital, Dambadeniya Base Hospital
International Journal of Anatomy and Research, Volume 10, pp 8457-8462; https://doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2022.200

Abstract:
Introduction: Lumbricals are the small, worm-like, intrinsic muscles responsible for performing the precision pinch movements of the hand. These are quite unique in their position owing to movable proximal and distal tendon attachments. Purpose of the study: The aim of the study was to identify anomalies of lumbrical muscle present in the Sri Lankan people. Materials and Methods: A sample of 39 formalin preserved cadaveric human hands were subjected to the gross morphological study. Results: It was encountered that 59% of the lumbricals were normal in proximal and distal attachments whereas the rest of the lumbicals (41%) indicated the morphological variations. Among the hands, unipennate third lumbrical was seen in 7.7% (Left-15.7%: Right 0%) and unipennate fourth lumbrical was seen in 5.1% (Left-10.5%: Right 0%). The bipennate second lumbrical was seen in 5.1% (Left 5.3%: Right 5.1%). The 10.3% of split insertion was encountered in third lumbricals (Left 10.5%: Right 10%) as well as in fourth lumbricals (Left 5.3%: Right 15%). The third lumbrical insertion on the medial side of the middle finger was seen in 2.5% (Left 5.3%: Right 0%). Conclusion: The left hand is having more lumbrical variations than the right hand of the subjected human cadavers. The most common variation site is the insertion site. The variants are numerous in third and fourth lumbricals. The most common type of variation is the split insertion. KEY WORDS: Lumbrical, Bipennate, Unipennate, Variations, Sri Lanka.
R. Kumar, M. Javia, , P. Manik
International Journal of Anatomy and Research, Volume 10, pp 8445-8451; https://doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2022.189

Abstract:
Background: Understanding of thoroughly explained anatomical basis is must for various surgical approaches at the craniovertebral junction. High mortality and morbidity are anticipated during the surgical procedures when undertaken without in depth anatomical knowledge. With so much clinical importance in this area, our study will present a thorough understanding in terms of skull. Objectives: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the various shapes of foramen magnum in dry adult human skulls of Indian population and to find out their clinical correlation. Materials and methods: 347 dried adult human skull base obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Geetanjali Medical College and Hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan and other medical colleges were used in the present study. All the dry adult human skulls were observed from outer side at their base by naked eyes to determine the shape of foramen magnum. It was classified into one of the following shapes: - Oval, round, tetragonal, egg shaped, hexagonal, pentagonal and irregular. Results: The shape of the foramen magnum in dry skulls were oval in 44.95%, round in 30.84%, hexagonal in 9.23%, irregular in 6.63%, pentagonal in 5.19%, tetragonal in 1.73 %, and egg shaped in 1.44%. Conclusion: Inferences of the present study in the form of variations in the shapes of foramen magnum will be useful to the neurosurgeons, radiologists, orthopedics, anthropologists, forensic experts as well as anatomists. Further these data can be used as an anatomical reference for the researchers. KEY WORDS: Human Skull, Shape, Foramen Magnum.
Goran Štrkalj, Joyce El-Haddad, Anneliese Hulme, Mitchell Morfea, Stephanie Marhoff-Beard, Mirjana Štrkalj
International Journal of Anatomy and Research, Volume 10, pp 8415-8418; https://doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2022.173

Abstract:
Background: Introductory anatomy courses present challenges for educators at many institutions as they frequently comprise large numbers of students with dissimilar levels of preparedness, belonging to different academic programs. Setting: At Macquarie University, Introduction to Anatomy course enrolls students belonging to four different faculties and programs ranging from health professions to law and archaeology. The failure rate has traditionally been quite high, with two practical tests (mid and end of the semester) being particularly challenging. Several strategies have been employed to improve students’ performance. Intervention: In 2018, a week before each practical test, revision sessions were introduced, where attendance was optional. These four-hour sessions were amalgams of traditional teaching and peer-assisted learning. This study aimed to assess the value of revision sessions by comparing the test results of students who attended and those who did not. Outcome measure: Marks attained in the practical test. Results: A total of 598 students were enrolled in the course in 2018, of which 162 (27.1%) attended revision session 1 and 177 (29.6%) session 2. The average mark for practical test 1 for students who attended revision sessions was 78.8% and 74.6% in test 2, while those who did not attend achieved 61.8% and 54.5% respectively. Differences in marks for both tests were statistically significant (p <0.05). Conclusion: As there were no other changes in course delivery it can be hypothesized that revision sessions contributed to better practical test performance in 2018. These findings appear to corroborate previous research suggesting that systematic and focused revision sessions improve results in anatomy assessments. KEY WORDS: Anatomy Education, Revision, Assessment, Knowledge Retention.
Sakkarai Jayagandhi, , Kidiyoor Anup Rao, Suman Verma, Sangeeta M
International Journal of Anatomy and Research, Volume 10, pp 8452-8456; https://doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2022.191

Abstract:
The coeliac trunk is the branch of the abdominal aorta at the level of the twelfth thoracic vertebra. Its branches namely left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries supply the primary organs of the supracolic abdominal compartment namely the stomach, pancreas, spleen and liver. In this article, we report case series of three cases in male cadavers aged 65yrs, 60yrs and 70yrs respectively in the Department of Anatomy, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences and MVJ Medical College and Research Institute wherein we discovered that the branching pattern of the coeliac trunk varied from the usual pattern, thus the specimens were photographed to understand further. The observation of first case, common trunk from abdominal aorta showed common hepatic and superior mesenteric artery and left gastric and splenic artery aroused as another common trunk from abdominal aorta. The second case showed the superior mesenteric artery arising from coeliac trunk and the third case was observed the inferior phrenic arteries were arising from coeliac trunk. Knowledge of this variable anatomy may be useful in planning and executing surgical or radiological interventions. KEY WORDS: Ventral splanchnic vessels, coeliac trunk, Superior mesenteric Artery, Inferior Phrenic artery, vascular variations.
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