Pharmacology & Pharmacy

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2157-9423 / 2157-9431
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 637
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Syed Ata Ur Rahman, Abdullah Alsaedi, Abdulelah Alhusayni, Abdulmalik Alqurshi, Sameh Ahmed, Yaser M. Alahmadi, Alaa Omer M. Abdullaal, Badr Ahmed A. Taher, El-Sayed E. Habib
Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Volume 12, pp 1-9; doi:10.4236/pp.2021.121001

Abstract:
Epilepsy is a chronic and the fourth most common neurological disorder which affects people of all age groups. Recently research and awareness on epilepsy-related deaths have rapidly grown over the past two decades. Many previous studies are attributed to the guidelines that apprise health care professionals in handling these deaths, but there is a relative scarcity of information accessible for clinicians and pharmacists who are responsible for manufacturing or preparing the extemporaneous anti-epileptic suspensions in the hospitals. Mostly in partial seizures, phenytoin is one of the first-choice drugs. In Saudi Arabian hospitals, the extemporaneous preparation of phenytoin suspension is common, but the hot climatic weather in Saudi Arabia possesses stability problems that should be tackled as the prepared suspension should pass all the stability tests to ensure uniform dosage of the extemporaneous formulation. In the current study, the commercial capsules were used to prepare the oral phenytoin sodium extemporaneous suspension. The physical, chemical and microbiological stability of phenytoin sodium suspension is analyzed at various temperatures.
Toshio Kurihara, Honami Kojima, Miyako Yoshida, Mizuho Oshio, Rino Kunikata, Haruka Nishikawa, Takahiro Uchida
Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Volume 12, pp 43-54; doi:10.4236/pp.2021.122004

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the palatability of dry syrups for pediatric use by human gustatory sensation testing and the artificial taste sensor. The bitterness intensities of dry syrups mixed with various beverages were also evaluated using the taste sensor. Twenty dry-syrup formulations of antibacterial and anti-allergic drugs containing bitter active ingredients, frequently used in pediatric medicine in Japan, were selected for testing. The main factors influencing palatability were determined by factor analysis of data from human gustatory sensation testing using the semantic differential method. It was shown that the bitterness intensity of dry syrups in water could be predicted by the artificial taste sensor. The influence of different beverages (orange juice, milk or cocoa) mixed with the dry syrups was evaluated using the artificial taste sensor. Taste and texture were found to be the principal factors influencing the palatability of dry syrups. While the bitterness intensities of some dry syrups were increased by mixing with orange juice, the bitterness intensities of most dry syrups were decreased by mixing with milk or cocoa. This suggests that one or more constituents of milk or cocoa may reduce the bitterness intensities of dry syrups.
Ali Mofleh Alshahrani, Taghreed Mubarak Alotaibi, Nawal Safar Alrabie, Bashayer Mohammed Althobaiti, Fatimah Nasser Alshelawi, Maram Abdullah Althobaiti, Mona Yaser Alsheikh, Ahmed Ibrahim Fathelrahman
Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Volume 12, pp 63-72; doi:10.4236/pp.2021.123006

Abstract:
Background: Community pharmacists play a significant role in dispensing and counseling about medications and pharmaceuticals including beauty and cosmetic products. Aims and Objectives: The current study was conducted to assess the viewpoint of community pharmacists in the Western region of Saudi Arabia about their professional role in dispensing beauty products. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between September and December 2019 using an online questionnaire. Expert professors from college of pharmacy, Taif University validated the questionnaire. Results: Five hundred seventy-seven community pharmacists completed the questionnaire. Most of the participants were male (99%) and aged 23 - 34 years old (71.1%). Slightly less than half (45.58%) of community pharmacists have 6 - 10 years of experience. Most pharmacists (96.9%) communicate directly with customers/ patients and most of them (85.3%) ask and counsel patients about their product. Pharmacists strongly agreed that pharmacists must keep in developing their communication skills with customers/patients. Conclusion: Most of the community pharmacists surveyed in this study reported a good perceived knowledge and attitudes and demonstrated an acceptable level of practices regarding beauty products. Saudi FDA is encouraged to adopt Good Pharmacy Practice standards and guidelines to improve current practice of community pharmacists concerning Beauty Products.
Michel Tagliati, Marianna Leopoulou, Jo Ann LeQuang, Charles E. Wollmuth, Joseph V. Pergolizzi, Kailyn Mitchell, Peter Magnusson
Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Volume 12, pp 10-24; doi:10.4236/pp.2021.121002

