Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 13920359 / 13920359
Current Publisher: Vilnius University Press (10.15388)
Total articles ≅ 652
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Latest articles in this journal

Rytis Stanikūnas, Laimonas Puišys, Aldona Radzevičienė, Henrikas Vaitkevičius
Published: 7 July 2020
Psichologija, Volume 61, pp 8-20; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.12

What determines which colour combinations will be attractive to a person and which will not? Is colour attractiveness only a subjective human experience, or can we predict it based on physical colour parameters? One of the pioneers of the attraction of colour theories was Michel Eugène Chevreul (1786–1889). He distinguished two types of colour harmony – analog colour and contrast – and tried to describe what harmonics are based on physical colour parameters. This was later done by other scientists. Later, semantic evaluation of colours was introduced and factor analysis attempted to identify emotions caused by colours or combinations of colours. The aim of this research is to test whether there is a consistent pattern of judgments of colour combinations under controlled conditions and, if so, to what extent they are influenced by the objective physical characteristics of those combinations. Subjects. The study involved 40 students (20 men, 20 women). All subjects had normal colour vision and were not related to fine art. Research tools. The study used 8 colours: 4 opponent (green, red, yellow and blue) and 4 additional (orange, lettuce, blue and purple). The 28 colour combinations (made up of two different colours) were composed of those 8 colours and printed onto cardboard card where each colour had area of 80 mm x 80 mm. Questionnaire of 40 adjectives consisting of 20 pairs of antonyms were used for semantic colour assessment. Procedure. The investigation was conducted in a dark room. Initially, all 28 cards with colour combinations were placed randomly on a desk lit by a 40 cm high fluorescent lamp (4000K correlated colour temperature). The subject was asked to select one of the cards with the most preferable colour combination, to write its code on the questionnaire and to mark all the epithets in the questionnaire which suits this colour combination. The same procedure was applied to the all other cards. One experiment lasted 35–50 minutes. Results and conclusions. Independent component analysis distinguished 4 dimensions describing colours: pleasure, energy, purple color and strength. Logistic regression analysis was run on colour factor loadings to discriminate colour combinations into two groups: liked and disliked colour combinations. It shows that that colour combination could be predicted as being liked or disliked with 85% probability. Adding physical colour parameters to the regression increases prognostic probability to 92 %. Also a relationship between subjective factors and physical characteristics of colour combinations was found. Pleasure correlates with hue contrast and strength with saturation contrast. It can be argued that the reliability of colour combinations is determined by both subjective and physical factors.
Aldona Radzevičienė, Jurgita Jankūnaitė
Published: 29 June 2020
Psichologija, Volume 61, pp 21-32; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.13

The goal of this study was to investigate in which cases boundary extension occurs when repainting visual images with different content from your memory. The method that was used in this study is based on a meta-analysis conducted by Hubbard et al. (2010). The method consists of 12 stimuli (dimensions 10x15 cm), which show a photographic image or sketch of a painting. Presented stimuli contain images with different content – finished object, object with its corners removed, emotionally neutral, positive and negative object, moving object; 120 respondents participated in the study, their age ranged from 14 to 45 years old (average age – 25,6). The first hypothesis, stating that boundary extension is more frequent with images of objects with removed corners than those of finished objects repainted from memory, was confirmed. The second hypothesis, stating that boundary extension is more frequent with images of emotionally neutral objects than those of emotionally positive or intense objects repainted from memory, was confirmed. The third hypothesis, stating that boundary extension while repainting images that contain containing moving objects, form memory, unfolds from the expected direction of object movement – the left side, was not confirmed. It was found that boundary extension unfolded at the top of a painting (bird) and at the bottom of a painting (vehicle). The fourth hypothesis was partly confirmed – that boundary extension while repainting images from memory with different content stimuli is more likely to happen among teenagers (years 14–19). The central tendency is more likely among younger adults (20–30), and boundary restriction – among older adults (31–45). The fifth hypothesis was confirmed. As expected, boundary extension when repainting images of different content from memory more often occurrs with women than men. The sixth hypothesis, stating that boundary extensions are more often when repainting images from memory that were painted and are not photographical images, was not confirmed.
Cornelia Rada
Published: 29 June 2020
Psichologija, Volume 61, pp 33-50; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.14

