Psichologija

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1392-0359 / 1392-0359
Published by: Vilnius University Press (10.15388)
Total articles ≅ 703
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Latest articles in this journal

Tadas Vadvilavičius,
Published: 17 October 2022
Journal: Psichologija
Psichologija, Volume 67, pp 8-23; https://doi.org/10.15388/psichol.2022.55

Abstract:
Valid and reliable research methods are needed to assess the work–family enrichment self-efficacy. Two cross-sectional studies were conducted to test the psychometric properties (internal consistency, convergent and/or structural validity) of the Lithuanian version of the work–family enrichment self-efficacy scale. Results revealed that the Lithuanian version of the work–family enrichment self-efficacy scale had high internal consistency. Adequate convergent validity was confirmed by statistically significant positive relationships between work–family enrichment and its dimensions, job satisfaction, and general self-efficacy. Finally, structural validity was confirmed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, that revealed that one factor explained data well. The results of the research confirmed that the Lithuanian version of the work-family enrichment self-efficacy scale was suitable for further research.
Ingrida Gabrialavičiūtė, , Renata Garckija
Published: 4 October 2022
Journal: Psichologija
Psichologija, Volume 66, pp 79-94; https://doi.org/10.15388/psichol.2022.53

Abstract:
To help teachers understand their role in students’ motivation and well-being, the researchers within SDT (Aelterman et al., 2019) have recently proposed a Circumplex model – the integrative and fine-grained approach to analyze the variety and interactions of (de)motivating teaching styles. The purpose of the current study is to adapt the student version of the Situations in School Questionnaire based on the Circumplex model for Lithuanian educational context. 715 seventh- and eighth-grade students (50.9% girls, Mage=13.42 years) from ten Lithuanian schools participated in the study. The SISQ was used to measure (de)motivating teaching styles, also behavioral and cognitive engagement in learning as well as well-being (positive and negative emotions, satisfaction with math classes) were assessed as indicators of students’ functioning. Multidimensional scaling, confirmatory factor analysis, and correlational analysis showed the match of the SISQ structure to the Circumplex model. (De)motivating teaching can be best graphically represented by a two-dimensional configuration that differed in terms of need support and directiveness. Correlations between eight subareas and indicators of students’ functioning followed a systematic sinusoid pattern, suggesting a gradual effect of teaching on students’ outcomes. With the adaptation being successful, student version of the SISQ can be used in Lithuanian educational context.
Published: 4 October 2022
Journal: Psichologija
Psichologija, Volume 66, pp 64-78; https://doi.org/10.15388/psichol.2022.52

Abstract:
Creating decent conditions for doctoral students is a challenge that higher education institutions do not always manage to cope with. This tendency is also indirectly seen in the indicators of the well-being of doctoral students. The purpose of this study was to distinguish different well-being groups of doctoral students and to identify predictors of belonging to them. 633 doctoral students from various fields of science participated in the study, and were asked to answer questions about their study engagement, exhaustion, and the main study environment characteristics (demands and resources). The applied cluster analysis revealed that according to study engagement and burnout, four groups of doctoral students’ well-being can be distinguished, i.e., successful, exhausted, burned-out and indifferent doctoral students. Regression analysis made it possible to distinguish four study environmental characteristics that differentiate different groups of doctoral students’ well-being. Fewer opportunities for development, lack of support from the dissertation supervisor, higher study load, and more frequent encounters with conflicting expectations were associated with a lower probability of belonging to the group of doctoral students of the highest well-being. The results show that the antecedents for the well-being of doctoral students should be sought in the institutional environment, which facilitates or complicates the implementation of the tasks. The article also discusses suggestions based on the research results to improve the process of training doctoral students.
Junona S. Almonaitienė
Published: 4 October 2022
Journal: Psichologija
Psichologija, Volume 66, pp 95-107; https://doi.org/10.15388/psichol.2022.54

