Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni

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G. I. Demydas, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, I. V. Svystunova, E. S. Lyhosherst
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.008

Abstract:
An important factor in the feed industry intensification is the cultivation of perennial legumes, including sainfoin. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of mineral fertilizers and seed inoculation on the formation of the root system and the symbiotic productivity of different varieties of sainfoin grown on green fodder. Experimental studies were conducted during 2016-2018 on the research field of Forage Production, Land Reclamation and Meteorology Department, located at the NULES of Ukraine "Agronomic Research Station" on typical low-humus chernozem. According to the results of the research, it was established that on average in three years the biggest root mass - at the level of 52.7 t/ha was formed by sainfoin variety Amethyst Donetskyi with providing complete mineral fertilizer in the dose N45P60K90 and presowing seeds inoculation by Rhizotorphin. In plants of the same variant, the most developed symbiotic apparatus was also noted - in the flowering phase, the total number of tubers was 126 units/plant, and their weight was 3.444 g/plant. As a result of a strong root system of plants formation and a well-developed symbiotic apparatus, the amount of biologically fixed nitrogen under crops of sainfoin of variety Amethyst Donetskyi reached 143 kg/ha.
I. L. Rogovskii, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.014

Abstract:
Based on the analysis of most domestic combines, it is established that they have a traditional scheme of threshing and separating device, which includes one or two sequentially arranged threshing threshers and keyboard straw shaker. The design of drumming from rods with cross plates provides, first of all, intensification of process of threshed grain. Cereals are threshed easily, so there is no need to intensify threshing. For example, when harvesting grain harvester KZS-9M "Slavutich" with a gap at the outlet between the threshing drum and the drum 18 mm and the speed of the threshing drum 450 min-1, the loss of threshing was absent in all experiments. In this case, the transverse plates of the drum are an obstacle to the movement of the threshed mass in the threshing-separating device, forming a dead space behind each bar, where a small component of plant mass accumulates. The quality of the threshing and separating device of the combine harvester was determined by the coefficients of undersmilling, separation, crushing and clogging of the grain received for cleaning. Damage to the grain during threshing in the thresher is mainly due to the influence of the circumferential linear velocity of the threshing drum and the gap between the threshing drum and the drum. Therefore, the gap in the threshing space is variable and changes in the direction of decrease from the entrance of the plant mass into the threshing device to its exit. To summarize, we used the gap in the threshing space at the outlet of the thresher. In this regard, the beginning of the tests was at a drum speed of 450 min-1. During the tests it was found that the greatest influence on the damage to the grain has a circular linear speed of the threshing drum. Thus, when increasing the speed of the drum per 100 min-1 from 450 to 550 min-1, the damage increased from 1.5% to 5.5%, ie almost 4 times.
I.P. Kotlyar, H.M. Kuznіetsova, V.K. Rybalchenko
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.003

Abstract:
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which includes ulcerative colitis (UC), is one of the most serious and currently unsolved problems in modern gastroenterology. In terms of severity and frequency of complications, IBD occupies one of the leading places in the structure of gastrointestinal tract diseases. The etiology of IBD is still not fully understood. It is probably of an autoimmune nature, and the main causes are considered to be hereditary predisposition, allergic reactions, nutrition, etc. Dystrophic and atrophic changes of the colonic mucosa, accompanied by its secretory and motor function alterations, digestive disorders, as well as extraintestinal manifestations (general intoxication, liver and skin injuries, joints) are main IBD features. Because tumor growth is usually accompanied by inflammation of tumor nodules in adjacent apparently normal tissue, and prolonged pharnaceutical suppression of inflammation significantly reduces the risk of tumor development, chronic UC is considered as a precursor condition. Moreover, the number of colorectal cancer cases among people with UC history exceeding 10 years, increases eightfold compared to the average population. In this regard, it is important to prevent this pathology, in particular with the help of food supplements of natural origin, such as vegetable oils of flax and milk thistle, which are used in traditional medicine, including inflammatory diseases of the digestive system. Studies on their possible anti-inflammatory effects on the colonic mucosa and biochemical parameters of blood in ulcerative colitis have not been performed. Therefore, the aim is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effectiveness of vegetable oils (flaxseed and milk thistle, obtained by different methods of pressing) in a model of acute colitis in rats. Object of research: biochemical mechanisms of realization of influence of thistle and flaxseed oils of different methods of extraction at ulcerative colitis. The effects of linseed and milk thistle oils obtained by cold pressing (to 45°C) and hot pressing (to 95°C) on the development of acute colitis in rats, when administered with food, have been investigated. It was shown that the use of linseed oil both cold and hot-pressed under conditions of adding it to the feed in an amount of 10% for 2 weeks prevents the development of inflammatory and destructive changes in the colon of rats with acute colitis and its negative consequences in the liver (for approaching to the normal values of serum markers of its functional activity). These oil properties could be realized partially by unsaturated fatty acids, in particular ω3, including minor ones. The data obtained may indicate that one of the mechanisms of implementation of the anti-inflammatory action of these substances is their ability to reduce oxidative stress - one of the main factors and promoters of inflammation.
