Diversity

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 14242818 / 14242818
Current Publisher: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 967
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Mariangela Girlanda, Samuele Voyron, Enrico Ercole, Mariangela Girlanda
Published: 30 June 2020
by MDPI
Diversity, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/d12070262

Abstract:
As orchids rely on their mycorrhizal fungi for nutrient supply, their spatial range is dependent on the distribution of orchid mycorrhizal (OM) fungi. We addressed possible correlations between mycorrhizal specificity and the geographic distribution of orchids and OM fungi in three populations of the rare sister species Orchis patens and O. canariensis. Metabarcoding of the fungal ITS2 region indicated that, although adult plants of either species were colonized by several ceratobasidioid, tulasnelloid, sebacinoid and serendipitoid fungi, the mycobiont spectra were dominated by Tulasnella helicospora (which occurred in 100% of examined plants with high read numbers), which is a globally distributed fungus. In vitro assays with a T. helicospora isolate obtained from O. patens indicated the effectiveness of this OM fungus at germinating seeds of its native host. At a local scale, higher read numbers for T. helicospora were found in soil samples collected underneath O. patens roots than at locations unoccupied by the orchid. Although these findings suggest that the geographical pattern of the main fungal symbiont does not limit the distribution of O. patens and O. canariensis at this scale, the actual causal link between orchid and OM fungal occurrence/abundance still needs to be better understood.
Joanna N. Izdebska, Leszek Rolbiecki
Published: 30 June 2020
by MDPI
Diversity, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/d12070261

Abstract:
Demodecidae are the most specialized parasitic mites of mammals; they typically inhabit the skin, but they have been found in other tissues and organs. They can cause demodecosis (a disease which is hazardous and difficult to cure) in humans, domestic animals and livestock. They are parasites with high host and topical specificity. They have been found for most orders of mammals, and they are common in the populations of numerous host species. Therefore, they not only constitute an important subject of veterinary and medical study, but also comprise an excellent model for faunistic and parasitological analyses concerning different aspects of functioning and evolution of the host–parasite relationship. The current level or knowledge of demodecid mites is irregular and fragmentary, and numerous questions require elaboration and ordering, from the taxonomic diversity to geographic distribution and relations with hosts. Such data may be of use i.a. for the development of more efficient and reliable diagnostic methods, as well as understanding the etiology and pathogenesis mechanisms of demodecosis, currently a contentious issue. The present paper lists all formally-described valid species of demodecid mites, together with other functioning specific names, verified and with comments on their status. This is significant for correct species identification and demodecosis diagnostics. The list has been drawn up on the basis of data acquired in the period 1842−2020. It contains 122 valid species of parasite, including their hosts and geographic distribution, data on parasitism, as well as only the second record of Demodex sciurinus in Eurasian red squirrel Sciurus vulgaris in over 100 years since its initial discovery.
Paolo Pastorino, M Prearo
Published: 26 June 2020
by MDPI
Diversity, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/d12060260

Abstract:
Though mountain lakes are generally much less influenced by human activities than other habitats, global and local anthropogenic threats can alter their natural condition. The most alarming threats are climate change, water exploitation and abstraction, alien species introduction, and the medium-long range atmospheric transport of contaminates. Moreover, tourism and mountain farming are two other major sources of organic pollutants that can pose a threat to local aquatic biodiversity. Papers submitted to this Special Issue should be original contributions, with a focus on ecological and morphological characterization, environmental pressures (i.e., alien species introduction, environmental contaminates), and the use of bioindicators/tracers to inform adequate management plans.
Tatiana Fioravanti, Andrea Splendiani, Tommaso Righi, Nicola Maio, Sabrina Lo Brutto, Antonio Petrella, Vincenzo Caputo Barucchi
Published: 25 June 2020
by MDPI
Diversity, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/d12060258