Abstract:
Introduction: The inflammatory mechanisms of COVID-19 suggest that corticosteroids may be beneficial, but their benefits must outweigh their potential risks. The RECOVERY trial results suggest that dexamethasone 6 mg/day (but not other steroids) may confer mortality benefits on ventilated COVID-19 patients. Methods: This is a narrative review of the literature about the use of ciclesonide and dexamethasone for COVID-19 patients. Literature is being created rapidly and this review is offered as a state-of-the-science narration. Results: The SARS-CoV-2 virus is an RNA virus whose RNA is transcribed via open reading frames, making its elimination difficult. Coronaviruses have evolved multiple strategies for proteolytic activation of the spike; viral replication occurs entirely in the cytoplasm. In this connection, the RNA-cleaving endoribonuclease (NSP-15 also known as EndoU) may play a key role by facilitating viral double-stranded RNA recognition by the host’s macrophages. Furthermore, the virus is able to undergo RNA recombination rapidly, enabling it to evade host immunity and develop drug resistance. Ciclesonide is an inhaled corticosteroid that reduces lung inflammation and blocks the activity of specific kinases which may explain its anti-inflammatory effect. Dexamethasone is known to reduce mortality in ventilated COVID-19 patients. Discussion: Systemic corticosteroids were used in previous coronavirus epidemics (SARS and MERS) and pulmonary histology of these patients is similar to those in COVID-19 patients. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is the main cause of death in most COVID-19 infections and steroids may be effective in addressing that condition, brought on by cytokine storm. However, it should be noted that inhaled steroids likely have a narrower window for effect than systemic regimens. Conclusion: Dexamethasone has been proven to confer mortality benefits on ventilated COVID-19 patients and may be used with inhaled ciclesonide, which has few side effects and can be locally metabolized. Further study is needed.
Sohel Rana, Maruf Hasan, Eshak Enan, Fatema-Tuz Zohora, A. T. M. Zafrul Azam
Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Volume 12, pp 25-41; doi:10.4236/pp.2021.121003

Abstract:
Coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) first reported in Wuhan, China, causes serious respiratory illnesses such as lung failure and pneumonia. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) the pathogenic agent of COVID-19 has been confirmed as a novel coronavirus. WHO announced COVID-19 a global pandemic and now the whole world is eagerly waiting for vaccines and therapeutic treatment to get rid of this unstoppable coronavirus. As COVID-19 infection, a global threat creates unwanted human casualties and serious economic loss. To stop the ongoing uncontrolled situation researchers are racing to develop prevention and treatment strategies. Vaccines of different countries are in clinical and preclinical trials and the repurposed-drugs are providing to find out a positive result against COVID-19. The report is an analysis of published information focusing on treatment options including vaccination, drug-therapy, cytokines, therapeutic antibodies. Most of the vaccine’s development strategies and drugs target the surface structural spike glycoprotein or S-protein, the major inducer of pathogenic responses. Here, it is reviewed the features of SARS-CoV-2 and the global current status of therapeutic, and vaccine development for the prevention and effective treatment of COVID-19.
Yuka Miyachi, Chika Nakayama, Taeyuki Oshima
Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Volume 12, pp 55-62; doi:10.4236/pp.2021.122005

Abstract:
In recent years, consumers are becoming more health-conscious. Supplements are becoming popular as they can be purchased easily. In Japan, the “Food with Function Claims” system began in 2015; the market for supplements is expected to continue to expand. However, the use of some supplements has not been supported with sufficient scientific evidence; some products have even caused health problems. In addition, consumers may not be able to make correct decisions based on the information from the Internet. Unlike medicine, the instruction on the usage of supplements is not precise. Therefore, improving the quality of the information on the supplements will become more necessary in the future. This study aims to improve the quality of the information on supplements by surveying the disintegration and dissolution behavior of the carnitine-containing supplements and evaluated their quality. The products tested here were supplements containing commercial carnitine. Disintegration test and dissolution test were conducted according to the Japanese Pharmacopoeia. Carnitine was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The disintegration tests revealed that the products had different disintegration times, varying from 35 to 100 minutes; some products took more than 5 hours to disintegrate. Thus, some products had a slow rise in their dissolution rate. These results suggest that the carnitine-containing supplements used in this study may affect the absorption process. Therefore, in the case of oral administration, the expected effect might not be achieved depending on the product.
Moyan Uddin Pk, Mohammad Sayful Islam, Shariful Haque, LutfA Akther, Rumana Pervin
Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Volume 12, pp 73-84; doi:10.4236/pp.2021.123007

Abstract:
The current study evaluated the antioxidant, α-amylase inhibitory and anti-Staphylococcus aureus activities of the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum. Methanolic extract of G. lucidum (MEGL) was investigated for its in vitro antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and EC50 value was determined. α-Amylase inhibitory and anti-S. aureus activities were carried out by conventional methods. The mushroom extract showed maximum free radical scavenging activity at a dose of 500 μg/mL with EC50 value of 22.1399 μg/mL. EC50 value for the inhibition of α-amylase activity was found 22.6011 μg/mL. G. lucidum extracts exhibited a concentration-dependent Anti-S. aureus activity. The vast differences of this inhibition between lower and higher doses were assessed significantly (p G. lucidum has moderate antioxidant, α-amylase inhibitory, and anti-S. aureus activities. Thus this mushroom may be the alternative plant source for the antioxidant, anti-diabetic and antibacterial agents and further in vivo studies and isolation of bioactive compounds are required.
Brice Boris Legba, Victorien Dougnon, Jerrold Agbankpe, Kafayath Fabiyi, Christelle Lougbegnon, Arnaud Soha, Césaire Ayena, Esther Deguenon, Hornel Koudokpon, Lamine Baba-Moussa
Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Volume 11, pp 226-234; doi:10.4236/pp.2020.119020