L. M. Burko, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, I. V. Svystunova, S. P. Poltoretskyi, T. I. Prorochenko, Uman National University of Horticulture
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.009

Abstract:
The results of research on the influence of species composition of grass mixtures, the level of fertilizing, and growth stimulator Fumar on the productivity of sown meadow herbage on typical low-humus chernozems of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe are presented. The experimental part of the work was performed in the scientific laboratories of the Forage Production, Land Reclamation, and Meteorology Department in the production unit of the National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine "Agronomic Research Station". The territory of the research station is located in the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe and is a part of Bila Tserkva agro-soil district. The experimental plots were laid on typical low-humus chernozems, coarse-grained light loam in terms of mechanical composition, which are characterized by a high content of gross and mobile forms of nutrients. The climate of the region is characterized by unstable humidity and moderate temperatures. The average annual air temperature is 6-8 ° C. The annual amount of precipitation reaches 562 mm, during the growing season - 354-394 mm (63-70% of the annual norm), which falls unevenly throughout the year. The purpose of the study is to establish patterns of high productivity formation of sown perennial grasses depending on the species composition and fertilizers on typical low-humus chernozems of Right-Bank Forest-Steppe. The analysis of fertilizers effect showed that the highest productivity on all stands was provided by the combined application of complete mineral fertilizer and biostimulator of growth Fumar (N60P60K90 + Fumar), where productivity compared to the option without fertilizer on average over the years of research on alfalfa t/ha of dry mass or by 9%, on its mixtures with cereals - by 0.89–1.19 t/ha, or by 9–11%, and on cereal herbages - by 2.79 t/ha, or by 54% at LSD 0.41 t/ha. Productivity from the use of growth stimulant Fumar increased by 0.27-0.32 t/ha of dry weight or 2-4% and depended a little on the species composition of herbages. High efficiency of alfalfa inclusion in leguminous-cereal grass mixtures, as well as use of single-species alfalfa sowing for fodder purposes, especially on backgrounds without mineral nitrogen, was revealed. The productivity of these herbages in comparison with cereal herbages on nitrogen-free backgrounds (variants without fertilizers and P60K90) on average for 2014–2016 increased from 3.74–4.10 to 8.06–8.68 t/ha of fodder units, from 0.57-0.66 to 1.70-1.96 of crude protein, from 93.7-101.4 to 182.1-206.2 GJ/ha of gross energy and from 38.9-42.7 to 82.4–91.3 GJ/ha of metabolic energy or by1.8–3.0 times, while on backgrounds with nitrogen application (variants N60P60K90 and N60P60K90 + Fumar) - respectively from 5.73–5.93 to 8, 27–9.22 t/ha, from 1.13–1.21 to 1.89–2.29 t/ha, from 139.8–144.8 to 192.5–219.1 GJ/ha, and from 59.6–61.7 to 89.4–98.2 GJ/ha, or by 1.4–1.6 times. Comparison of the productivity of alfalfa-cereal mixtures with single-species sowing of alfalfa shows that on the same backgrounds it was at the same level with slight fluctuations. On average, in the first three years of use, the most influential factor in the yield of 1 ha of dry mass is the factor of grass cover with a share of 60%. The share of fertilizer factor is 40%. The inclusion of alfalfa in legumes and cereal mixtures, as well as the use of single-species sowing for fodder purposes compared to cereals in the background without mineral nitrogen on average for the first three years of use, increases the productivity of sown grasslands from 5.12-5.54 to 10,44–10.78 t/ha of dry weight, from 3.74–4.10 to 8.06–8.68 t/ha of feed units, from 0.57–0.66 to 1.70 1.96 of crude protein and from 38.9–42.7 to 82.4–91.3 GJ/ha of exchange energy or by 1.8–3.0 times, while on backgrounds with N60 application - from 7.28–7.59, respectively, to 9.42–9.71 t/ha, from 5.73–5.93 to 8.27–9.22 t/ha, from 1.13–1.21 to 1.89–2.29 t/ha and from 59.6–61.7 to 89.4–98.2 GJ/ha, or only by 1.4–1.6 times. Among the alfalfa-cereal herbages in the first two years of use, the most productive was the agrocenosis, the cereal part of which is represented by smooth bromegrass and English bluegrass. The lowest, but quite high productivity of alfalfa and alfalfa-grass herbages is provided without fertilizers, which on average for the first three years of use ranges from 9.95 to 10.86 t/ha of dry weight, 1.70 to 1.85 t/ha of crude protein, 82.4–85.8 GJ/ha of metabolic energy, while cereals, respectively, 5.12 t/ha, 3.74 t/ha, 0.57 t/ha, 38.9 GJ/ha.
