ISSN / EISSN : 1392-0359 / 1392-0359
Current Publisher: Vilnius University Press (10.15388)
Total articles ≅ 660
Latest articles in this journal
Psichologija pp 44-55; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.20
This study was an examination into whether the use of memory-enhancing techniques (mnemonics) in interviews can be helpful to distinguish truth tellers from liars. In the previous study (Izotovas et al., 2018), it was found that when mnemonic techniques were used in the interview immediately after the event, truth-tellers reported more details than liars in those immediate interviews and again after a delay. Moreover, truth-tellers, but not liars, showed patterns of reporting indicative of genuine memory decay. In the current experiment, participants (n = 92) were asked to read the repeated statements reported by participants in the Izotovas et al.’s (2018) study and decide whether the statements they read were truthful or deceptive. One group of participants (informed condition) received information about the findings of the previous study before reading the statement. The other group received no information before reading the statement (uninformed condition). After participants made veracity judgements, they were asked an open-ended question asking what factors influenced their credibility decision. Although truthful statements were judged more accurately in the informed condition (65.2%) than in the uninformed condition (47.8%), this difference was not significant. In both conditions deceptive statements were detected at chance level (52.2%). Participants who relied on the self-reported diagnostic verbal cues to deceit were not more accurate than participants who self-reported unreliable cues. This could happen because only the minority of participants (27.4%) in both conditions based their decisions on diagnostic cues to truth/deceit.
Psichologija pp 56-68; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.21
Many researchers are still relying on older and more rigid instruments focusing mostly on the physical aspect of intimate partner violence (IPV). This way multidimensionality of IPV and complex experiences of IPV survivors’ are overlooked by many researchers, practitioners and decision-makers. Therefore, our study aimed to adopt to Lithuanian two multidimensional scales: the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) and the Scale of Economic Abuse (SEA). As well as confirm its validity and reliability for the use for determining the experiences of Lithuanian women in intimate partner relationships. Through various channels 311 women, survivors of IPV were recruited. The structure of both measurements was validated using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and internal consistency using McDonald’s omega coefficient. Relying on the newest research we confirmed a five-factor structure for the CAS with the five factors being: Severe Combined Abuse, Sexual Abuse, Emotional Abuse, Physical Abuse, and Harassment. We also confirmed the three-factor structure for the SEA, resulting in Economic Control, Economic Exploitation, and Employment Sabotage. The instruments demonstrated high internal consistency. The validated instruments that measure multidimensionality of IPV will allow a more comprehensive data and knowledge collection of women’s experiences in abusive relationships.
Psichologija pp 69-86; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.22
Background. Children’s sleep problems are associated with temperament. One of the dimensions of temperament – higher emotional reactivity – is defined as a risk factor for children’s emotional, behavioral, and sleep problems. Screen-based media use is a very common phenomenon among children that relates to sleep problems. Still there is a gap of research explaining the interactions between children’s sleep problems, temperament, and parental discipline (sleep regime and rules for screen-based media use). The aim of this study is to evaluate the relations between preschool children’s sleep problems and parents’ discipline (sleep regime and rules for screen-based media use), and the role of children’s emotional reactivity. Methods. This research is a part of the longitudinal study “Electronic Media Use and Young Children’s Health” conducted in the year 2017–2018 and funded by the Research Council of Lithuanian (agreement no. GER-006/2017). Participants are 876 children aged 2 to 5 years old and their parents. Children’s sleep problems and emotional reactivity were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1½-5). Information about rules for screen-based media use and sleep regime was obtained using the parent-report questionnaire. Results. Sleep problems are related to emotional reactivity, sleep regime, and rules for screen media use. Children without regular sleep regime and without constant rules for screen-based media use have higher sleep problems and emotional reactivity. The results of the regression analysis show that emotional reactivity, together with sleep regime and rules for screen-based media use, significantly explain one-fifth to one-third of children’s sleep problems at different ages of the preschool period. However, the prognostic value of emotional reactivity and parental discipline varies according to a child’s age, as they are significant predictors of sleep problems among two, three and four-year-olds, but no longer explain sleep problems of five-year-olds. The path analysis confirmed that emotional reactivity, directly and through mediating variables, e.g., parental reported child’s sleep regime and rules for screen-based media use, is significantly associated with children’s sleep problems. Conclusions. Emotional reactivity should be considered as a significant risk factor in the relation between children’s sleep problems, sleep regime and parental applied rules for screen-based media use. These results are important while identifying children at higher risk for sleep problems. The results also support that parental discipline, such as sleep regime and rules for screen-based media use, are significant for preventing sleep problems in children with higher emotional reactivity.
