Diversity

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 14242818 / 14242818
Current Publisher: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 663
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Amanda Falk, Jingmai O’Connor, Min Wang, Zhonghe Zhou
Published: 11 November 2019
by MDPI
Diversity, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/d11110212

Abstract:The Confuciusornithiformes represent the most stem-ward avian occurrence of an edentulous rostrum. Although a keratinous beak is widely considered to have covered the rostrum in confuciusornithiforms, this feature is almost never preserved, having been previously reported only in the holotype of Confuciusornis dui and the holotype of Eoconfuciusornis zhengi. This strongly contrasts with the widespread preservation of the keratinous sheaths that cover the manual and pedal ungual phalanges. Here, we report on a third occurrence of a preserved rhamphotheca in a specimen of Confuciusornis sanctus. We illuminated the preserved traces using laser-stimulated fluorescence. Similarly to E. zhengi, the rhamphotheca has been preserved only as a two-dimensional trace, whereas ungual sheaths are preserved in three dimensions. In contrast to the traces preserved in C. dui, the rhamphotheca in the discussed specimen of C. sanctus is straight rather than upturned. This hints towards hidden morphological diversity within the thousands of Confuciusornis specimens, in which species may be further differentiated by soft tissue features or behaviors, much like many living birds, that cannot be detected in fossils, even with exceptional preservation.
Mohammad Yaghoubi Khanghahi, Pasqua Murgese, Sabrina Strafella, Carmine Crecchio
Published: 10 November 2019
by MDPI
Diversity, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/d11110211

Abstract:The current study was performed to investigate the effects of three different long-term land use intensities on adjacent soil plots, namely a winter wheat field, a grass-covered vineyard, and a cherry farm, on soil biochemical, microbial, and molecular parameters. The results showed the maximum content of soil organic matter (SOM) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) observed in the grass-covered vineyard. Basal respiration (BSR) and the cumulated respiration (CSR) after 25 days of incubation were significantly higher in the grass-covered vineyard and cherry farm, respectively (BSR 11.84 mg CO2–C kg−1 soil d−1, CSR 226.90 mg CO2–C kg−1 soil). Grass-covered vineyard showed the highest soil biological fertility index (BFI) score (20) and ranked in the class IV (good) of soil biological fertility. Cereal field and cherry farm had lower BFI scores and the corresponding BFI class was III (medium). In addition, the maximum ribosomal RNA copy number and the highest abundance of oligotrophic bacterial groups (25.52% Actinobacteria, 3.45% Firmicutes, and 1.38% Acidobacteria) were observed in the grass-covered vineyard. In conclusion, the grass-covered vineyard is a more conservative system and could have a large potential to improve total carbon storagein soil, mainly because of the cover crop residue management and the low soil perturbation through the no-tillage system.
Fernando Mayani-Parás, Francisco Botello, Saúl Castañeda, Víctor Sánchez-Cordero
Published: 5 November 2019
by MDPI
Diversity, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/d11110210

Abstract:Mexico holds an exceptional diversity and endemicity of amphibian and reptile species, but several factors pose a threat to their conservation. Here, we produced ecological niche models for 179 Mexican endemic amphibian and reptile species and examined the impact of habitat loss and mining activities on their projected potential distributions, resulting in their extant distributions. We compared extant species distributions to the area required to conserve a minimum proportion of the species distribution. The combined impact of habitat loss and mining on extant species distribution was significantly higher than the impact of habitat loss alone. Only 40 species lost <30% of their distribution, while 83 species lost between 30–50%, 54 species lost between 50–80%, and 2 species lost more than 80% of their distribution. Furthermore, the size and configuration of the area required to conserve 20% of the extant species distributions changed considerably by increasing the number of fragments, with a potential increase in local population extirpations. Our study is the first to address the combined impact of habitat loss and mining on a highly vulnerable rich endemic species group, leading to a decrease in their potential distribution and a potential increase in the extinction risk of species.
Keren Tischler, William Severud, Rolf Peterson, Bump, Joseph Bump
Published: 1 November 2019
by MDPI
Diversity, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/d11110209

