Journal of Visualized Experiments
ISSN / EISSN : 1940-087X / 1940-087X
Published by: MyJoVE Corporation (10.3791)
Total articles ≅ 11,714
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Visualized Experiments; https://doi.org/10.3791/63264
Cutaneous pharmacokinetics (cPK) after topical formulation application has been a research area of particular interest for regulatory and drug development scientists to mechanistically understand topical bioavailability (BA). Semi-invasive techniques, such as tape-stripping, dermal microdialysis, or dermal open-flow microperfusion, all quantify macroscale cPK. While these techniques have provided vast cPK knowledge, the community lacks a mechanistic understanding of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) penetration and permeation at the cellular level. One noninvasive approach to address microscale cPK is coherent Raman scattering imaging (CRI), which selectively targets intrinsic molecular vibrations without the need for extrinsic labels or chemical modification. CRI has two main methods-coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS)-that enable sensitive and selective quantification of APIs or inactive ingredients. CARS is typically utilized to derive structural skin information or visualize chemical contrast. In contrast, the SRS signal, which is linear with molecular concentration, is used to quantify APIs or inactive ingredients within skin stratifications. Although mouse tissue has commonly been utilized for cPK with CRI, topical BA and bioequivalence (BE) must ultimately be assessed in human tissue before regulatory approval. This paper presents a methodology to prepare and image ex vivo skin to be used in quantitative pharmacokinetic CRI studies in the evaluation of topical BA and BE. This methodology enables reliable and reproducible API quantification within human and mouse skin over time. The concentrations within lipid-rich and lipid-poor compartments, as well as total API concentration over time are quantified; these are utilized for estimates of micro- and macroscale BA and, potentially, BE.
Journal of Visualized Experiments; https://doi.org/10.3791/63342
Experimentation is crucial in engineering education. This work explores visualized experiments in online laboratories for teaching and learning and also research. Interactive and visualizing features, including theory-guided algorithm implementation, web-based algorithm design, customizable monitoring interface, and three-dimensional (3-D) virtual test rigs are discussed. To illustrate the features and functionalities of the proposed laboratories, three examples, including the first-order system exploration using a circuit-based system with electrical elements, web-based control algorithm design for virtual and remote experimentation, are provided. Using user-designed control algorithms, not only can simulations be conducted, but real-time experiments can also be conducted once the designed control algorithms have been compiled into executable control algorithms. The proposed online laboratory also provides a customizable monitoring interface, with which users can customize their user interface using provided widgets such as the textbox, chart, 3-D, and camera widget. Teachers can use the system for online demonstration in the classroom, students for after-class experimentation, and researchers to verify control strategies.
Journal of Visualized Experiments; https://doi.org/10.3791/63113
This paper presents an automated, rapid-fab-compatible, photophoretic trap test rig to enable the democratization and crowdsourcing of volumetric display research. The rig can be constructed within 2 h using a laser cutter, 3-dimensional (3D) printer, and common hand tools. In its current form, the rig can be used to test the following critical parameters: particle type, trap type, numerical aperture, and airflow at a rate of approximately 250 samples per hour. With minor modification, the rig can be made to test an even larger set of parameters, such as laser power and laser wavelength, depending on the user's needs. The rig can use machine vision for automated data capture and analysis. The operation and construction of the test rig are described with concise, easy-to-follow steps. Results from a four-unit test rig 'farm' covering the power and particle type parameters are reported. This platform will broaden the scope and composition of optical trap display parameters and researchers through accessibility and democratization.
Journal of Visualized Experiments; https://doi.org/10.3791/63132
Urinary incontinence (UI) is a highly prevalent condition characterized by the deficiency of the urethral sphincter muscle. Regenerative medicine branches, particularly cell therapy, are novel approaches to improve and restore the urethral sphincter function. Even though injection of active functional cells is routinely performed in clinical settings by needle and syringe, these approaches have significant disadvantages and limitations. In this context, needle-free waterjet (WJ) technology is a feasible and innovative method that can inject viable cells by visual guided cystoscopy in the urethral sphincter. In the present study, we used WJ to deliver porcine adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (pADSCs) into cadaveric urethral tissue and subsequently investigated the effect of WJ delivery on cell yield and viability. We also assessed the biomechanical features (i.e., elasticity) by atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. We showed that WJ delivered pADSCs were significantly reduced in their cellular elasticity. The viability was significantly lower compared to controls but is still above 80%.
Journal of Visualized Experiments; https://doi.org/10.3791/63124
Single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) is a versatile technique reporting on distances in the sub-nanometer to nanometer range. It has been used in a wide range of biophysical and molecular biological experiments, including the measurement of molecular forces, characterization of conformational dynamics of biomolecules, observation of intracellular colocalization of proteins, and determination of receptor-ligand interaction times. In a widefield microscopy configuration, experiments are typically performed using surface-immobilized probes. Here, a method combining single-molecule tracking with alternating excitation (ALEX) smFRET experiments is presented, permitting the acquisition of smFRET time traces of surface-bound, yet mobile probes in plasma membranes or glass-supported lipid bilayers. For the analysis of recorded data, an automated, open-source software collection was developed supporting (i) the localization of fluorescent signals, (ii) single-particle tracking, (iii) determination of FRET-related quantities including correction factors, (iv) stringent verification of smFRET traces, and (v) intuitive presentation of the results. The generated data can conveniently be used as input for further exploration via specialized software, e.g., for the assessment of the diffusional behavior of probes or the investigation of FRET transitions.