Psichologija pp 25-37; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.18
The present study investigates and provides support for the Savanna-IQ interaction hypothesis regarding pro-environmental values. Study 1 showed that the highest attained education level is a significant predictor of pro-environmental concern, while Study 2 showed that the trait of openness to experience plays a unique role in predicting biospheric values, but not other values, lending support for the Savanna-IQ interaction hypothesis. Acting to preserve the natural environment is an evolutionarily novel challenge, and therefore, is more actively addressed by individuals who more readily adopt novel ideas and seek out new ways of behaving.
Psichologija pp 38-43; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.19
Performance in all sports requires good spatial attention. This study investigates the impact of long-term sports training on lateralization of visual spatial attention and also explores if the type of sport (foot orienteering (FootO) vs. judo) could be related to differentiated effects on the pattern of lateralization. Thirty practitioners of FootO (aged 16-58 years, Mean age = 24.96±10.98; 16 males), 30 judo wrestlers (aged 16-60 years, Mean age = 25.96±10.61; 19 males), and 30 subjects who have never practiced any sport (aged 15-53 years, Mean age = 33.2±11.56; 13 males), were studied with a line-bisection task. All participants were right-handed and the athletes had at least 5 years of active sport practicing. Although the mean transection in the three groups was to the left of the true center regardless of the hand used suggesting right pseudoneglect, the accuracy of both hands was highest in the group of practitioners of FootO and lowest in the non-athletes group. Also, there were no between-hands differences in the accuracy among practitioners of FootO (t(30) = 0.062, p = 0.951), slightly better right hand accuracy in judo wrestlers (t(30) = 0.608, p = 0.548), and significantly better right hand accuracy in non-athletes (t(30) = -2.297, p = 0.029). In general, the results suggest that the active long-term training of any sport may affects functional brain organization of visual spatial attention towards its more balanced hemispheric presentation, but the type of sport is of great importance for the magnitude of the induced changes.
Psichologija pp 8-24; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.17
It has been suggested that the quality of pre-primary education influences children's learning abilities in a variety of ways. Teachers’ behaviors are among the major factors relating to the quality of the classrooms, and one aspect of them – teachers’ self-efficacy – has been put forward to predict successful development of childrens’ learning and abilities to learn. Given this, it is surprising that relatively few studies have taken pre-primary techers' self-efficasy into account, and no research on the topic has been conducted in Lithuania. Futhermore, a few studies have analyzed how teachers' self-efficacy relates to childrens' learning abilities, such as, tasks persistence and self-regulation. Consequently, the present study analyzed relations between teachers' self-efficacy, childrens' task persistence and self-regulation. This study is based on the theory of teachers’ self-efficacy by Tschannen-Moran and Woolfolk Hoy (2001). The aim of the current study is to determine whether the self-efficacy of Lithuanian pre-primary teachers' is related to the learning outcomes, in particular, childrens' tasks persistence and ability to regulate their behavior. Childrens' tasks persistence was measured using the Behavioral strategy rating scale (teachers' form) (Aunola et al., 2000; Zhang et al., 2011); the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task (McCellandet al., 2007; Ponitz et al., 2008; Ponitz at al., 2009) was used to measure childrens' self-regulation. Participants were 18 pre-primary education teachers from six Lithuanian schools and their 229 pre-primary class students (116 [50.7%] girls and 113 [49.3%] boys). Teachers answered questionnaires concerning their self-efficacy towards the whole class and towards each child’s task persistence; school psychologists tested each child on their self-regulation. The statistical analyses of this study comprised of correlation analyses and hierarchical regression analyses. The results supported our expectations about the positive significant relations between teachers' self-efficacy, childrens' tasks persistence and self-regulation. That is, the greater teachers' self-efficacy was, better childrens' tasks persistence and self-regulation