Meditsinskiy sovet = Medical Council

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2079-701X / 2658-5790
Published by: Remedium, Ltd. (10.21518)
Total articles ≅ 2,840
Current Coverage
DOAJ
Filter:

Latest articles in this journal

A. V. Krivova, V. P. Zakharov, A. N. Sharov
Meditsinskiy sovet = Medical Council; https://doi.org/10.21518/2079-701x-2021-21-2-102-109

Abstract:
Introduction. One of the causes of primary disability and high mortality, among patients with osteoporosis, are fractures that occur with minimal trauma, as a rule, it is a fall from the height of one’s own height. The final link in the chain of preventive measures to reduce the frequency of osteoporosis and fractures on its background is the introduction of pharmacological correction of bone deficiency into the practical activity of an orthopedic traumatologist. Currently, there are several drugs that can change the disturbed metabolism. For example, the use of zoledronic acid significantly reduces the risk of fractures.Aim: to study the effect of zoledronic acid on bone mineral density in patients with osteoporosis complicated by a fracture of proximal end of the femur.Materials and methods. In a prospective cohort study, 14 patients received zoledronic acid for 2 years.Results. When comparing BMD L2-L4, it was revealed that a year after the start of treatment, its increase relative to the baseline value was 4.6%, but was statistically insignificant (0.86 ± 0.078 g/cm2 versus 0.90 ± 0.08 g/cm2, p > 0.05). After 2 years of treatment, the BMD of this segment increased, relative to the baseline values, by 12% and the differences became statistically significant (0.86 ± 0.078 g/cm2 compared to 0.97 ± 0.076 g/cm2, p < 0.05). The increase in BMD for the second year of treatment by 6% was statistically significantly different from the increase for the first year of treatment (0.90 ± 0.08 g/cm2 compared to 0.97 ± 0.076 g/cm2, p < 0.05).A comparative analysis of the basic units of the IPC hip after 1 and 2 years of treatment did not reveal significant differences: 0.7075 ± 0.046 g/cm2 compared to 0.7079 ± 0.034 g/cm2 and 0.70751 ± 0.046 g/cm2 compared to 0.6630 ± 0.97 g/cm2, p > 0.05. In any case, for 2 years not marked new vertebral body fractures. Only one patient had a fracture of the radius in the distal third. The quality of life, after 2 years, significantly improved on the scale of “habitual daily activities” (p = 0.007), decreased indicators on the scale of “anxiety” and “depression” (p > 0.05).Discussion. The study confirmed that even in the presence of pronounced bone loss, pharmacological correction of impaired remodeling reduces the risk of new fractures and improves the quality of life.Conclusion. Pharmacotherapy with zoledronic acid, in our study, confirmed its effectiveness in the treatment of osteoporosis.
E. Yu. Evdokimov, Zh. B. Ponezheva, E. V. Svechnikova, A. V. Sundukov
Meditsinskiy sovet = Medical Council; https://doi.org/10.21518/2079-701x-2021-21-2-94-101