Abstract:
The Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) is one of the most endangered marine mammals in the world. This species has been threatened since ancient times by human activities and currently amounts to approximately 700 individuals distributed in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Aegean and Ionian Sea) and Eastern Atlantic Ocean (Cabo Blanco and Madeira). In other areas, where the species is considered “probably extinct”, an increase in sporadic sightings has been recorded during recent years. Sightings and accidental catches of Mediterranean monk seals have become more frequent in the Adriatic Sea, mainly in Croatia but also along the coasts of Montenegro, Albania and Southern Italy. A Mediterranean monk seal pup was recovered on 27 January 2020 on the beach of Torre San Gennaro in Torchiarolo (Brindisi, Apulia, Italy). DNA was extracted from a tissue sample and the hypervariable region I (HVR1) of the mitochondrial DNA control region was amplified and sequenced. The alignment performed with seven previous published haplotypes showed that the individual belongs to the haplotype MM03, common in monk seals inhabiting the Greek islands of the Ionian Sea. This result indicates the Ionian Islands as the most probable geographical origin of the pup, highlighting the need to intensify research and conservation activities on this species even in areas where it seemed to be extinct.
Katrine Hansen, Tuanjit Sritongchuay, Sara Bumrungsri, Benno I. Simmons, Niels Strange, Bo Dalsgaard
Published: 25 June 2020
by MDPI
Diversity, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/d12060259

Abstract:
Pollination by wild pollinators is a key ecosystem service threatened by anthropogenic-induced land-use change. The proximity to natural habitat has previously been shown to positively affect pollinator communities and improve crop yield and quality but empirical evidence is limited from most parts of the World. Here, across six farms in Southern Thailand, we investigated the significance of landscape-level effects of natural habitat (proportion of and distance to evergreen forest) on both visitation rate and richness of pollinators as well as fruit set of guava (Psidium guajava L.), a local economically-important crop in the tropics. Overall, the most abundant pollinator was the Asian honey bee Apis cerana (39% of all visits) and different species of stingless bees (37%). We found that pollinator richness was unrelated to the proportion and distance to evergreen forest, however, the proportion of forest within a 1, 5 and 10 km radius had a significant positive impact on visitation rate of wild pollinators. Still, neither the various forest parameters nor pollinator visitation rate showed a significant impact on fruit set of guava, perhaps because guava self-pollinates. This illustrates that landscape-level degradation of natural habitat may negatively impact pollinator communities without diminishing the crop yield of the farmers.
Joel Ralston, William V. DeLuca
Published: 24 June 2020
by MDPI
Diversity, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/d12060257

Abstract:
Many North American boreal forest birds reach the southern periphery of their distribution in the montane spruce–fir forests of northeastern United States and the barren coastal forests of Maritime Canada. Because the southern periphery may be the first to be impacted by warming climates, these populations provide a unique opportunity to examine several factors that will influence the conservation of this threatened group under climate change. We discuss recent research on boreal birds in Northeastern US and in Maritime Canada related to genetic diversity, population trends in abundance, distributional shifts in response to climate change, community composition, and threats from shifting nest predators. We discuss how results from these studies may inform the conservation of boreal birds in a warming world as well as open questions that need addressing.
Omar Cabrera, Patrick Hildebrandt, Bernd Stimm, Sven Günter, Andreas Fries, Reinhard Mosandl
Published: 23 June 2020
by MDPI
Diversity, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/d12060256