were. The results stayed significant even after controlling for, child gender, parental education, and teachers’ experience. MoreoverIn particular, gilrs and children of higher educated parents were more likely to have better task persistence and self-regulation. Moreover, surprisingly, it was found that teachers' work experience predicted childrens' self-regulation. Taken together, the results have verified that techers' self-efficacy plays a meaningful role in promoting childrens’ tasks persistence and self-regulation in Lithuanian preschool. Thus, from the practical point of view, in order to facilitate children’s learning in preschool and primary school, one should also pay attention to the ways of strengthening teachers’ self-efficacy.
Psichologija, Volume 61, pp 51-67; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.15
Children’s electronic media use in the form of Internet has increased over the past decades. The activities that children engage using the Internet can lead to experiencing positive as well as negative outcomes. Recent studies have found that excessive time devoted to the Internet use and behavioral narrowing can lead to Internet addiction (Enagandula et al., 2018) or compulsive Internet use (Meerkerk et al., 2009). This phenomenon can be described as a greater risk of developing excessive online habits, which may result in impairments of individual’s activities of daily living as well as relationships with others. Specific characteristics of these associations, however, have been examined only minimally in young children. The goal of this study was to examine the peculiarities of elementary school-aged children’s Internet use in relation to sociodemographic and relationships with others, as well as possible behavioral and emotional difficulties. The sample consisted of 304 parent-child dyads. All children in the study were second or third grade students (mean age 8.47 years, SD = 0.56), 50.3% were boys. Children and parents completed the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS; Meerkerk et al., 2009) and provided information about time spent on the Internet. Parents provided sociodemographic information and completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; Goodman, 1997), and children answered questions about their relationships with their parents and peers. The results of the study revealed significant gender differences in compulsivity of the Internet use, i.e. the estimates of boys CIUS – both provided by children and their parents – were significantly higher than girls. In overall, there was good agreement between parental and children’s reports on child’s CIUS, however parents reported higher CIUS scores and longer Internet use than children themselves. Regression analysis revealed that children’s CIUS is predicted (a) from the child’s perspective – by longer Internet time together with lower scores of child prosocial behavior, male gender, less advantaged financial situation in the family, and poorer parent-child relationships; (b) from the parent’s perspective – by longer Internet time, male gender, lower scores of child prosocial behavior, higher scores of behavioral and emotional difficulties together with less advantaged financial family status. The findings of the study are discussed in light of evidence-based practice and research.
Psichologija, Volume 61, pp 68-89; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.16
Memory enhancing techniques, or mnemonics, are typically recommended in evidence-based investigative interviewing guidelines. In the current study, the use of a sketch mnemonic and its effect on the responses of truth tellers and liars was examined. Participants (n = 49) watched a mock intelligence operation video. They were instructed to tell the truth or lie about this operation in an interview immediately afterwards, and again after a two-week delay. In both interviews participants were requested to make a sketch of the place of the mock operation, and then to verbally describe the drawing. Results revealed that truth tellers reported more visual, spatial, temporal, and action details than liars in the immediate interview. Truth tellers also reported more spatial, temporal and action details than liars in the delayed interview. Truth tellers experienced a decline in reporting action details after the delay, whereas liars did not show a decline in reporting any details over time. Thus, truth-tellers showed patterns of reporting indicative of genuine memory decay, whereas liars produced patterns reflecting a ‘stability bias’. Between-statement consistency was not different across veracity conditions.