O. M. Klymenko, National University of Water Management and Nature Resources, L. M. Korniiko
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.002

Abstract:
The current state of the ecological situation in our country is becoming dangerous not only for the present but for future generations largely. These are contradictory principles of sustainable development and threatens the further development of the state. Ensuring the sustainable development of human civilization depends on many factors and conditions. In recent decades, humanity has been actively implementing the concept of sustainable development. This concept became widespread after the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. This concept of sustainable development creates possibility to achieve socio-ecological and economic security and safety. The concept of sustainable development is based on the impossibility of solving environmental safety problems separately without solving economic and social problems. Thus, focusing only on the economic indicators of production leads to a catastrophic deterioration of the environment and public health, which is accompanied by loss of ability to work, reduced efficiency, and, consequently, reduced Gross National Product. At present, the concept of sustainable development is especially relevant for our country in general and for its regions in particular. The problem of environmental safety plays an important role, as it ensures the use of natural resources that will contribute to their natural recovery as well as reduce the impact of anthropogenic pressure on the environment. For effective studying the problem of environmental safety we decided to assess environmental safety at the regional level on the example of Rivne region. The article considers the issue of assessing the state of ecological safety of residential areas of Rivne region. Analysis of recent research shows that environmental safety is formed under the influence of environmental, socio-economic and man-made factors. Therefore, the definition of environmental safety requires a comprehensive approach. Since the definition of local safety requires a comprehensive approach, it is based on assessing the socio-ecological safety of the research area. Achieving the goal is expected through the solution of the following tasks: - substantiate the selection of indicators for the assessment of residential areas; - to calculate the levels of security of residential areas of Rivne region for each district. The method of evaluation of scientists Gerasymchuk Z.V., Oleksiiuk A.O. is represented as a basis. It is proposed to divide all indicators into 3 blocks: resource, biosphere-centric and anthropocentric. The assessment is performed using indicators of partial integrated levels of environmental safety of three blocks of resource, biosphere-centric and anthropocentric. In the resource block we will analyze the indicators that show the number, level of involvement and efficiency of use. In the biosphere-centric we will analyze the indicators of anthropogenic impact on the environment through the formation of discharges, emissions and waste. In the anthropocentric block we will study the state of health of the population, the level of growth and population estimate. Then, based on these calculations for each unit, we determine a partial indicator of environmental safety. On the basis of the calculated 3 blocks according to a technique we will receive an integrated indicator of ecological safety. The integrated indicator gives a qualitative assessment of the ecological condition of each specific district according to the developed scale Gerasymchuk Z.V., Oleksiiuk A.O. Also this indicator gives us the possibility to make a comparative description of the districts among themselves. Thus, in our work it was established that in the vast majority in the zone of ecological threat there are 12 districts, in the zone of ecological danger - 3 districts of Rivne, Sarny, Zdolbuniv regions. In the zone of ecological risk is Berezne district. A large number of areas that are in the zone of danger indicates that these areas are characterized by a high level of man-made load on the environment. Based on this, to ensure the environmental security of the territory it is necessary to form the main and supplementary strategies, depending on the state of environmental security and financial capabilities of the region. Thus, the conducted diagnosis of environmental safety allowed to assess not only the integrated indicator of environmental safety, but also to identify the main factors that may lead to the deterioration of the environmental situation.