Abstract:
Background: The impact of selective thinning on forest diversity has been extensively studied in temperate and boreal regions. However, in the tropics, knowledge is still poor regarding the impacts of this silvicultural treatment on functional diversity, especially in tropical mountain forests, which are considered to be highly biodiverse ecosystems and also endangered by human activities. By evaluating the changes on functional diversity by using different indicators, hypothesizing that selective thinning significantly affects (directly or indirectly) tropical mountain forests, this work promotes sustainable ecosystem use. Methods: A total of 52 permanent plots of 2500 m2 each were installed in a primary mountain forest in the San Francisco Biological Reserve to assess the impact of this silvicultural treatment. Selective thinning can be defined as a controlled process, in which trees that compete with ecologically and/or valuable timber species are progressively removed to stimulate the development of profitable ones, called potential crop trees (PCT). In doing so, the best specimens remain in the forest stand until their final harvest. After PCT selection, 30 plots were chosen for the intervention, while 22 plots served as control plots. The thinning intensity fluctuated between 4 and 56 trees ha−1 (average 18.8 ± 12.1 stems ha−1). Functional Diversity (FD) indices, including the community weighted mean (CWM), were determined based on six traits using the FD package implemented in R software. The difference between initial and final conditions of functional richness (FRic), functional divergence (FDiv), functional evenness (FEve), functional dispersion (FDis), and Rao quadratic entropy (RaoQ) was modeled using linear mixed models (LMM). As fixed factors, we used all the predictors inherent to structural and ecological forest conditions before and after the selective thinning and as a random variable, we used the membership to nested sampling units. Results: Functional Richness (FRic) showed significant changes after selective thinning, the other indexes (FEve, FDis, FDiv, RaoQ) were only influenced by predictors related to ecological conditions and characteristics of the community.
Karin Jacobs, Tersia Conradie, Shayne Jacobs
Published: 22 June 2020
by MDPI
Diversity, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/d12060254

Abstract:
The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) is globally known for its plant biodiversity, and its flora is commonly referred to as fynbos. At the same time, this area is under severe pressure from urbanization, agricultural expansion and the threat of invasive alien plants. Acacia, Eucalyptus and Pinus are the common invasive alien plants found across the biome and considerable time, effort and resources are put into the removal of invasive alien plants and the rehabilitation of native vegetation. Several studies have shown that invasion not only affects the composition of plant species, but also has a profound effect on the soil chemistry and microbial populations. Over the last few years, a number of studies have shown that the microbial populations of the CFR are unique to the area, and harbour many endemic species. The extent of the role they play in the invasion process is, however, still unclear. This review aims to provide an insight into the current knowledge on the different microbial populations from this system, and speculate what their role might be during invasion. More importantly, it places a spotlight on the lack of information about this process.
Sylvia Schäffer, Stephan Koblmüller, Günther Krisper
Published: 22 June 2020
by MDPI
Diversity, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/d12060255

Abstract:
Though mostly soil dwelling, oribatid mites are found in all kind of habitats, with several species exclusively living on trees. Using previously published DNA sequences and eco-morphological data available from the literature, we inferred the number of transitions between soil dwelling to a truly arboreal lifestyle in oribatid mites and the shape evolution of a particular morphological structure of a sense organ (bothridial seta (= sensillus) of a trichobothrium), the shape of which was previously reported to be associated with an arboreal lifestyle. Our data suggest that a truly arboreal lifestyle evolved several times independently in oribatid mites, but much less often than previously proposed in the past. Even though all truly arboreal species indeed seem to possess a capitate sensillus, this character is not exclusive for arboreal taxa. Nonetheless, since all truly arboreal species do have a capitate sensillus, this might be considered an important (pre-)adaptation to a life on trees. We further provide guidelines on how the term “arboreal” should be applied in future mite research and emphasize the importance of exact microhabitat characterization, as this will greatly facilitate comparisons across studies.
Giuseppe Venturella
Published: 21 June 2020
by MDPI
Diversity, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/d12060253

Abstract:
The Special Issue entitled “Fungal Diversity in the Mediterranean Area” aimed at highlighting the role of various organisms in the Mediterranean habitat. The role of fungi at the root and phyllosphere level; the biodiversity in small island territories and the sea; rare forms of fungi never previously found; the commercial, food, and therapeutic value of some ascomycetes and basidiomycetes; the diversity related to fungi associated with galls on plants; and the important role of culture collection for the ex situ conservation of fungal biodiversity are the topics dealt with in this Special Issue.
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