Abstract:Moose (Alces alces) are generalist herbivores, but are important aquatic-terrestrial ecotone specialists. Aquatic macrophytes are a high-quality food source for moose during summer, but the importance of aquatic food sources to the moose diet is difficult to study. We used stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen from moose hooves and forage (terrestrial plants, aquatic macrophytes, and arboreal lichen) to assess the diet of moose at Isle Royale National Park, Michigan, USA, using Bayesian mixing models. We also evaluated the isotopic variability along chronologies of serially sampled hooves. Overall, our mixing models indicate that 13%–27% of the summer moose diet was aquatic in origin. Among moose that died during winter, body condition was impaired and hoof 15N was higher where aquatic habitats were sparse. Although isotope chronologies preserved in hooves could significantly enhance our understanding of ungulate foraging ecology, interpretation of such chronologies is presently limited by our lack of knowledge pertaining to hoof growth rate and seasonal growth variability related to age and health. Distinct isotopic values among terrestrial plants, aquatic macrophytes, and arboreal lichens indicate that continued methodological advances in stable isotope ecology will lead to more precise estimates of the contribution of aquatic feeding to moose population dynamics and other ungulates.
Sophia Barinova, Thomas Smith
Published: 1 November 2019
by MDPI
Diversity, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/d11110206

Abstract:There were 88 species of algae and cyanobacteria observed from seven sites in the Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historical Park (Hodgenville, Kentucky, USA). This was the first algal investigation study in the park. There were 21 samples collected, during the summer, on 16 July 2008. Algal flora, dominated by diatoms was represented by 54 species identified (61.4% of the total), 20 species of cyanobacteria, 11 green and two charophyte algal species, and one red algal species (22.7%, 12.5%, 2.2%, and 1.1%, respectively). Benthic diatoms dominated the aquatic system with 14 species of Navicula and 12 species of Nitzschia identified, which was 15.7% and 13.5% of the total, respectively. Species tended to be site specific and 78.6% of the species were only found in two or less sites. The bioindicator methods for water quality assessment were based on species autoecology. This method was used for the first time in the USA during this study. This demonstrated that benthic and planktonic-benthic algae preferred temperate temperatures, middle-oxygenated mesotrophic waters, low-to-middle enriched by chlorides. The waters were well oxygenated, sometimes saturated by sulfides, low-alkaline, low-to-middle organic enriched, and of class 1–3 water quality with high self-purification capacity. This is very important for habitat protection and cannot be easily accomplished strictly through chemical analysis. The diversity of diatom algae not only plays a major role in the formation of algal communities and their uniqueness, but diatom algae can be a good indicator of environmental assessments and change.
Olga Skorobogatova, Elvira Yumagulova, Tatiana Storchak, Sophia Barinova
Published: 1 November 2019
by MDPI
Diversity, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/d11110207

Abstract:Algal diversity in the bogs of the Ershov oil field of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug–Yugra (KMAO-Yugra) with the gradient of oil pollution between 255 and 16,893 mg kg−1 has been studied with the help of bioindication methods and ecological mapping. Altogether 91 species, varieties, and forms of algae and cyanobacteria from seven divisions have been revealed for the first time from seven studied sites on the bogs. Charophyta algae prevail followed by diatoms, cyanobacteria, and euglenoids. The species richness and abundance of algae were maximal at the control site, with charophytic algae prevailing. The species richness of diatoms decreased in the contaminated area, but cyanobacteria were tolerated in a pH which varied between 4.0 and 5.4. Euglenoid algae survived under the influence of oil and organic pollution. Bioindication revealed a salinity influence in the oil-contaminated sites. A comparative floristic analysis shows a similarity in communities at sites surrounding the contaminated area, the ecosystems of which have a long-term rehabilitation period. The percent of unique species was maximal in the control site. Bioindication results were implemented for the first time in assessing the oil-polluted bogs and can be recommended as a method to obtain scientific results visualization for decision-makers and for future pollution monitoring.
Julie E. Walker, Christine Angelini, Ilgar Safak, Andrew H. Altieri, Todd Z. Osborne
Published: 1 November 2019
by MDPI
Diversity, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/d11110208

Abstract:Decreasing frequency of freeze events due to climate change is enabling the poleward range expansion of mangroves. As these tropical trees expand poleward, they are replacing herbaceous saltmarsh vegetation. Mangroves and saltmarsh vegetation are ecosystem engineers that are typically viewed as having similar ecosystem functions. However, few studies have investigated whether predation regimes, community structure, and ecosystem functions are shifting at the saltmarsh-mangrove ecotone. In this study, we manipulated predator access to marsh and mangrove creekside habitats to test their role in mediating vegetation and invertebrate structure and stability in a two-year experiment. We also conducted a survey to evaluate how shifting vegetation is modifying structural complexity, invertebrate communities, and ecosystem functioning at the ecotone. Excluding larger (> 2 cm diameter) predators did not affect vegetation or invertebrate structure or stability in either saltmarsh or mangrove habitats. The survey revealed that the two habitat types consistently differ in structural metrics, including vegetation height, inter-stem distance, and density, yet they support similar invertebrate and algal communities, soil properties, and predation rates. We conclude that although mangrove range expansion immediately modifies habitat structural properties, it is not altering larger predator consumptive effects, community stability, community composition, or some other ecosystem functions and properties at the ecotone.
Johan S. Sáenz, Airo, Schulze- Makuch, Michael Schloter, Gisle Vestergaard, Alessandro Airo, Dirk Schulze-Makuch
Published: 31 October 2019
by MDPI
Diversity, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/d11110205