A. Berezenko, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, V. Nedosekov, O. Godovskiy, Biotestlab Ltd
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.001

Abstract:
One of the most common viruses in the world that causes disease in cattle is the bovine coronavirus (BCoV). This virus is the causative agent of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in newborn calves, resulting in significant economic losses in both dairy and meat farming. Considering the complex epizootic situation with the coronaviruses in the world and partial antigenic affinity of BCoV with coronaviruses of other species of animals and humans, the isolation of new strains of coronaviruses, their identification and optimization of cultivation conditions becomes extremely important and relevant. The aim of our research was to determine the features of methods of isolation of bovine coronavirus and to select methods for its cultivation in cell culture in order to obtain the virus with the highest titers of infectious activity. Isolation of BCoV was performed in monolayers of MDBK and the primary-trypsinized calf kidney culture cells, using 20 samples collected from calves with clinical signs of respiratory or/and gastrointestinal disease. 16 samples were positive for BCoV by means of Real-Time PCR test. Up to fifth serial passage, only 4 of these isolates presented typical syncytial cytopathic effect. It has been experimentally established that the continious calf kidney cell culture line (MDBK) and the primary-trypsinized calf kidney culture (CK) are suitable for BCoV isolation and accumulation. The infectious titer of bovine coronavirus at the level of the fifth passage in the cultures of MDBK and CK cells reached 5.54 ± 0.16 lg TCD50/ml and 5.59 ± 0.14 lg TCD50/ml, respectively. However, due to the high cost of obtaining primary-trypsinized cell cultures, this isolation method may be unacceptable to most pharmaceutical companies and laboratories. Also after 5 serial passages, the viral material was again examined in Real-Time PCR to confirm the isolation of BCoV - the study of 4 samples with a characteristic syncytial CPE had a positive result in Real-Time PCR. However, of the Real-Time PCR-positive 12 samples, the virus could not be isolated in continuous cell cultures of MDBK and Vero, as well as in primary-trypsinized cattle lung and kidney cell cultures. This fact may indicate the presence of different strains of BCoV circulation in farms in our country. Further research is planned to be focused on optimizing the methods and modes of BCoV strains isolation, as well as to identify and study the cultural properties of new strains of BCoV circulating in Ukraine. We will also continue the study of the obtained viral isolate for the subsequent development of tools for the diagnosis and immunoprophylaxis of coronavirus infection in veterinary medicine.
D. Y. Voityshynа, National University of Water Management and Nature Recources Use
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.005

Abstract:
Introduction .With a significant number of water bodies in Ukraine (only 2,000 small rivers), the descriptive characteristics of the ecological situation occupy a significant amount, which requires unification and encryption. Dr.Ph. Klymenko M.O, Dr. Ph. Gryb J.V. made the unification of research materials by blocks: type of basin-morphometric of the catchment surface, floodplains and riverbeds - quality of the aquatic environment - production characteristics - socio-demographic - block of economic analysis of profitability in river basins and cluster costs analysis of the state of the components of the ecosystem and assessment of the basin as a whole. The study of individual elements of the water basin (composition and quality of the aquatic environment, the state of the catchment surface, ichthyofauna, forage base of aboriginal ichthyofauna, the impact of economic activity) provides some information. There is a significant array of surface water monitoring data (hydrochemistry, ecology, hydrobiology, ichthyology, etc.), attributed to the middle and end of the twentieth century. Here it should be noted the works of Kononenko G.D., Gryb J.V., Alekseevsky V.E, Baranovsky V.A, Klymenko M.O, Tsvetova O.V, Sondaka V.V, Chernyavskaya A. P., Zhukinsky V.N and others. They established the regional features of the chemical regime of surface waters, developed a methodology for assessing the quality of surface waters and the state of transformation of the catchment surface, the peculiarities of the formation of crisis situations. Dr.Ph. Gryb J.V. researches of a chemical mode of surface waters on phases of a hydrological mode for the period from 1970 to 2000 are carried out. Kononenko G.D. conducted mapping of the territory of Ukraine by the main ions of the mineral composition of water. The State Institute of Eastern and Northern Europe (Germany) together with the Institute of Geography of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine on the basis of applied research of Ukrainian scientists: Rudenko L.G., Chernyavska A.P., Gryb J.V. with the participation of scientists G. Friedline, G.A. Vernichenko, T.P .Balashova, I.P. Semenova