The objectives of this study were the determination of the prevalence of self-reported depressive symptoms by the Geriatric Depression Scale and the influences of variable income, physical activity, socialization and sexual activity. A total of 601 patients aged 55–93 years with a mean age of 67.32 years and a median age of 67 years participated in this study between 2016 and 2017. Non-cooperative people and individuals with strong auditory or visual sensory deficits, severe cognitive deficits, or disorders accompanied by psychotic elements with serious somatic pathology were excluded from the interviews. Employing the SPSS GENLIN procedure, an ordinal logistic model was used. Over ½ of the respondents are within the categories of moderate and severe depression, almost half of the respondents feel that their family incomes are not enough or make it hard to meet their needs, approximately 10% think they are sedentary, over ½ participate in no sexual activity, and over ¼ do not frequently respond with pleasure to partner-initiated sexual relationships. Those who were in the higher depression category perceived their income to be extremely low (p = .001), perceived themselves as sedentary (p < .001), infrequently met with friends or neighbours in their leisure time (p = .002), and had lower sexual interest (p < .001). Middle-aged adults and older adults should learn about the health benefits of physical activity, socialization and sexual activity. Social policies must take into account this low-income segment. Poverty itself can be a contributor to depressive states, and additionally, due to their low incomes, elderly people are at risk of benefiting less from pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy.
Renatas Berniūnas, Vytis Silius, Vilius Dranseika
Published: 3 February 2020
Psichologija, Volume 60, pp 86-105; doi:10.15388/psichol.2019.11

In this paper we report a study on how different types of normatively relevant transgressions are evaluated by Chinese participants. We hypothesized that, given the continuing influences of Confucian worldview on contemporary Chinese societies, the Chinese will not make a distinction between moral (daode) and conventional norms of cultured behavior (wenming). Our results indicate that Chinese participants expressed a strong normative conviction not only towards harmful and unfair actions, usually subsumed under the moral domain in Western literature, but also towards violations of what would be widely accepted as conventional (or cultural) norms. Similarly, Chinese participants expressed a strong normative conviction towards violations of the traditional Chinese value of family reverence (xiao), thus further supporting our general thesis. Moreover, results indicate that, overall, explicit consi­derations of wenming (unculturedness) emerged as the best predictor of a normative conviction response among the Chinese. Though considerations of harm and fairness also emerged as significant predictors of normative conviction response. The results are discussed in the light of recent debates about the moral/conventional distinction and the scope of morality.
Algis Norvilas
Published: 30 December 2019
Psichologija, Volume 60, pp 8-26; doi:10.15388/psichol.2019.6

In a series of four experiments, the cued-recall task was used to explore bilingual word representation in episodic memory. When target words were encoded singly, their recall to same-language and to crossed-language extralist cues was found not to be different. These results appear to support a language independent view of bilingual word representation in which words of different languages are mutually accessible. When target words were encoded in a cue-target relational fashion, recall of target words was much higher to original-language than to translated-language intralist cues, thus supporting a language dependent view. In this case information seems to be bound by the language in which it was originally encountered. This difference in results of cross-language cuing of singly and relationally encoded words was assumed to result from shifts in meaning brought about by contrasting word experiences. More broadly, the findings were interpreted within the context of Don Dulany’s (1997) mentalistic theory of evocative versus deliberative processing of words.
Dalia Bagdžiūnienė, Jurgita Lazauskaitė-Zabielskė, Ieva Urbanavičiūtė
Published: 30 December 2019
Psichologija, Volume 60, pp 27-45; doi:10.15388/psichol.2019.7