Abstract:Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) play an essential role in bacterial adaptation and evolution. These elements are enriched within bacterial communities from extreme environments. However, very little is known if specific genes co-occur with MGEs in extreme environments and, if so, what their function is. We used shotgun-sequencing to analyse the metagenomes of 12 soil samples and characterized the composition of MGEs and the genes co-occurring with them. The samples ranged from less arid coastal sites to the inland hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert, as well as from sediments below boulders, protected from UV-irradiation. MGEs were enriched at the hyperarid sites compared with sediments from below boulders and less arid sites. MGEs were mostly co-occurring with genes belonging to the Cluster Orthologous Group (COG) categories “replication, recombination and repair,” “transcription” and “signal transduction mechanisms.” In general, genes coding for transcriptional regulators and histidine kinases were the most abundant genes proximal to MGEs. Genes involved in energy production were significantly enriched close to MGEs at the hyperarid sites. For example, dehydrogenases, reductases, hydrolases and chlorite dismutase and other enzymes linked to nitrogen metabolism such as nitrite- and nitro-reductase. Stress response genes, including genes involved in antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance genes, were rarely found near MGEs. The present study suggests that MGEs could play an essential role in the adaptation of the soil microbiome in hyperarid desert soils by the modulation of housekeeping genes such as those involved in energy production.
Dominik Rutz, David Frasson, Martin Sievers, Jochen Blom, Fabio Rezzonico, Joël F. Pothier, Theo H. M. Smits
Published: 28 October 2019
by MDPI
Diversity, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/d11110204

Abstract:In recent years, the use of whole-cell biocatalysts and biocatalytic enzymes in biotechnological applications originating from the genus Pseudomonas has greatly increased. In 2014, two new species within the Pseudomonas putida group were isolated from Swiss forest soil. In this study, the high quality draft genome sequences of Pseudomonas wadenswilerensis CCOS 864T and Pseudomonas reidholzensis CCOS 865T were used in a comparative genomics approach to identify genomic features that either differed between these two new species or to selected members of the P. putida group. The genomes of P. wadenswilerensis CCOS 864T and P. reidholzensis CCOS 865T were found to share genomic features for the degradation of aromatic compounds or the synthesis of secondary metabolites. In particular, genes encoding for biocatalytic relevant enzymes belonging to the class of oxidoreductases, proteases and isomerases were found, that could yield potential applications in biotechnology. Ecologically relevant features revealed that both species are probably playing an important role in the degradation of soil organic material, the accumulation of phosphate and biocontrol against plant pathogens.
Fernández De Puelles, Gazá, Cabanellas- Reboredo, Mª Del Mar Santandreu, Xabier Irigoien, González- Gordillo, Carlos M. Duarte, Mª Luz Fernández De Puelles, Magdalena Gazá, Miguel Cabanellas-Reboredo, et al.
Published: 23 October 2019
by MDPI
Diversity, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/d11110203

Abstract:The abundance and composition of zooplankton down to 3000 m depth was studied in the subtropical and tropical latitudes across the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans (35 °N–40 °S). Samples were collected from December 2010 to June 2011 during the Malaspina Circumnavigation Expedition. Usually, low abundances were observed with the highest values found in the North Pacific Ocean, Benguela, and off Mauritania, and the lowest in the South Pacific Ocean. No significant differences in abundance and zooplankton composition were found among oceans, with depth being consistently the most important factor affecting their distribution. Each depth strata were inhabited by distinct copepod assemblages, which significantly differed among the strata. The contribution of copepods to the zooplankton community increased with the depth although, as expected, their abundance strongly decreased. Among the copepods, 265 species were identified but 85% were rare and contributed less than 1% in abundance. Clausocalanus furcatus and Nannocalanus minor dominated the epipelagic strata. Pleuromamma abdominalis and Lucicutia clausi were of importance in the mesopelagic layer, and Pareucalanus, Triconia, Conaea and Metridia brevicauda in the bathypelagic layer. Our results provide a global-scale assessment of copepod biodiversity and distribution, providing a contemporary benchmark to follow future ocean changes at low latitudes.