conducted a study of the state of rivers in Ukraine and drew up a map of water quality and suitability for use (1995). A map of soils of Ukraine, stock-forming and underlying rocks was also issued. Purpose . Among the important scientific results of the study is the need for unification and unification of river basins. Methodology According to the EU framework directive, the river basin and its elements are accepted as a unit of spatial research of water bodies: channel, floodplain, accessory network (number of intermediate ecotones). These include the following elements of the basin: first-order currents, second-order tributaries, floodplain. Old villages, floodplain lakes, swamps, meadows, springs, as well as subsystems of the catchment area: forest, water mirror, plowed and barren lands, urban areas and infrastructure. Assessment of the condition is carried out on three levels: good, satisfactory, bad. Collectively, the water basin is accepted as a biome that shapes the quality of surface waters, their productivity, diversity of flora and fauna. The hydrographic network itself forms the landscape and connects its elements through hydro-ecological corridors - river systems. The following mathematical dependences are used in the creation of the bio-skeleton framework of the water basin, with the increase of the values of the characteristics the value of the golden root r1 is 1.68 with the decrease of r2 - 0.68. In the pentosystem series of characteristics (classes) the numbers of phyto-swings for biological processes 1,2,3,5,8,13,21,34,55 are used. Results. An example of encryption of field research materials of the Lviv River (a tributary of the first order of the Pryt River) is presented in formula (1) АП; R1; Z3; Z42; E1; L; Ie; b5 5; R3; Ke5; St 3,0. (1) Plain part of Ukraine, Western Polissya region, Dnieper river basin, main canal, regulated, one intermediate Eco tone (channel reservoir), water is weakly mineralized, channel is straight , water quality class one, fish productivity is weak, the state of the basin is over drying, stability is low (low water, segmentation of the channel by locks, protective sand from unaligned slopes of the shore). Similarly, other blocks can be coded. In the perspective owe will obtain the results of the correlation with the conclusions of other scientists, in particular Klymenko M.O., Gryba J.V. and others. Thanks to encrypting the data by blocks of pool structure, we can unify the methods of research, facilitating the work of researchers and students. Conclusions 1. The economic and ecological framework of the water basin is one of the leading blocks for assessing the ecological situation. And the main indicator is the ecological and economic potential of the territory and the cost of the basin. 2. To assess the transformation of the state of the basin, reference values of the state of the enterprise are needed. 3. In assessing the situation, the final block is the economy and demographic situation - the cost of living and its duration.
V. V. Nedosekov, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, H. V. Petkun
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.011

Abstract:
Dairy animal welfare is of growing interest around the world, especially in developed countries, which have animal welfare programs and resources to establish optimal management systems for cows and understand that animal welfare is the foundation of innovative dairy farming. The article, based on the analysis, synthesis and generalization of world research and the results of own scientific expert assessment of animal welfare identifies the main problems of animal welfare on dairy farms, considers methods of assessing animal welfare in the world and substantiates the importance of implementing welfare programs and management protocols in dairy farming. Thus, in dairy farming, animal welfare is an important component based on world regulations. The analysis of regulations requires an understanding of the legislative aspects of different levels and examples of best practice: a) EU directives and practices, b) directives and practices of each European country c) national directives of non-EU countries, which must take into account all three legislative features. It has been shown that the EU has implemented a number of animal welfare acts, compromises between dairy producers and consumers on a number of instruments to harmonize law enforcement through audit, training, scientific expertise and consulting, and contributes to the stability of the EU food chain. In Ukraine, it is important to harmonize legislation with European Union norms and create a system for assessing the welfare of dairy animals, as well as information and educational activities and training on animal welfare on dairy farms for stakeholders and practical approaches to implementing animal welfare in production. We launched the European approach "Signals of cows" within the Ukrainian-Dutch project "Dairy farm", which allowed to work out the basic aspects of animal welfare in research farms NULES. In 2021, a new law on veterinary medicine was adopted, which implements 14 EU acts and includes a section on animal welfare, which