Journal of Visualized Experiments; https://doi.org/10.3791/63039
Novel 3D cancer organoid cultures derived from clinical patient specimens represent an important model system to evaluate intratumor heterogeneity and treatment response to targeted inhibitors in cancer. Pioneering work in gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancers has highlighted the promise of patient-derived organoids (PDOs) as a patient-proximate culture system, with an increasing number of models emerging. Similarly, work in other cancer types has focused on establishing organoid models and optimizing culture protocols. Notably, 3D cancer organoid models maintain the genetic complexity of original tumor specimens and thus translate tumor-derived sequencing data into treatment with genetically informed targeted therapies in an experimental setting. Further, PDOs might foster the evaluation of rational combination treatments to overcome resistance-associated adaptation of tumors in the future. The latter focuses on intense research efforts in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as resistance development ultimately limits the treatment success of targeted inhibitors. An early assessment of therapeutically targetable mechanisms using NSCLC PDOs could help inform rational combination treatments. This manuscript describes a standardized protocol for the cell culture plate-based assessment of drug sensitivities to targeted inhibitors in NSCLC-derived 3D PDOs, with potential adaptability to combinational treatments and other treatment modalities.
Journal of Visualized Experiments; https://doi.org/10.3791/62626
Since 1996, A/goose/Guangdong/1/96-lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 viruses have been causing flu outbreaks in poultry and wild birds. Occasionally, humans also fall victim to it, which results in high mortality. Nonetheless, HPAI virus research is often hindered, considering that it must be handled within biosafety level 3 laboratories. To address this issue, pseudoviruses are adopted as an alternative to wild-type viruses in some experiments of H5 HPAI studies. Pseudoviruses prove to be the ideal tools to study neutralizing antibodies against H5 HPAI viruses. This protocol describes the procedures and critical steps of H5 HPAI pseudovirus preparations and pseudovirus neutralization assays. Also, it discusses the troubleshooting, limitation, and modifications of these assays.
Journal of Visualized Experiments; https://doi.org/10.3791/61819
The mechanical strengthening of metals is the long-standing challenge and popular topic of materials science in industries and academia. The size dependence of the strength of the nanometals has been attracting a lot of interest. However, characterizing the strength of materials at the lower nanometer scale has been a big challenge because the traditional techniques become no longer effective and reliable, such as nano-indentation, micropillar compression, tensile, etc. The current protocol employs radial diamond-anvil cell (rDAC) X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques to track differential stress changes and determine the strength of ultrafine metals. It is found that ultrafine nickel particles have more significant yield strength than coarser particles, and the size strengthening of nickel continues down to 3 nm. This vital finding immensely depends on effective and reliable characterizing techniques. The rDAC XRD method is expected to play a significant role in studying and exploring nanomaterial mechanics.
Journal of Visualized Experiments; https://doi.org/10.3791/63082
Fine motor skills are essential in everyday life and can be compromised in several nervous system disorders. The acquisition and performance of these tasks require sensory-motor integration and involve precise control of bilateral brain circuits. Implementing unimanual behavioral paradigms in animal models will improve the understanding of the contribution of brain structures, like the striatum, to complex motor behavior as it allows manipulation and recording of neural activity of specific nuclei in control conditions and disease during the performance of the task. Since its creation, optogenetics has been a dominant tool for interrogating the brain by enabling selective and targeted activation or inhibition of neuronal populations. The combination of optogenetics with behavioral assays sheds light on the underlying mechanisms of specific brain functions. Wireless head-mounted systems with miniaturized light-emitting diodes (LEDs) allow remote optogenetic control in an entirely free-moving animal. This avoids the limitations of a wired system being less restrictive for animals' behavior without compromising light emission efficiency. The current protocol combines a wireless optogenetics approach with high-speed videography in a unimanual dexterity task to dissect the contribution of specific neuronal populations to fine motor behavior.
Journal of Visualized Experiments; https://doi.org/10.3791/63259
Zebrafish larvae possess a fully functional central nervous system (CNS) with a high regenerative capacity only a few days after fertilization. This makes this animal model very useful for studying spinal cord injury and regeneration. The standard protocol for inducing such lesions is to transect the dorsal part of the trunk manually. However, this technique requires extensive training and damages additional tissues. A protocol was developed for laser-induced lesions to circumvent these limitations, allowing for high reproducibility and completeness of spinal cord transection over many animals and between different sessions, even for an untrained operator. Furthermore, tissue damage is mainly limited to the spinal cord itself, reducing confounding effects from injuring different tissues, e.g., skin, muscle, and CNS. Moreover, hemi-lesions of the spinal cord are possible. Improved preservation of tissue integrity after laser injury facilitates further dissections needed for additional analyses, such as electrophysiology. Hence, this method offers precise control of the injury extent that is unachievable manually. This allows for new experimental paradigms in this powerful model in the future.