Psichologija, Volume 61, pp 8-20; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.12
What determines which colour combinations will be attractive to a person and which will not? Is colour attractiveness only a subjective human experience, or can we predict it based on physical colour parameters? One of the pioneers of the attraction of colour theories was Michel Eugène Chevreul (1786–1889). He distinguished two types of colour harmony – analog colour and contrast – and tried to describe what harmonics are based on physical colour parameters. This was later done by other scientists. Later, semantic evaluation of colours was introduced and factor analysis attempted to identify emotions caused by colours or combinations of colours. The aim of this research is to test whether there is a consistent pattern of judgments of colour combinations under controlled conditions and, if so, to what extent they are influenced by the objective physical characteristics of those combinations. Subjects. The study involved 40 students (20 men, 20 women). All subjects had normal colour vision and were not related to fine art. Research tools. The study used 8 colours: 4 opponent (green, red, yellow and blue) and 4 additional (orange, lettuce, blue and purple). The 28 colour combinations (made up of two different colours) were composed of those 8 colours and printed onto cardboard card where each colour had area of 80 mm x 80 mm. Questionnaire of 40 adjectives consisting of 20 pairs of antonyms were used for semantic colour assessment. Procedure. The investigation was conducted in a dark room. Initially, all 28 cards with colour combinations were placed randomly on a desk lit by a 40 cm high fluorescent lamp (4000K correlated colour temperature). The subject was asked to select one of the cards with the most preferable colour combination, to write its code on the questionnaire and to mark all the epithets in the questionnaire which suits this colour combination. The same procedure was applied to the all other cards. One experiment lasted 35–50 minutes. Results and conclusions. Independent component analysis distinguished 4 dimensions describing colours: pleasure, energy, purple color and strength. Logistic regression analysis was run on colour factor loadings to discriminate colour combinations into two groups: liked and disliked colour combinations. It shows that that colour combination could be predicted as being liked or disliked with 85% probability. Adding physical colour parameters to the regression increases prognostic probability to 92 %. Also a relationship between subjective factors and physical characteristics of colour combinations was found. Pleasure correlates with hue contrast and strength with saturation contrast. It can be argued that the reliability of colour combinations is determined by both subjective and physical factors.
Psichologija, Volume 61, pp 21-32; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.13
The goal of this study was to investigate in which cases boundary extension occurs when repainting visual images with different content from your memory. The method that was used in this study is based on a meta-analysis conducted by Hubbard et al. (2010). The method consists of 12 stimuli (dimensions 10x15 cm), which show a photographic image or sketch of a painting. Presented stimuli contain images with different content – finished object, object with its corners removed, emotionally neutral, positive and negative object, moving object; 120 respondents participated in the study, their age ranged from 14 to 45 years old (average age – 25,6). The first hypothesis, stating that boundary extension is more frequent with images of objects with removed corners than those of finished objects repainted from memory, was confirmed. The second hypothesis, stating that boundary extension is more frequent with images of emotionally neutral objects than those of emotionally positive or intense objects repainted from memory, was confirmed. The third hypothesis, stating that boundary extension while repainting images that contain containing moving objects, form memory, unfolds from the expected direction of object movement – the left side, was not confirmed. It was found that boundary extension unfolded at the top of a painting (bird) and at the bottom of a painting (vehicle). The fourth hypothesis was partly confirmed – that boundary extension while repainting images from memory with different content stimuli is more likely to happen among teenagers (years 14–19). The central tendency is more likely among younger adults (20–30), and boundary restriction – among older adults (31–45). The fifth hypothesis was confirmed. As expected, boundary extension when repainting images of different content from memory more often occurrs with women than men. The sixth hypothesis, stating that boundary extensions are more often when repainting images from memory that were painted and are not photographical images, was not confirmed.