is already a big step forward and opens new opportunities. However, in addition to the provisions on the welfare of calves (harmonization with Regulation 98/58 EC) do not consider regulations on the welfare of the dairy herd, which is not enough to develop the dairy industry in a global transformation. The article presents the basic indicators of welfare of cows, which are used in European countries and which we use in expert assessments. However, systemic data to assess the welfare of cows is not enough, because it is in the plane of consulting, which does not allow the analysis of the welfare of cows. In the context of globalization, the basic problem of animal welfare on dairy farms is the intensification, so the main welfare assessment programs (FARM, The Code of welfare, Welfare Quality and IDSW), which are widely used in milk production in accordance with current animal welfare standards. Intensification of animal husbandry, which provides greater economic efficiency, poses many threats to animal health and remains one of the biggest problems of animal welfare. The desire for profit reduces the ability to implement the principles of sustainable development. We consider it expedient to develop and implement programs for assessing the welfare of cows in Ukraine. So in the EU there is a voluntary WQ program that certifies producers and aims to meet the needs of society, develop a reliable monitoring system on farms and improve the welfare of cows in general. In New Zealand, the Code of welfare has been implemented, which forms awareness of farmers and care for animal welfare. Almost 98% of US farms are members of the FARM (USA) program, which is positioned as a voluntary program and a number of others. Thus, despite the fact that dairy farming is one of the strategic sectors of animal husbandry in Ukraine, the welfare of dairy farms is insufficiently studied and covered. In the perspective of research, it is important to analyze the experience of other countries in this area and the introduction of a system of welfare assessment, as well as the development and implementation of protocols on animal welfare in Ukraine based on the concept of "Five Freedoms". It is important to raise the awareness of stakeholders and officials to ensure proper compliance with EU animal welfare rules, taking into account national, regional and local networks, different support and understanding of the target audience (both farmers and producers, civil servants, scientists and educators, etc.). Also a priority is research on animal welfare, as well as the development of modern approaches to the legal provision of animal welfare, which will improve animal welfare. Thus, in order to ensure a high level of welfare of cows in relation to world standards of animal welfare, the priority is to assess the welfare of cows, improve the legal framework in Ukraine, further research in this area, implementation of effective programs to control the welfare of dairy animals.
V. S. Bomko, BILA TSERKVA NATIONAL AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY, M. S. Zakharchuk, O. M. Tytariova
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.010

Abstract:
Aimed to study the effective use of different doses of cuprum proteinate in the diet of broiler chickens, three groups of animals were formed with 50 chicks in each. Chickens from the 1st control group received cuprum sulphate as a part of compound feed, and animals from the 2nd and 3rd experimental groups received cuprum proteinate. The concentration of Cuprum in the feed in the 1st and 2nd groups was identical, and in the 3rd experimental group the amount of Cuprum was reduced by 25% compared to the control. During scientific and economic experiment, it was found that the replacement of cuprum sulphate with its proteinate with the same concentration in the feed has a positive effect on the average daily gain of broiler chickens, and therefore a live weight. Thus, the animals from the 2nd experimental group exceeded control analogues by 7.5% in average daily gain and by 9.4% in body mass at the end of the experiment. Reducing the concentration of Cuprum in the feed of chickens from the 3rd experimental group by 25% (the source of the microelement is cuprum proteinate) compared to the control also had a positive effect on the productivity of these animals. They exceeded control analogues in terms of average daily weight gain by 3.8%, and in terms of live weight by 5.8%. At the same time the direct correlation between animal productivity and quantity of the consumed feed was noted. Thus, broilers from the 2nd experimental group consumed more feed by 3.3% compared to control peers. The chickens from the 3rd experimental group exceeded controls by 1.5% in this index. Thus, cuprum proteinate is a more efficient source of Cuprum for broiler feed. The concentration of this microelement in the feed of these animals aged 5-21 days should be 18.2 g/t, 22–35 days - 16.8 g/t, 36–42 days - 12 g/t or 16.5 g/t on average during the experiment.
P.V. Korol, S.O. Kostenko, O.M. Konoval, M.S. Doroshenko, Lizhi Lu, A.M. Chepiha, O.M. Sydorenko, P.P. Dzhus, N.P. Svyrydenko, T.V. Lytvynenko, et al.