Abstract:
Introduction. Psoriasis is an inflammatory dermatosis, which has characteristic clinical features and is closely associated with immunological changes in the skin. HIV-infected patients suffering from psoriasis have immunological features associated with the effect of HIV virus on CD4+T-lymphocytes.Aim. To identify clinical features of psoriasis in HIV-infected patients depending on the stage of HIV infection and immune status.Materials and methods. An open prospective study (2014–2018) included 143 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, of which 79 (55.2%) were infected with HIV and 64 (44.8%) were not infected with HIV. The groups were comparable in terms of age and gender. The diagnosis of psoriasis vulgaris was established with due account for its clinical presentation and histologically confirmed in 29 (20.3%) patients, of which 17 (58.6%) were infected with HIV and 12 (41.4%) were not infected with HIV. In a biopsy, tissue samples were taken from the areas of inflammatory and healthy skin in each patient. Numbers of CD4+ and CD8+T-lymphocytes in the biopsy samples obtained were calculated using immunohistochemical staining of biopsy. The severity of psoriasis progress was assessed using the psoriasis lesions severity index, taking into account the body surface area covered by lesions, the intensity of erythema, infiltration and sloughing of skin. In the course of the study, the patients had general clinical examinations performed, their HIV infection confirmed or denied, their immune status assessed, and their clinical stage of HIV infection determined.Results and discussion. Mild psoriasis was less often identified, and moderately severe and severe psoriasis was more often observed in HIV-infected patients as compared to HIV-negative patients. The psoriatic plaque CD8+T-lymphocyte counts in HIV-infected patients grew with increasing immunosuppression and clinical stage of HIV infection; these changes were not observed in HIV-negative patients.Сonclusion. HIV-infected patients often have moderately severe (39.2%) and severe (22.8%) psoriasis vulgaris. The psoriatic plaque CD8+T-lymphocyte counts in HIV-infected patients predominate over the CD4+T-lymphocyte counts, while the HIV-negative patients show the opposite test results.
D. A. Krakhmaleva, Z. V. Surnina, S. A. Malzhoen, A. A. Gamidov
Meditsinskiy sovet = Medical Council; https://doi.org/10.21518/2079-701x-2021-21-2-110-117

Abstract:
Introduction. Corneal transplantation is the most successful and commonly performed allotransplantation procedure as compared with other organs and tissues. Over 100,000 corneal transplantations are performed worldwide every year.Purpose. This study investigated whether in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) can aid in the diagnosis of a graft rejection reaction by detecting changes in cellular structures and density of immune cells after penetrating keratoplasty.Materials and methods. The study included thirty-four eyes of 34 patients who underwent penetrating keratoplasty (7 eyes with corneal graft rejection, 27 without rejection). The average age of patients is 51.1 ± 13.6 years (from 23 to 76 years). The follow-up period ranged from 12 to 36 months (24.5 ± 4.84 months). Follow-up was performed at 1, 3, 6, 12 months and annually after PKP. To study the morphology of the cornea all patients underwent IVCM to assess the basal epithelium, subbasal layer, stroma and endothelium. Immune cells were identified and evaluated for the shape, length of the processes and their density.Results. Patients with corneal graft rejection demonstrated significant accumulation of corneal dendritic-like immune cells compared to patients with non-rejected grafts. In addition, the cells acquired a more mature morphology (grade 2–3). The density of dendritic cells (DC) was 809.17 ± 342.19 (p < 0.001). A positive correlation was found between DC density and graft rejection (p < 0.001). As well the patients showed signs of endothelial failure with low endothelial cell density and pleomorphism, increased light scattering and hyperreflectivity of the stroma.Conclusions. In a complex of diagnostic measures, confocal microscopy may provide a valuable clinical adjunctive tool in diagnosis and management of early corneal graft rejection.
L. A. Chegus, A. V. Solovyeva, В. Г. Соловьев
Meditsinskiy sovet = Medical Council; https://doi.org/10.21518/2079-701x-2021-21-2-124-130