Abstract:
Interview of Junona Almonaitienė, a graduate of Vilnius University, with associate professor Eglė Rimkutė, a teacher and researcher at the same university from 1966 till 2006, who’s carrier was mainly related to cognitive psychology and methodology of psychology. The interview reveals her subjective approach to various methodological problems of psychology, the nature and shifts of the approach, and her personal efforts to develop a more comprehensive, realistic, sociocultural psychology. As the interlocutors practically collaborated in planning and discussing research during one of the time periods covered here, the subjective experiences of both, related to local as well as more general methodological problems in psychology, are analyzed retrospectively. The entire interview can be seen as a practical effort of writing a microhistory.
Dovilė Grigienė, Greta Guogaitė, Said Dadašev, , , Danutė Gailienė
Published: 4 October 2022
Journal: Psichologija
Psichologija, Volume 66, pp 47-63; https://doi.org/10.15388/psichol.2022.51

Abstract:
Male suicides are often associated with masculinity norms that encourage certain behaviours that increase the risk of suicide. For example, research shows that restricted emotionality, avoidance of seeking help and self-reliance are associated with higher suicide risk. However, these pre-formulated aspects of masculinity do not necessarily reflect men’s subjective opinions of what masculinity is to them. Researchers argue that it is important to consider personal views about what masculinity is, not only stereotypes about masculinity. The aim of this study is to reveal and compare the subjective opinions about the masculinity of men with and without suicidal ideation. 281 men answered the open-ended question during the survey: “What does masculinity mean to you?”. The answers were analyzed using a content analysis method. We transformed qualitative data into quantitative and compared them statistically between two groups: men with and without suicidal ideation. It turned out that men with suicidal thoughts were more likely to mention that masculinity is the control of emotions, intelligence, and decision-making. Men without suicidal thoughts were more likely to mention family and caring for it as essential aspects of masculinity. The results showed that certain aspects of masculinity might be related to higher risk for suicide, but the study also revealed the masculinity that might be a source of coping.
Gediminas Beresnevičius
Published: 10 June 2022
Journal: Psichologija
Psichologija, Volume 66, pp 8-20; https://doi.org/10.15388/psichol.2022.48

Abstract:
The Lithuanian scientific community has not yet reached a decision which Lithuanian word, “kūrybiškumas” or “kūrybingumas” (both translated into English as “creativity“), is more suitable for use in the creative psychology, educology and other domains. This article defines the words “kūrybiškumas” and “kūrybingumas” as the acquired abilities of the creative subject to manifest new material and ideal objects. In addition, the two words are described as a property or characteristic of the product of activity and of the environment. The author reviews the usage of terms “kūrybiškumas” and “kūrybingumas” in the scientific publications of Lithuanian authors, and analyzes meaningful differences of the words. The quantitative research assesses all the publications in Lithuanian language which contain at least one of the terms in their titles and which were published between 1979 and 2019. During this period, 400 scientists submitted 426 publications which meet the previously mentioned criteria. It was found that the term “kūrybiškumas” is accepted by the majority of the Lithuanian researchers (80.75%). This word is found in 76.76% of publication titles and 68.08% of texts. The analysis of publications revealed that the meaningful difference between the words “kūrybiškumas” and “kūrybingumas” can be doubted, therefore the meaning of the two terms is the same. Both words (“kūrybiškumas” and “kūrybingumas”) can be used to describe the creator, the creation process, the work or the result, and the environment. The term “kūrybiškumas” is broader and the meaning is somewhat wider than that of the term “kūrybingumas”. In order to avoid the confusion related to the use of the two terms, the author suggests to use only the word “kūrybiškumas”. Alternatively, the terms “kūrybiškumas” and “kūrybingumas” should be considered as synonyms.
Eglė Urbutienė, Rūta Pukinskaitė
Published: 10 June 2022
Journal: Psichologija
Psichologija, Volume 66, pp 33-46; https://doi.org/10.15388/psichol.2022.50

Abstract:
Fear of cancer recurrence is the most prevalent and burdensome emotional concern among cancer survivors’ spouses after treatment. This qualitative study aimed to disclose, what are cancer survivors’ spouses lived experiences of fear of cancer recurrence. Seven adult spouses were explored. Data were obtained using a semi-structured interview and analyzed by inductive thematic analysis. Analysis revealed that fear of cancer recurrence is interpersonal experience and fear transmits in a couple. The spouses associate cancer recurrence with death and risk of losing their spouse. The threat of cancer recurrence triggers not only the feelings of insecurity, uncertainty about the future and loss of control, but also appreciation of life. Planning and control, religiosity, avoidance and awareness of fear helped spouses to reduce concerns about relapse. Interventions for spouses should focus on promotion of emotional expression of cancer recurrence concerns, also learning to accept and tolerate uncertainty.
Junona S. Almonaitienė, Veronika Girininkaitė
Published: 10 June 2022
Journal: Psichologija
Psichologija, Volume 66, pp 21-32; https://doi.org/10.15388/psichol.2022.49