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.006

Abstract:
Due to its high reproductive potential, short interval between generations and embryonic development outside the mother's body, the bird provides unique opportunities for its use in fundamental and applied biological research. The creation of a transgenic bird is complicated by the structure of its opaque egg cell with a large yolk and a unique reproductive system of this class. Direct microinjection of DNA into an oocyte, which is often used in mammals, is practically impossible for birds, since fertilization occurs in the infudibulum of the reproductive tract and can be polyspermic. Therefore, manipulations with the zygote turned out to be difficult for their use in creating a transgenic bird. Over the past decades, some alternative strategies have been developed for producing transgenic poultry using bizarre animals created by transferring blastodermal cells. However, to date, the efficiency of creating transgenic poultry in many cases remains very low, and the technique of using ducks to create transgenic poultry is practically not developed. Busulfan is used to suppress cell proliferation. Injection of busulfan into the pidembryonic cavity is one of the methods that increases the number of donor cells when creating chimeras. However, until now, methods of creating hermentative ducks chimeras face difficulties associated with the structure of the shell of waterfowl. Therefore, the aim of the work was to establish the effect of factors influencing the survival of transgenic embryos when using various methods of introducing a DNA construct into the duck genome. The objects of the study were ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) of the Shan partridge duck and Shaoxing breeds kept at the duck farm of Zhuji Guowei Poultry Development Co., Ltd, China. The studies were carried out in the poultry genetics laboratory of the Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences and on the duck farm of Zhejiang Generation Biological Science and Technology Co., Ltd. (Zhejiang Province, PRC). For the analysis of survival, we used embryos obtained by using various methods of introducing the DNA (insertion of the EGFP gene, mediated by homologous repair (HDR)) 1) direct injection of the DNA construct into the sub-embryonic cavity; 2) transfection of DNA with sperm; 3) injection of transfected donor blastomeres into recipient embryos after exposure to busulfan or ultraviolet radiation. A total more than 1100 eggs were examined. As a result of the direct injection of a transgenic DNA construction ( sub-embryonic cavity of 300 embryos, 35.7% of embryos did not develop after injection, 36% stopped developing at the time of the first ovoscopy (day 9 of incubation), 8% died within 10-15 days, 17, 3% - 16-25 days. In total, after direct injections, 9 live ducklings were received (the survival rate was 3%), of which 4 were transgenic. After insemination of ducks transfected with sperm, 292 eggs were laid for incubation. After the first ovoscopy, 51.4% of the eggs were unfertilized; 0.7% of embryos stopped developing at the time of the first ovoscopy (9 day of incubation), 1.0% died within 10-15 days, 17.8% - 16-25 days, 6.2% suffocated during hatching. In total, after using the transfected sperm, 67 live ducklings were obtained (the survival rate of embryos from fertilized eggs was 47.2%). Among 31 adult animals, 19 were transgenic. To sterilize recipient cells for the use of busulfan at a concentration of 300 ng per egg, followed by injection of blastodermal transfected donor cells, 200 embryos were examined, among which 61.0% of embryos developed after injection, 17.0% stopped in development at the time of the first ovoscopy (day 9 of incubation ), 12.5% of those died in the period of 10-15 days, 9.0% - 16-25 days. In total, after injections of busulfan at a concentration of 300 ng per egg, 1 live duckling was obtained (the survival rate was 0.5%). Using busulfan at a concentration of 150 ng per egg, 100 embryos were examined, among which 68.0% of embryos developed after injection, 11.0% stopped developing at the time of the first ovoscopy (day 9 of incubation), 5% died within 10-15 days, 14.0% - 16-25 days. In total, after injections of busulfan at a concentration of 150 ng per egg, 2 live ducklings were obtained (the survival rate was 0.5%). Using busulfan at a concentration of 75 ng per egg, 100 embryos were examined, among which 12.0% of embryos developed after injection, 27.0% stopped developing at the time of the first ovoscopy (9 day of incubation), 14.0% died in the period 10-15 days, 42.0% - 16-25 days. In total, after injections of busulfan at a concentration of 75 ng per egg, 5 live ducklings were obtained (the survival rate was 5%). Ultraviolet irradiation of 200 embryos for 1 hour followed by injection of blastodermal transfected donor cells resulted in death after injection of 20%, stopped developing 27.5% (9 days of incubation), 7.5% died within 10-15 days , 35.0% - 16-25 days. A total of 20 live ducklings were obtained using ultraviolet radiation (survival rate was 10%). Among 13 adult animals gave offspring, 7 were transgenic chimeras. The use of ultraviolet light has reduced the impact of egg infection due to the structure of waterfowl shells. Thus, the safest for the survival of embryos was the method of insemination of ducks with transfected sperm, using which 47.2% of embryos survived.
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