Abstract:
Data on the health status of the population of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North of Khanty and Mansi, who migrated to the city and changed the traditional nomadic way of life, are few and not systematized.The aim of the study was to study the course of pregnancy and childbirth among the indigenous peoples of the north who migrated and live in the city of Khanty-Mansiysk, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug-Yugra. An increase in the frequency of gynecological diseases was revealed: menstrual irregularities (in 38.5%), inflammatory diseases of the cervix (in 42.3%) and inflammatory diseases of the uterus (in 19.2%). Half of the observed women had gastritis (50%), cholecystitis (51.9%), every fourth cystitis (23.1%), anemia was diagnosed in every third in 30.8%. Pregnancy in women of the study cohort was often complicated by early toxicosis, anemia, gestational diabetes mellitus, threatening premature birth. Childbirth in pregnant women from among the indigenous small peoples of the north living in the city was complicated by anomalies in labor, indications for emergency operative delivery. This requires further study of the health status of the indigenous peoples of the north and the development of a health improvement program.Materials and methods. The course of pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period was retrospectively analyzed in 168 women selected by the continuous sampling method. Women from the Khanty and Mansi KMNS living in the village of Berezovo, in the camps and in Khanty-Mansiysk were examined. Statistical processing was performed in the software package SPSS, Statistica 8.0, as well as using the Microsoft Excel analysis package.Results. The results of the study showed that the least number of deviations in the state of health were among women from the number of KMNS living in the village and in the camps and leading a traditional nomadic lifestyle. The course of pregnancy rarely had complications and 100% of women ended in spontaneous labor on time.Conclusion. The urbanization of women from among the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the north has an adverse effect on the state of somatic and reproductive health, characterized by a high frequency of gynecological diseases, pregnancy complications, labor anomalies and operative delivery.
E. M. Chapanova, M. A. Ikonnikova, G. G. Ikonnikov, С. Н. Ермольев, O. O. Yanushevich, I. O. Merzhoev, A. N. Khitrov, G. K. Gryzunova, , A. N. Ferzauli, et al.
Meditsinskiy sovet = Medical Council; https://doi.org/10.21518/2079-701x-2021-21-2-118-123

Abstract:
Introduction. Currently, dentists are increasingly detecting changes in the temporomandibular joint in patients with chronic inflammatory periodontal disease.Aim of the study. To carry out a comprehensive dynamic assessment of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condition and the registration of regional blood flow using two-dimensional ultrasound scanning to improve the efficiency of diagnostics of inflammatory periodontal diseases.Materials and methods. The study included 2 groups of patients: group 1 (control) consisted of 20 volunteers aged 20–25; Group 2 consisted of 52 people aged 25–45 years with moderate chronic periodontitis. For TMJ ultrasound and Doppler ultrasound, a portable ultrasound scanner LogicScan 128 with an HL-10 linear ultrasound transducer with an operating frequency of 5 to 12 MHz was used.Results and discussion. During ultrasound examination of the temporomandibular joint and measuring the size of the joint space in patients with moderate chronic periodontitis in a state of relative physiological rest, the following values were obtained: in the anterior region – 2.3 ± 0.5 mm; in the upper section – 1.6 ± 0.6 mm; in the posterior section – 1.8 ± 0.3 mm. We also measured the area of the temporomandibular joint disc in various positions. According to ultrasound data, an increase in the size of the joint space from 12.2 to 16.1% and an increase in the area of the articular disc by 17.1 to 36.7% were found in patients with chronic periodontitis. When assessing the trajectory of the articular track, motion delay and joint wedging are determined. In addition, in the color Doppler mapping (CDM) mode, the speed and index indicators of Doppler ultrasonography of the external carotid and temporal arteries were calculated.Conclusions. Modern diagnostic methods of ultrasound and Doppler mapping, assessing the hemodynamics and functional state of the TMJ, allow early diagnosis of changes in order to prevent the development of TMJ disorders in patients with chronic inflammatory periodontal diseases.
, M. M. Karapetyan, , O. V. Zhukova,
Meditsinskiy sovet = Medical Council; https://doi.org/10.21518/2079-701x-2021-21-2-80-85