Abstract:
The article addresses aspects of the connections between Wilhelm Wundt and Lithuania. It is introduced by briefly mentioning facts known from previous research about Lithuanians who studied at Wundt’s Institute of Experimental Psychology at Leipzig, and those who chose Wundt’s work as the object of their research. In the main part of the article, for the first time, excerpts from a manuscript with Lithuanian student’s impressions about Wundt’s psychology lectures he attended are published in Lithuanian and in original multilingual text. It was written by Vytautas Civinskis (Polish Witold Cywiński, 1887–1910), the student of agricultural sciences at Leipzig University, in his Diary in 1905. Although small in volume and written by a very young person, these recordings are interesting as an authentic testimony. According to the available data, this is the only surviving archival document of such kind written by a student from Lithuania. From the document, it is possible to deduce how the student evaluated Wundt as a lecturer, what were the content and form of his lectures, as well as the physical, social and intellectual environment at Leipzig, and what opportunities all that provided for students. The mentioned aspects are discussed in the comments of the archival materials. It is concluded that bringing to awareness the fact of existence of the student’s Diary entries related to Wundt’s lectures complements the Lithuanian psychology history quite significantly, and their content reveals Wundt’s attention to the philosophical basis of experimental psychology, psychophysiology, the details of several experiments he demonstrated.
Raimonda Sadauskaitė, Antanas Kairys
Published: 30 December 2021
Journal: Psichologija
Psichologija, Volume 65, pp 56-63; https://doi.org/10.15388/psichol.2021.46

Abstract:
Career is undoubtedly an essential part of people’s lives. Unfortunately, career development does not necessarily go smoothly because various circumstances, such as career barriers, might constrain career development. Therefore, it is important to have valid and reliable instruments that help evaluate and understand this phenomenon. The current study aimed to test the validity of the Lithuanian version of the Perceived career barriers scale. The sample included 382 participants aged from 18 to 63 years (M = 37.5 years, SD = 13.6). Two hundred twenty-six of the participants were females, 155 were males, and one did not disclose their gender. The Perceived Career Barriers Scale was translated from the German language using the back translation technique. Its construct validity was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Results also showed that the scale is reliable. Convergent validity of the scale was also confirmed – perceived career barriers correlated with career self-efficacy, Past Negative time perspective, Present Fatalistic time perspective, and Future Negative time perspective. The Perceived Career Barriers Scale may be used for further research, although it is recommended to conduct a more comprehensive validity evaluation.
, , Albinas Bagdonas, , , Raimonda Sadauskaitė
Published: 30 December 2021
Journal: Psichologija
Psichologija, Volume 65, pp 64-79; https://doi.org/10.15388/psichol.2021.47

Abstract:
Many countries of the world consider the well-being of citizens to be one of their most important goals. Nowadays there is a growing concern about the well-being of older people. Considering the aging population, there is a call for social policies aimed at strengthening the well-being of older people. Therefore, recommendations were prepared for policymakers on possible ways to strengthen the well-being of the older age Lithuanian population. The recommendations are based on data from the 7th wave of the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). There were 2014 persons aged 50 and older interviewed in Lithuania in the 7th wave of the SHARE survey. Data on various aspects of well-being, health, work and economic situation, childhood circumstances, experiences of discrimination were analyzed. Based on different aspects of well-being it was found, that respondents can be grouped into high, low, and medium well-being clusters, moreover the analysis showed that the Lithuanian population has relatively low well-being compared to other countries. Recommendations were formulated covering possible measures for chronic diseases, co-morbid mental health disorders, work, economic situation, childhood environment, and personal life history. The recommendations are addressed to health, social and employment, education, and science policymakers.
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