Organizational citizenship behaviour is defined as “individual behaviour that is discretionary and not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system and in the aggregate promotes the efficient and effective functioning of the organization” (Organ, Podsakoff, & MacKenzie, 2006). Nowadays it is one of the most widely studied phenomena in the field of organizational science (Podsakoff, Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Maynes, & Spoelma, 2014). Employee citizenship behaviour generates additional value for the organization by creating a positive social environment, improving the use of resources, coordinating activities within and between working groups, enhancingthe organization’s ability to attract and retain the best employees, maintaining organizational stability and adaptabilityto environmental changes. Meanwhile, citizenship behaviour is not widely studied in Lithuania and one ofthe reasons may be a lack of reliable and valid instruments that would correspond to the country’s cultural context.The first version of the Lithuanian twenty-nine items Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) questionnaireincluded dimensions of altruism, courtesy, civic virtue, conscientiousness, and was developed in 2013 (Bagdžiūnienė,Lazauskaitė-Zabielskė ir Urbanavičiūtė, 2013). Later, in 2014–2016, two studies were carried out with the aim torevise and confirm the structure of the OCB questionnaire and to re-evaluate its psychometric properties.In the first study, a total of 1985 employees from one Lithuanian public sector organization were surveyed online. Ninety-two percent of the respondents were female, the average age of respondents was 45.13 (SD = 10.3) years, with an average of 12.34 (SD = 7.74) years of working experience in the organization. Thirteen percent of the respondents were first-level managers. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) confirmed the five factor structure of the questionnaire; however, nine items with the lowest loadings were removed. The shortened version of the OCB questionnaire consists of five dimensions with four items in each scale. Cronbach’s alphas confirmed the reliability of each scale, the discriminant validity was confirmed by positive correlations between OCB dimensions and inrole behaviour, affective organizational commitment, job satisfaction and negative correlations with the intention to quit. In the second study, 647 employees from different organizations were surveyed online. Seventy-four percent of them were female, the average age of respondents was 30.64 (SD = 10.08) years, with an average of 4.45 (SD = 6.19) years of working experience in the organization. Sixteen percent of the respondents were first-level managers. Thirty-two percent of the respondents were from public and sixty-eight percent from private sector organizations. The five-factor structure was additionally approved by applying CFA in this sample, the invariance of the structure regarding gender, age, and status was also...
Viktorija Mikalauskienė, Alfredas Laurinavičius
Published: 30 December 2019
Psichologija, Volume 60, pp 46-57; doi:10.15388/psichol.2019.8

Adaptacija pataisos įstaigoje – tai įkalinto asmens psichologinis ir elgesinis atsakas į pataisos įstaigos aplinką ir įkalinimo situaciją (Fedock, 2017). Sėkmingai adaptavęsi nuteistieji geba patenkinti savo pagrindinius poreikius, nekonfliktuoja nei su pataisos įstaigos administracija, nei su kitais nuteistaisiais, nepatiria stiprių neigiamų emocijų ir t.t. Manoma, kad nesėkminga adaptacija pataisos įstaigoje siejasi su mažesne motyvacija keisti savo nusikalstamą elgesį ir recidyvu (Loper, 2002; Zamble & Porporino, 1988). Nors nuteistųjų adaptacija pataisos įstaigose ir ją prognozuojančiais veiksniais užsienio mokslininkai domisi jau kelis dešimtmečius, Lietuvoje tokių tyrimų ypač trūksta. Šio tyrimo tikslas – nustatyti laisvės atėmimo bausmę atliekančių nuteistųjų adaptaciją Lietuvos pataisos įstaigose prognozuojančius veiksnius. Tyrime dalyvavo nuteistieji vyrai (N = 331) iš 5 Lietuvos pataisos įstaigų, jų amžius svyravo nuo nuo 18 iki 68 metų (M = 35,17, SD = 10,75). Adaptacijai įvertinti buvo naudojama Kalėjimo problemų skalė (Zamble & Porporino, 1988), Beck depresijos klausimyno antroji leidimo versija (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) ir Beck nerimo klausimynas (Beck, Epstein, Brown, & Steer, 1988). Adaptacijos veiksniai buvo įvertinti demografinių duomenų anketa bei Kriminalinių nuostatų modifikuota skale (Simourd, 1997). Nustatyta, jog adaptaciją geriausiai prognozuoja kriminalinės nuostatos ir bendravimas su draugais arba partnere. Tirti veiksniai paaiškino iki 16 % adaptaciją vertinančių kintamųjų sklaidos.
Volodymyr Viktorovych Hnatiuk
Published: 20 December 2019
Psichologija, Volume 60, pp 92-139; doi:10.15388/polit.2019.96.4