Abstract:
In this paper, we discuss what biomarkers to choose if there is a need to describe the results of laser therapy targeting keloid skin. We elevate the known cytomarkers (Krt14, Lgals7, Krt5, Dcn, Lum, Igfbp5, Cd31, Vwf, Stambpl1, Uqcrb, Cd3 and Acta2), biomarkers of the inflammatory response (Cd45/Ptprc, Adgre1, Ly6g, Il1b, Il4, Il13, Il22, Cxcl2 и Ccl17), as well as the proteins of extracellular matrix (type I and III collagens; precursors of COL5A1 and COLA1A; FTL, COL3A1, PGLS, CNN2, ANXA2, TPSAB1, COL12A1, precursors of APCS and ALB), and their encoding genes (FGF7, BAX, CCND1, MMP3, MMP9, CXCL1, -2, -5, -6 and -12; IL8, S100A7 and IL1A), those expression and co-location may potentially change the appearance and internal structure of damaged skin. We also describe how to choose biomarkers using the results genomic studies and their limitations. Moreover, we provide examples of how different groups of gene and protein biomarkers are used in experimental biology and clinical practice. According to the previously published data, well-known biomarkers verified on animal models, depend on their biological effects, let to characterize structural changes and changes in the composition of cells represented at the site of damage before and after the treatment. In addition, the published experimental and clinical data provide an opportunity to analyze the efficiency of new experimental approaches and compare them to each other.
I. V. Kovalevа, , O. N. Bespalova
Meditsinskiy sovet = Medical Council; https://doi.org/10.21518/2079-701x-2021-21-2-131-137

Abstract:
Introduction. The course of physiological pregnancy is provided by many complementary factors. Thus, a deficiency in one of the links of the metabolic network contributes to the development of an imbalance in the work of the whole organism, which ensures the growth and development of the embryo from the first days of gestation. It has been proven that vitamin D can act as an immune regulator during implantation, providing a protective effect in whole period of pregnancy.Aim. The aim of this study is assessed the features of the course of pregnancy in patients with different levels of vitamin D in the blood in the first trimester.Materials and methods. A prospective multicenter randomized study was conducted in the North-West region of the Russian Federation among 88 pregnant women in the first trimester of gestation (up to 13 weeks). All patients were divided into 3 groups depending on the initial level of vitamin D (group 1–14 women with a 25(OH)D < 10 ng/ml, group 2–62 pregnant women from 10 to 30ng/ml, group 3–12 pregnant women with a vitamin D content > 30 ng/ml).Results. In group 1.86% of patients with severe vitamin D deficiency were diagnosed with threatened miscarriage, which is significantly higher than in group 3 (85.7% and 33.3%, χ2 = 7.490, p = 0.007). At the same time, retrochorial hematoma in group 1 occurred 3.5 times more often than in group 3 (57.1% and 16.67%, respectively, χ2 = 4.473, p = 0.035). Subsequently, every 4th woman from the group with vitamin D deficiency gave birth earlier than expected, which was not observed among patients from group 3 (25%, 0%, χ2 = 1.231, p = 0.268).Conclusion. Prescribing cholecalciferol vitamin replacement therapy as part of complex preserving therapy for threatening miscarriage, followed by monitoring its blood level and deviating from normal parameters, contributing to a favorable course of pregnancy and improving perinatal outcomes.
, , , A. A. Paltsev, A. I. Tsiberkin,
Meditsinskiy sovet = Medical Council; https://doi.org/10.21518/2079-701x-2021-21-2-152-161

Abstract:
Introduction. Transsphenoidal adenomectomy (TSA) is the method of choice in the treatment of Cushing’s disease (CD), but remission of hypercorticism cannot be achieved in all patients. The search for predictors of CD remission after TSA remains to be an important challenge in the endocrinology today.Aim. To study the preoperative and postoperative data of patients with CD to identify the predictors of hypercorticism remission after TSA.Materials and methods. 101 patients with confirmed CD after TSA were included. One year after operation all patients were examined for the presence of hypercorticism remission and divided into two groups: with CD remission and its absence. In both groups’ preoperative pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, the results of preoperative high dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST) and the results of serum cortisol collected in the morning 2–3 days after surgery were compared.Results. One year after TSA, CD remission was confirmed in 63 patients (62.4%), whereas in 38 patients (37.6%) hypercortisolism persisted. Favorable predictors of CD remission were: the adenoma size > 3 mm without the invasive growth according to pituitary MRI (specificity 82.4%, sensitivity 82.8%), serum cortisol suppression ≥ 74% in preoperative HDDST (specificity 81.5%, sensitivity 86.3%), morning serum cortisol level in 2–3 days after surgery ≤ 388 nmol/l (specificity 79.3%, sensitivity 97.4%).Conclusions. Pituitary MRI data, the results of preoperative HDDST and morning serum cortisol in the 2–3 days after surgery can be used as predictors of CD remission.
S. S. Simenyura,
Meditsinskiy sovet = Medical Council; https://doi.org/10.21518/2079-701x-2021-21-2-16-25