Abstract:
Recent ethnopharmacological data cited Senna siamea as one of the most widely used medicinal plants in the management of salmonellosis in Benin. However, data related to its activity on non-typhoidal Salmonella spp are limited. This study aimed to assess the antibacterial activity of Senna siamea on multidrug-resistant Salmonella. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of S. siamea were tested for their antibacterial activity on four multidrug-resistant Salmonella: Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 and three Salmonella spp. isolated from animals intended for human consumption in Benin. Well diffusion technique combined with the determination by microdilution of Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) were used for antibacterial testing. From antibacterial testing, inhibition diameters of the extracts ranged from 7 to 11 mm, for the susceptible strains. Colistin (reference antibiotic) was active on all Salmonella spp. with inhibition diameters between 18 and 19 mm. The MICs ranged from 3.125 to 25 mg/ml while MBCs of the extracts are greater than 100 mg/ml, so none of the extracts have antibacterial power (p.a). From these results, it appears that the use of Senna siamea in the traditional treatment of salmonellosis is justified. These results must be valued in the development of anti-salmonella phytomedicines.
Rivain Fefe Iteke, David Mwembo Mutombo, Franck Namegabe Zirhumana, Olivier Kabiriko Mukuku, Emmanuel Kiyana Muyumba, Tinsley Mukakala Kibonge, Jean Francois Brichant, Adolphe Manzanza Kilembe, Yapo Brouh, Jean Baptiste Zambeze Sakatolo Kakoma
Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Volume 11, pp 196-208; doi:10.4236/pp.2020.118018

Abstract:
Objective: To evaluate the synergistic effect of a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) and a Selective Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitor (ISCOx-2) in the management of After Rachianesthesia Headache in Obstetric Care. Patients and Methods: This was an experimental double-blind, randomized, multi-center clinical trial of non-inferiority clinical trials over a 12-month period (May 1, 2018 to April 30, 2019) in six hospitals in southeastern DR Congo, including all patients undergoing surgery or analgesia on spinal anesthesia for obstetrical indication and with headache characteristic of a dural breccia, with no known causes, contraindications to experimental products and informed consent to been obtained. The patients were divided into four different groups depending on the protocol used, namely: Group A = Rehydration + Paracetamol, Group B = Rehydration + Celecoxib, Group C = Rehydration + Nefopam and Group 4 = Rehydration + Celecoxib + Nefopam (Study Group). Using the Statview II software, the statistical analyzes of data obtained from the different tests were made using the ANOVA test for comparing the averages of different samples using the Fisher test. Verification of the normality of the samples was made by the Kurtosis and Skewness flattening and asymmetry test. Results: The protocol associating Celecoxib and Nefopam significantly demonstrates its effectiveness in reducing CPRAOs in the first two days with a gradual decrease in anxiety and length of stay. In addition, the majority of patients (75.6%) had a high overall level of satisfaction with this protocol. Conclusion: The Nefopam-Celecoxib combination shows its effectiveness in the early reduction of these CPRAOs, anxiety and length of stay with a high overall level of patient satisfaction. Given the good tolerance and accessibility of these products, we strongly suggest the use of this protocol for its validation in our environment and elsewhere, although it is desirable to continue research on other non-explored alien pathways.
Jahidul Hasan, Jaime Nead
Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Volume 11, pp 209-225; doi:10.4236/pp.2020.119019

Abstract:
The frontline pharmacists during this pandemic COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) situation are potentially contributing to saving human lives worldwide. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the current contributions of pharmacists among the frontline healthcare professionals in the management of the COVID-19 crisis across the world. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched for this study from March 20, 2020 to May 20, 2020. The basic keyword “pharmacist and COVID-19” was used to select studies. Relevant English-language studies, guidelines, articles, relevant published reports in different online news portals and official web pages of different organizations were searched. Pharmacists in the United States and United Kingdom are testing patients for COVID-19 and providing medical advice to patients. Community pharmacists in European countries are focused on the smooth supply of essential medicines, and working to build awareness regarding the community transmission of COVID-19. Hospital and clinical pharmacists are working to facilitate the effective medication therapy management for improving the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients. Pharmacists in low-and middle-income countries around the world have focused their efforts mainly on awareness-building activities regarding the community transmission of COVID-19, and the mass production of alcohol-based hand-sanitizer. Several resources are globally available for pharmacists to improve their competency and self-protection from COVID-19. Frontline pharmacists are enthusiastically contributing in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 from a community-to-clinical level worldwide. Their active participation as a member of the frontline healthcare team is crucial in order to address and overcome the challenges that this pandemic has created, and to tackle this global healthcare crisis efficiently.
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