Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 0025-1461 / 1864-1547
Published by: Walter de Gruyter GmbH (10.1515)
Total articles ≅ 4,370
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Isabela Silva Bellizzi, Shirley Seixas Pereira da Silva, , Juliana Cardoso de Almeida
Published: 30 December 2021
Original data on diet, internal anatomy, morphology, reproduction, and parasites of Chiroderma doriae vizottoi from the State of Ceará (Brazil) are presented. Intact and crushed seeds of Solanum rhytidoandrum and scales of Lepidoptera were detected in the gastrointestinal tract and feces. Observation of internal organs did not reveal any abnormalities; the intestines were, on average, 11 times longer than the animal’s body length. Reproduction seems to occur in the rainy season. The association with an ectoparasite, Mastoptera sp. (Diptera, Streblidae), was recorded.
, Tuerxunpaxia Kasimu, Jing-Kai Lan, Zi-Li Pu, Jin-Long Bai, You-Cai Wang
Published: 30 December 2021
Species identification is pivotal in taxonomy, systematics, evolutionary biology and conservation biology. We collected bats that died of natural causes in Shihezi city, Xinjiang, China, and carried out morphological and genetic identification. Morphologically, all individuals were adults/subadults or juveniles of Pipistrellus pipistrellus. We found one haplotype for the mitochondrial gene ND1 and five for the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b (Cytb) among six specimens. Phylogenetically, all the Cytb sequences grouped with P. pipistrellus. We confirm this species’ occurrence in Xinjiang, China.
Jessica M. Vannatta, Brian D. Carver
Published: 30 December 2021
Sexual size dimorphism is common in many taxa and results from various pressures, including competition, reproductive requirements, functional differences, and sexual recognition. For mammals, males are typically the larger sex; however, for vespertilionid bats, females are more often the larger sex. Forearm length, a feature that influences overall wing and body size and is often sexually dimorphic, is a standard morphological measurement taken from bats. Forearm length was measured in two vesper bat species (Corynorhinus rafinesquii and Myotis austroriparius) that co-occur across much of the southeastern United States. Forearm length was greater in females of both species, and females of both species also exhibited regional variation in forearm length. By having a longer forearm and therefore being larger in size, females may be more maneuverable and better equipped to carry young. While this study did not directly investigate the mechanisms behind regional variation in forearm length, it is possible this is the result of variability in habitat types, resources, or thermodynamic constraints. Knowledge of sexually dimorphic characteristics is important for obtaining a general understanding of a species and its morphology.
Ari A. Rice, Madison T. Nadler, Isaac T. Grosner, Moed Gerveni, Logan K. Parr, , Michael L. Morrison
Published: 30 December 2021
Cases of albinism have been reported in less than 2% of living rodent species. Here, we report the first description of complete albinism in Baiomys taylori along with photographic evidence. This adult female was captured on three occasions as part of a long-term small mammal study on rangelands of extreme southern Texas. The individual was developing teats upon the third capture, an early sign of pregnancy. Despite selective pressures against albino phenotypes, this animal was able to survive to adulthood and potentially pass its albino alleles to offspring.
, , Slaven Reljić, Natarsha Babic, Djuro Huber
Published: 30 December 2021
Management of free-ranging wildlife may include the capture of animals, with the implication that the capture process is optimized, both logistically and economically and in a way that avoids animal suffering, injury or accidental mortality. Studies targeting the optimization of trapping techniques are scarce, especially when focusing on large European mammals. Therefore, to fill this knowledge gap, we aimed to evaluate key factors that help determine brown bear capture success. This was done by analysing a complete data set from 23 years of capturing free-living Eurasian brown bears in Croatia by using Aldrich-type foot snares. Results showed significantly higher capture efficiency when traps were located at permanent feeding sites when compared to temporary feeding sites. Also, the use of a trail trap design was significantly more efficient in capturing bears than using a cubby set. Finally, results showed that trapping was more efficient when we bait the traps more frequently and when we implemented longer trap-sessions, with at least 14 days.
Published: 29 December 2021
As part of their behavior, various groups of species, including marsupials and other mammals, have evolved vocalizations, with varying degrees of complexity, for different communication purposes. Despite the growing interest in the bioacoustics of species, there are groups in which the study in this field is still unknown. A clear example is the genus Monodelphis, the most diverse group of didelphid marsupials. In this work we present the first description of the vocalizations of Monodelphis adusta, the only species of the genus registered in Ecuador, which shows the ability to produce audible phrases with different numbers of syllables.
, Vernon C. Bleich, Eahsan Shahriary
Published: 28 December 2021
Wild sheep (Ovis spp.) are of conservation concern throughout the Middle East. Little is known, however, about the natural history or ecology of this taxon. To better understand size relationships among wild sheep occupying Iran, we analyzed results from 120 females collected from widely separated ecosystems. Morphometrics and body weights for all age categories of females occupying the Khosh-Yeilagh Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Iran were larger than those for the same age classes of females occupying Bamou National Park in southwestern Iran. Females from Bamou National Park, however, obtained adult body weight ( = 25.8 ± 2.47 [SD] kg) at an earlier age than those from the Khosh-Yeilagh Wildlife Refuge ( = 36.6 ± 3.21 kg). Ecological differences between these two areas suggest that net primary productivity, which is a function of numerous climatic and geographical factors, has been a primary force contributing to these results. Weights and measurements reported here provide the basic information for additional, more detailed research necessary to fully understand the evolutionary significance and management implications of these differences in body size and emphasize the conservation value of even the most basic natural history information.
, Tiasa Adhya
Published: 24 December 2021
The fishing cat’s persistence in a ‘semi-aquatic niche’ suggests the evolution of a successful hunting strategy. We describe it for the first time by analysing 197 camera-trap video-clips, collected from a participatory-science initiative, within an ethogram framework. The cats spent ∼52% of the time sitting and waiting for prey (fishes) to come nearer and took limited attempts to hunt (3.89%) in deeper waters (in which the upper portions of the cat’s body were submerged), where its hunting success was found to be 42.86%. In shallow waters, it adopted a predominantly active mode of hunting (∼96%) to flush out prey.
Published: 22 December 2021
We report the first prey species consumed by the free-ranging Van Gelder’s bat Bauerus dubiaquercus. We trapped four pregnant individuals of this species carrying freshly captured dung beetles. We describe the wing morphology and flight descriptors (wing loading and wing aspect ratio) of the species, which presents wings more suitable for capturing insects by aerial hawking, although the evidence suggests that is able to capture dung beetles of nearly 10% of its body mass in flight close to the ground. The species could obtain their prey while foraging on uncluttered pasture near forest edges.
Published: 16 December 2021
The European mole Talpa europaea Linnaeus, 1758 is a quite common species in Central Italy. I report the first Isabelline individual of this species recorded in the scientific literature. Actually, this species is quite widespread throughout Europe, but coat-colouration anomalies have never been described in Italian mole populations. Further research is therefore needed to determine the percentage of occurrence of anomalous individuals and the evolutionary history of coat anomalies in moles.
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