Subnational topic has come a long way from its inception fifty years ago to formation of an independent research direction. This period consists of three phases. In the first phase (early 1970’s – mid 90’s) scholars start discussing a topic that was still unexplored at the time and examine it as a fragmentary part of whole studies. The second phase (mid 1990’s – first half of 2010’s) sees changes in methodology: studies become more complex, focused solely on subnational phenomena and are carried out using a special tool – the subnational comparative method. A methodological dichotomy is outlined as a model for the analysis of subnational regimes and their types, as well. Finally, the third (current) phase (mid 2010’s – present) is where the key changes take place: formation of independent research direction, overcoming theoretical constructs (whole-national bias and federal monism) and increase of complexity and depth of political studies. These features are entrenched in the form of methodological synthesis as a modern model for the analysis of subnational regimes and their types. The article focuses on the coverage of the classical and the modern foundations of the subnational comparative method. The author notes that modern methodology juxtaposes with ontology in the context of subnational discourse. However, in the process of studying such issues there is an urgent need to clarify, update and supplement some methodological foundations of the method.
Saulė Raižienė, Vilmantė Pakalniškienė
Published: 20 December 2019
Psichologija, Volume 60, pp 72-85; doi:10.15388/psichol.2019.10

Technological changes are making the Internet more accessible and interactive. The opportunities offered by the Internet, Internet use (time, frequency, accessibility, social networks, activities, etc.), and threats are changing as well. Cyberbullying is identified as one of the main threats on the Internet that has the most serious consequences. Research has found that cyberbullying is the most frustrating Internet threat for children (Haddon & Livingstone, 2012). Considering that children do not live without the Internet, and that the opportunities and threats of the Internet change all the time, the impact on emotional and behavioural problems of children has not been fully explored. This study is part of the Lithuanian Science Council funded project “Children’s and adolescents’ Internet use in Lithuania: possibilities and risks tendencies in EU context” (No. S-MIP-17-1/LSS-250000-1087). It aims to compare emotional and behavioural problems of children who have been victims of different forms of bullying and/or bullied themselves. During the data collection in 2018, 1012 children aged 9 to 17 years were interviewed; 161 (15.9%) children reported being bullied over the last year (61.5% of them in cyber space), and 65 (6.4%) children bullied others over the last year (52.3% of them in cyber space). The results show that cyberbullying is more often related to traditional and other forms of bullying than it takes place separately. However, there is an overlap in bullying environments: children who have experienced traditional bullying, bully others in a traditional way; and children who have experienced cyberbullying, bully others in the cyber space. The results confirm that the experience of bullying is related to poor psychological functioning, but the most emotional and behavioural problems are experienced by those kids who participated in or experienced traditional bullying. According to the results of this study, the harm caused by a traditional bullying is greater than cyberbullying.
Gabija Petrauskaitė, Ksenija Čunichina
Published: 20 December 2019
Psichologija, Volume 60, pp 58-71; doi:10.15388/psichol.2019.9

Sexual harassment is still a widespread problem in today’s modern society. Therefore, it is important to identify extralegal factors that shape society’s attitudes towards sexual harassment cases and why, sometimes, the victim of sexual harassment is being blamed for the situation. Most of the previous studies do not explore the causal relationship between the characteristics of the accused and the attitudes towards the cases. Moreover, the results of many existing studies are contradictory. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the impact of sex, physical attractiveness and socioeconomic status (SES) of the perpetrator on the attitudes towards sexual harassment situations. A hundred seventy-nine respondents participated in the study. During the research, a fictional news report and situation assessment scale were used. It was found that only a perpetrator’s physical attractiveness and socioeconomic status had a statistically significant impact on the appraisal of the perpetrator and victim’s behavior in the situation. The physical attractiveness of the perpetrator resulted in a statistically significant positive appraisal of his behavior and a more negative appraisal of the victim’s behavior. SES only had a statistically significant impact on the appraisal of perpetrator’s behavior: when the perpetrator was of high SES, his behavior in a sexual harassment situation was perceived more negatively than that of low SES. Results of this research not only emphasize the importance of extralegal factors on the attitudes toward the sexual harassment victims and perpetrators among younger adults, but also indicates possible societal changes – diminished gender and opposite SES effects on the attitudes toward the aforementioned situations.
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