Abstract:
Introduction. Arterial hypertension (AH) is one of the important high-risk factors for the development of heart diseases, but its diagnosis and treatment does not require high technologies and substantial costs. However, the asymptomatic course of AH combined with a low level of medical literacy contributes to low adherence to treatment.Aim. To study the indirect impact of remote blood pressure monitoring (RBPM), the introduction of educational materials (EMs) in comparison with self-monitoring of blood pressure (SMBP) on adherence of patients with AH to outpatient treatment.Materials and methods. 60 subjects with an established fact of partial or complete refusal to use antihypertensive therapy were enrolled in the study and randomized into four equal and comparable groups: 1 – SMBP, 2 – RBPM, 3 – SMBP + EMs, 4 – RBPM + EMs. The impact of using RBPM was assessed by comparing blood pressure values in groups 1 and 2; the impact of EM – by comparing the results of questionnaire surveys in groups 1 and 2 and groups 3 and 4.Results and discussion. Additional training of patients with AH contributed to a twofold increase in adherence in using SCAD and RBPM. The average systolic blood pressure in groups 1 and 2 was 134 mm Hg, in groups 3 and 4 – 129 mm Hg; diastolic blood pressure in groups 1 and 2 – 78.5 mm Hg, in groups 3 and 4 – 77.5 mm Hg.Conclusion. The maximum impact on adherence to AH treatment can be achieved with the introduction of a set of measures. However, the introduction of RBPM has a number of limitations associated with the additional economic burden and the lack of an approved methodology. However, the provision of treatment and prevention facilities with EMs does not require additional development of methodology and is significantly cheaper than the cost of modern blood pressure monitors.
E. I. Polozova, , А. А. Сеськина, A. A. Mironov, A. R. Starova, R. Yu. Bangarov
Meditsinskiy sovet = Medical Council; https://doi.org/10.21518/2079-701x-2021-21-2-7-15

Abstract:
The problem of comorbidity becomes especially relevant in the conditions of demographic aging of the population. In recent years the number of studies devoted to diagnostic and treatment features of comorbidities, especially in elderly and senile patients, has increased. In spite of this fact, until now there are no clear recommendations for the management of comorbidities in the therapeutic practice.The article is devoted to the presentation and discussion of a clinical case of a comorbid patient with arterial hypertension. The stages of the performed diagnostic search with verification of the clinical diagnosis and the tactics of the prescribed pharmacotherapy are presented. On the basis of the presented data it is shown that exacerbation of one of the chronic diseases of the patient’s general comorbid background may significantly increase the severity of the general pathology and in its turn will determine the prognosis and influence the treatment tactics. The complexity of this case is that the patient has chronic single kidney disease in the stage of chronic renal failure. In analysing this case, it is also important to note the difficulties in the choice of drug therapy, as this situation poses significant limitations in the use of many drugs. This is a challenge that every clinician faces on a daily basis, regardless of clinical experience and medical knowledge. Only a multilevel approach will enable comprehensive medical and social care to be organised for patients with co-morbidities with chronic diseases, provide follow-up not only during exacerbations but also during remissions, contribute to the prevention of exacerbations and complications, which will consequently improve prognosis and quality of life.
Back to Top Top